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■CHnMA.' LinmiaTOHi'B Bcbtuit: or IB 
(From a PiofoamjA.) 

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VOL. II. • 







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Is the sew iasue of this series the single Tolome formerly 
tbon^^t sufGcdent for tbe treatment of African geography 
is replaced by two, each somewhat larger than that work. 
Yet the more than doubled space has seemed scarcely 
adequate to a proper exposition of the foots, both of a 
geographical and political order, which have accumulated 
with surprising rapidity since the leading Powers resolved, 
a few years ^o, to transform- this continent to a political 
dependen<7 of Europe. Occurrences of far-reaching 
consequence have followed in such swift succeBsion that 
in the preparation of this work the chief dlf&culty has 
beeo to keep pace with the shifting scenes. In some 
iuBtancee many carefully-prepared pages have had to be 
greatly modified, and even re-written, owing to the un- 
expected turn taken by events in various parts of the 

From the contents it will be seen that a somewhat wider 
scope is here given to the subject of geography than has 
hitherto been usual Such an enlargement, however, is 
not only in harmony with the broader views now generally 
entertained by the leading exponents of geographical 
science, but may perhaps be regarded as specially desirable 
in the case of a region where everything is new, and 
where information on closely-allied subjects may be 
welcome to students unable to considt the innumerable 
books of travel, scientific periodicals, and memoirs in 

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which this informatioD 19 disperaed. Hence the space 
here given to history, political queetions, and etbnolc^, 
without detriment, it is hoped, to more atrictlj geographical 
topics, such as the physical features, hydrography, and 
natural history of the continent 

Of the original work by the late . E!eith Johnston 
nothing remains except a few passages, which appear as 
ordinary quotations, and some of the Ethnological 
Appendix, which is absorbed with much fresh matt«r in 
the body of the work. 

Of the illustrations in the original edition only the 
frontispiece and three small figures in the text have 
been retained in this Volume. The new illustrations 
have been chosen &om the most recent and authentic 
sources available, and it is hoped may be found to add 
interest and value to the text. Of l^ese a considerable 
number have been redrawn from copyright photographs, 
and special thanks are due to Sir John £trk, Mr. F. L. 
Hoir, and the Kev. A. Wookey of the London Missionary 
Society, for their kind permission to copy several from 
their colleotiona For the remainder the works of Mr. 
H. M. Stanley, Vincent's ActiuU AJrica, Farini's Through 
the Kalahari Desert, Bryden's Own, and Camera in South- 
ern Jfrica, Dr. Brown's Story of Afriai, and the Tour du 
Monde, have been put under contribution. Several have 
been reproduced from the photographs of Mr. W. Coates 
Palgrave; the "Victoria Kyanza Chief," on page 613, is 
from a photograph kindly lent by Mr. M'Dermott of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company ; and the "Giraffes," 
on page 398, by kind permission of Messrs. Henry Dixon 
and Son, of Albany Street 


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General Sarref — The Camerooni — Germsn Anneiation — The 
CamerooD Hoaotam — BtTsra — Climate, Flon^ Fauna — Inhabit- 
ants — The Bantu Races — The Cameroon Bantns — Stationi, 
Trade, Proepecte— The Gulf of Guinea lalaoda : Fernando Po ; 
Prince's ; St. Thomas ; Aonobon—The Britisb Soatb-East 
Atlantic Islands : Ascension ; St. Helena ; Tristan da Cuuha ; 
Diego Alvarez (Oongli)— Table of the Galf and Sonth-eaat 
Atlantic Islands ...... 


General Snire; — fieealts el Oet^rephical Besearch — Phjsioal 
Features — The Coast Ranges — Birer Basins ; Gaboon, Ogowajr, 
Eoiln, CbilMDga— Climate of the West Equatorial Seaboard- 
Flora and Fauna— InhaWtanta— The Indigenous Bantns— The 
Ba-Ealai and Fans— The CaDoibal Zone of Eqastorial Africa— 
The Pygmy Kacss — Stations ..... 

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GBnenl Sttrre; : Fonnstion ot ths Free SUto — Progreas of Oeo- 
grmphica] Bcsearcli — Bouad&riei, Eiteot, PoptUation — PhyHJoI 
FMtOTM — TheOoDgo Buia — TbsLiriiigstoiiB Falls and Congo 
EitiuiT— Ths Middle Congo and its Affluents— Tba Uppar 
Congo, its Ifkca and TributariBS — I^ke Tatigan;ika and ths 
Laaltba — Olimata of the Congo Badn — Flora and Faana — In- 
habitants and Native States — Garenganze, Katanga — Landa, 
the Hoata YaiUTo'i Kingdom — The U-Rna State — Manyoenu 
and the Arabs of the Lnalaha — The Ba-Lolo, Ba-Ngala, and 
Ba-Tand NatioDs— The Ba-Lnba and Tu-Shilange Territories 
— The Vs-Chibokwe «nd Kwango B«-Ng»las — Table of the 
Congo Tribes and Nations — Banto and Negro contrasted — 
Uisaion of the Congo Free State— Eailwa; Projects— Trade 
and free-trade Area — Administration .... 



(amoola — BKKQOBLA — vosBAUEDEe — hinterland) 

Extent, Boondaries, Popalation — Portugnese AdministrstioD, the 
Slave Trade — Exploration — Pbyeical Featons- Bivera Coania, 
Canene — Climate, Flora, Fauna — Inhabitants : the Coi^ 
Em[iire: tbe A-Bunda Nation; the Gangnellas ; the Aborigines 
-Table of tbe Chief Angolan Tribes— Towns, SUtions— The 
Boer lumigraula- Besources 1 Government; Prospects 



German Annexations in Sonth-West Africa — Boondaries, Extent 
and FopuUtion of the Protectorate— Oeographical Besaaroh 
— Phfsioal Features — Characteristics of Soil and Climate — 
Changed Climatic Conditions — Nataral Resonroea ; Minerals — 
Inliabitantsi BsntnandHottontot— The Ova-Mpo-Tbe Boers; 

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tJ[HDgh>iiia — Tha OTft-Berero and Hill Daiiiaru — Ths Nudbs 
—The HotUotot Bace uid Language— Ttbis of the Chief 
TribM in Ocnnan Sonth-Waet Africa — Population aocoidisg 
to Races — Ckrman Policy ; Pro«p«ota of the Colony — Seaport* 
aod Inland Statjoni — AdmiDiitntJon — Walrucb Baj . 


Extent, Boandariea, Coait-line — Dependenciea ; Areas, Populationa 
— Historical Surrey ; the Portagneee Pioneen— The Dutch in 
Sooth A&ioa— The English in SoDth Africa- The KaBr Wars ; 
Kafir Genealogies — Oe<^nphieal Beeeircb— PhTncal Features 
—The EsmxiB — Bi*er Sjstema — The Orange Baiin — Climate — 
Fauna— Flora— The Native Popnlationa— The Cape HottentoU 
—The Brntus—The Kafite— The Buehmen — Chief Tribal 
DinMons — Tovds and Stations — fiailwaj Derelopment — 
Griqualand Wort and its Ditmond Fields — Beaouroes : Tillage, 
Pasturage, Indnetries, Trade — Edncatlon, Finance, Beligion, 
Conunnnications — Administratioa — Folitioal Forecast; Con- 
federation ....... 


(natal with zuluuitd; oea»gb frba stati akd tranbvaai.) 
Oenenl Snrrey : Areas and Fopnlations — Historic Retrospect : the 
ZdIu Hilitarj System ; the Great Trek ; Bietoi; of Natal and 
the Boer States — Physical Featares — Birers ; the Limpopo — 
Climate — Natural B«ionrces : Mineral Wealth — Flora and 
Fauna— Inhabitants— The Coolies, Zolus, and Whites of Natal 
— Inhatntants of the Orange Free Slate — Jnhabitantsof Truis- 
nal— Towns, Stations— Swad and Tonga Lands 279 


Oeneral Bemarki— Political Dimions : I. Bbohhanaland Sotitb 
AHD NoBTB — Oei^piphioel Exploration — Physical Features- 
The Kalahari Wilderness — Flnvisl Systems : I^ke Ngami— 
Inhabitants of Beohusnaload- Tsble of the Chief Bechuane 
Nations — The Bushmen — Stations and Trade Boutes— Material 

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ProgreM— II. Zambebia South and Kosth— Politie*! 
DiTitioiu, BoandtricB, Extent— Butoric Betroipect — Th« 
Zimbtbye Bnini— Qeograpbiol BcMMcb — Brituh OccnpAtJon 
of MtshaDK ftnd HaUbili Lands — Tb« Barotu and Hakololo 

State*— Phydcal Features of South Zambeak ; Miuend Wealth 
— Hatabililand 3c«nelT — Climate — Faaoa — Inhabitanta — 
NoKTH Zahbkbia ; Pbyiical Fratares— RiTen of Zambeaia — 
The Zambesi— TbB Victoria Falla- I^ke Nyaaaa— The Shir* 
Haiin— Laks 3bir«a-~Climate of North Zambeaia — Flora uid 
Fauna— In habi tan U— Table of the Chief Tribes and KitioDS in 
North Zambeaia— Tbe Ba-Lnndaa, Barotae, Mambandas, Bs- 
ShuknlDmbwe, Ba- Tonga, Mangai^a, Makololo, Awamwamba, 
Awawandia — The Staveaeon Boad .... 


FOErnouESB east atbioa. 


Boundaries, Extent, Diviaions, PopulatioD— Portugnese Haladminis- 
tration — Historic Ketrospect; PreaeDt Relstione — Physical 
Features ; the Namnti Higblaadi — RiTera ; Zambesi Delta — 
The Sabi, Pungwe, and Eomma Rivers — Climate — Flon — 
Fauna— Natural Products— I nhsbitants of Oaioland : .Tongas ; 
Ba-Lempas ; l}an;aDs ; Tbe Portuguese HaU-breeds- Inhabit- 
ants of Moiambique : Wa-Yao ; Maltua— Table of the Chief 
Tribes and Nationa in Portuguese East Africa — Towns and 
Stations : Lonrenfo Marqnes ; Delagoa Bay ; Inhambans ; 
Sofala ; Quilimaoe ; Hozambique ; Angosha ; Fernfio Telloio ; 
Ibo i Zumbo ; Tete ; Sen* ..... 



Historic Betroepect — Boondaries; Extent; Prospects- Geographical 
Exploration— Physical Features— Kilimsiyftro- Rivers and 
Lakes ; Sources of the Nile— Lakes Hanyara, Eiassi, Victoria 
Nyanta, and Bukws- Climate — Flora and Fanna — Inhabitants 
— Wa-Zambara; Wa-Zeguha — Wa-Sagara ; Wa-Hehe ; Ma- 
KoDd«; Wa.SBabiIi; Wa-Taveita; Wa-Gweno [ Kaoragwe; 
Wa-Hama Migrations- Table of the Chief Tribes and Nations 
in Oermui East Africa— Towns; Stations- Kiloa; I>ar-«- 
Salaam ; Bogamoyo ; Mpwapica ; Taborab ; Ujiji 

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BRinaH KiBr aprioa 

Oensnl Sarrgy ; Extoat, Popolstion, Political Sitution — Qeo- 
gmphical Exploration— Tbe TaDs, Jaba, and Sabakbi Buidb — 
Uliplontion of Hasai and Eavirondo I^iida — Biplora^nof tbe 
Equatorial l«ke Eagion — FhjBinl Featuret ; tbe CoMtlandi — 
Uasailand — I^lcea NaivMha, Baringo and Sambnni — The Eenia 
and Aberdtire Higblands— Eavirandoland— Ugaadft ; tbe Vio- 
toria Nile— Unjoro, Koki, Ankola— The AlbertiiiB Nils ; Lake 
Albert Edward— The Semliki River ; Lake Albert Nyania— 
KDwenzori — Inbabitanta — Table of tha Cbier Tribea and 
NatioDa of Ibea — Oeueral Ethnical Relation! in Ibea— The 
Baiitos of the Tana Baain— Tha Masai ; Wb-Ews& ; Audo- 
tobo — The Waganda; the Kitwara Empiia — Political and 
Social InatitQtionB — Kingdom of Unjoro — TowDii ; Statiooa 
— Progreaa and Proapecta—Tfae Zanzibar Protectorate . 


"Lemnria"; The In do- African Continent — Madagsacar— Uiatorie 
Retroepect — Phjrical Featwea — BiTers; CUniate — Flora and 
Fanna-lDbabilanta— Social Prc^reaa ; Spread ot Christianity 
— Administration — Topograph; — Antananarivo; Tsmatave ; 
Diego Soiuei— Noid-Bi and tbe Comoro Gronp— Tbe Mas- 
careuhaa : Manritins ; Riunion ; Rodrigaea — Tha Seychellea 
—The Cargados and Amiruitea .... 



Hkdeira ; The Oanariei : Cape Verd lalanda ; Ths AMT«a . 

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1. OrograpMcal Map of Africa 

2. OermBn Cuuerooo . . . 

5. Congo Ftm State and French Congo 
i. Gettnan Sonth-Weat Africa 

6. Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State 
0. Sontli AfHcan Kepablie, Bechoaniland, et 

7. Bhodeaia, BritUh Central Africa, and Portugnesi 

e. aerman East Africa 
9. Britiah East Africa 

10. Hadagaacar, Haoritiui, etc. 

11. Wett Alrican ArchipeUgoei 

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1. "Chnma," LiTingitane's Serrant 

!• Tbe Cuneroon HanntaiD 

!. Feriuuido Po . 

1 Jaweatowti, St Helena 

S. Rapids of ths Ogova; . 

1 Fallaofthe Irindo 

T. HeadofaOoriUa 

ft. Hippopotami 

>. khogoB .... 
10. A Ba-Teke Vative 
IL WambDtti Pfgmiea at Home 
12. View or Loango . 
li. Nitive o[ Cabmda 

14, Village on the Lower Amwimi . 

15. Stanlej Pool 
in. Yellala Falli . 
17. Banana Point . 
11 Serenth Cataract, Stanle; Falls 
!>. Cawndea of the Nepoko 
!0. SoDth Ead of Lake Taoganjika 
!1. Herd of Elephants 
'^ Bantu Tjott from the Congo . 
a. Eavalli, Chief of the Ba-Biusi . 
!1. The Songue Antelope . 
2S. 8io Panfo do Loanda . 

% Uoaeamedes ..... 

"n. Bank* of Onaga River— Omt Hamaqnaland . 

28. Belhanj — Great Ifamaqnaland . 

a. Hill Damars 

X). On-Herero Woman, Namaqoaltmd 

SI. Kama Hnti 

32. Okahanja — Kamaherero'a Kraal 

33. Table Honntain, Tram Tahle Baj 
M. The " Hundred Palli "— Orange Biver . 
>i. Zebra .... 
3E. The Secretarr Bird 

37. A KaBr Kra^ . 

38. Kjtfire taking Snnff 
ii- Cape Town and Table Honutsin 
to. Main Street, Port Elizabeth 
*1. De Beers Jdine, Eimberley. Open Workings a 

Time ...... 

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it Barkly West 

!. Ths Vaal Birer 

I. A Zulu . 

I. Johanneabtir); ■ 

!. General View of Pretoria 

t. Darbsa and Port Natal 

'. The Principal Street of Darbau 

). Holapolole, Town ot the Bskwena Tribe 

I. Holopo River 

). Fool on the Uaritaani . 

I. TKe Upper Limpopo River 

!. Hasinya's Erul— Hgamilaud 

1. RuId< at Zimbabje 

I. Salisbury 

•. Two-Horned Rbinocero* 

i. Oiniffea . 

'. Bl^ntypo Church 

I. Zambeai at Shupanga . 

I. Victoria Falls of the Zambesi 

1. Falls of Zon on the River Ruo 

. Baobabs on tlie Islanil of Chisnmulu 

!. Chiefs House, Waukonde Tribe 

I. The Oovemor'Oeneral'a Palace, Mozambique 

I. Rock Hills, Usambara ■ 

;. Kilimanjaro 

i. Idke Unji 

'. South-West Eitremi^ of Lake Victori 

I. The Flower of the IJaobah Tree 

'. Eupliorbia Canilelabrum 

I. Cafobus Guereza 

. Victoria Nyania Chief . 

I. Ivory at BagEiuoyo 

i. Ujiji, General View 

,. View of Ripen Fulls 

>. South liliidof Albert Nyauza 

i, Ruwenzori fhim Karitiii . 

'. King Mutesa'a Dangbter 

i. Uganda Boy 

I. Uomhasa, from the Korth Shore, with CuBtom- 

i. Landing Place, Zanzibar 

. Brown Mouse l^mnr 

!. The Traveller's Palm 

:. Madagascar Oxpn 

t. Hetaimisaraka Women 

i. A Hova . 

>. The Palace of tlie Queen of Madagascar 

. General View of Tamatare 

I. Chanarel Falls, Mauritius 

'. Funchal . 

I. The Bnrning Mountain, from Yaiza, LaoMiote 

. Peak orTenerilTe 

:. Ida Falmai 

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GeMMl •nrray— Tbe Camerooni— Qcnnan sDDeutioii — The Cameroon 
monntain — Biven — Climate, flor>, fauna — Inhabitants — The Bantu 
races — The Cameroon Bantm — Stetioiu, trade, protpects— The Gulf of 
Otiine* lalandH : Fernando Po ; Prince's j St. Tbonias ; Annobon — 
The Britiab Soath-eaM Atkntic Islands : Ascension ; St. Helena j 
Ttiatui da Cnnh» ; Diego Alvuei (Gough)— Table of the Qulf and 
Sonth-eMt Atlantic Islands. 

Qsnenl Bnirey 

About the head of the Gulf of Guinea the northern and 
southern divisions of the continent are clearly separated 
by a great volcanic fault, whose niaiu axie rune for about 
a thousand miles in the direction &om south -west to 
north-east. At one extremity the Pico do Fogo (" Fiery 
Peak ") rises to a height of 3250 feet above the island of 
Annobon ; at the other stands the lofty Mount Alantica, 
culminating point of the Adamawa highlands (10,000 
feet). Between these extremes the cones of the other 
islands in the Gulf — St Thomas, 7000 ; Prince's, 2700 ; 
Fernando Po {Clarence Peak), 10,100 — together with the 
VOL. n B 

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superb crests of the Cameroon group on the opposite 
mainland, 13,000 to 18,500 feet, are all disposed along 
the line of fault in the same north-easterly direction. 
The islands themselves, which stand at intervals of about 
120 miles one from the other, lie in comparatively shallow 
waters, everywhere under 1000 and at Fernando Po 
falling to less than 350 fathoms. Hence it cannot be 
doubted that they form part of the same igneous system 
with which the more remote volcanic islets of Ascension 
and St. Helena may also have been connected 

But this volcanic insular and continental borderland 
between North and South Africa is distributed politically 
amongst no less than four European Powers. Ascension 
and St Helena in the Atlantic, as well as the still more 
remote Tristan da Cunha group in the austral seas, are 
British Crown Colonies, Within the sphere of influence 
of the same Power comes the magnificent upland region 
of Adamawa, a recognised dependency of the Fulah empire 
of Sokoto, which is now a British protectorate, but which, 
belonging to the northern division of the Continent, does 
not come within the scope of the present volume. Of the 
chain of gulf islands the two central links, St. Thomas and 
Prince's, are Portuguese, the two outer, Aimobon and 
Fernando Po, are Spanish possessions. All the rest — 
that is, the Cameroon highlands, with their unexplored 
hinterland stretching north-eastwards to Adamawa — forma 
part of the German colonial empire. 

The Oamcroons 

Till recently the Cameroon highlands were commonly 
supposed to form a dependency of the British Empire, and 
they certainly came within the "sphere of British in- 
fluenca" They had been mainly explored by English 

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travellers, and English mi&sionarieB bad long been engaged 
in evangelUsing the natives, and had for some years 
maintained the flooriahing station of Victoria on the 
south coast. English traders also had for generations 
largely monopolised the local traffic, to such an extent 
that English was and still is the common medium of 
commnnication between the whites and the coast tribes. 

But a few German traders had also of late years 
established foctories and acquired lands on the slopes of 
the mountains ; and when the German nation resolved to 
create a colonial empire this was considered sufficient 
ground for hauling down the British flag, which bad 
already been hoisted at some points of the interior, and 
proclaiming tbe whole region a German protectorate. 
After protracted diplomatic negotiations the British 
Gk>vemment accepted the "accomplished fact"; the 
distinguished traveller, Dr. Nachtigal, was sent out as 
Imperial Commissioner ; tbe missionaries were dismissed, 
their vested interests being duly respected ; and the 
Gameroons became German teiritory by agreement with 
Great Britain in 1885. At the same time an amicable 
arraDgement with France resulted in the cession to tbat 
Power of certain German factories or trading stations on 
the Senegambia seaboard in exchange for all French claims 
south of the Kiger delta and north of the Gaboon. 

Tbe northern frontier of the German domain towards 
the British Kiger protectorate has been fixed at the Bio 
del Bey (Fiari), and beyond that river by a conventional 
line running north-eastwards to a point above Yola on 
the Benue. Southwards it is separated from French 
territory by the Bio del Campo (£tembu4), giving to the 
CamerooDB a coast -line of about three hundred miles, 
round what was formerly known as the Bight of Biafra. 
By the Franco-German Agreement of March 1894, tbe 

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frontier line of the French and Qerman spheres of in- 
fluence in the interior runs from the southern boundary 
to the Kgoko river, which is followed to 2° N. lat. ; it is 
then drawn straight to the Sauga river, which it follows 
for eighteen miles, and then runs direct to a point at 
4° N. lat. near Bania, whence it follows the 15th degree 
of east longitude to 8° 30' N. lat., and then runs west- 
wards across the Mayo Kebi straight to 10° N. lat, which 
parallel fonns the boundary as far as the Shari river ; 
the frontier is continued along the course of this river 
to Lake Chad. 

Since the (ierman occupation, several short expedi- 
tions have been made to the interior, especially by 
Schwarz and Enuston, who, in 1885, advanced some 
seventy miles north-eastwards to Lake Mbu ; by Lieu- 
tenants Kund and Tappenbeck, who, despite much 
opposition from the natives, were able to determine the 
upper courses of several streams flowing to the Gulf of 
Guinea ; by Knuston and Venau, who, in 1887, surveyed 
the uplands inhabited by the Bamboko nation ; by Mr. H. 
H. Johnston, who, in 1888, ascended the Cross river, and 
collected much valuable geographical and ethnological in- 
formation regarding the border lands between the British 
and German domains; by Dr. Zintgraff, who, in 1889, 
penetrated from the Cameroons north-eastward to Adam- 
awa, where a junction vrith Flegel's route was effected at 
Donga; lastly by Lieutenant Moi^n, who, in 1890-91, 
crossed irom the Batanga coast along the course of the 
important river Sannaga (Mbam) to the powerful Fula 
kingdom of Tibaci in Adamawa, and thence through 
Gasheka and across the Bakundi (Tarabba) valley to the 
Benue at Ibi. Nevertheless, only a very small portion 
of the region claimed by Germany as her " Hinterland " 
has been visited, while the territory brought under the 

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direct jurisdiction of the High Commiasioner is estimateil 
at less than 12,000 square miles, with n population of 
about half a million. 

The Ouneroon Uonntain 

The great gec^^pbical feature of thia r^ion is the 
Cameroon mountain, which in the tcnuinal peaks known 


as the "Three Sisters " attains an altitude of nearly 14,000 
feet, and which is probably the culminating point on the 
west side of the continent. It is doubtless greatly ex- 
ceeded in height by the giants of the Ruwenzori group, 
as well as by Kilimanjaro, Kenia, and the Abyssinian 
Semen on the eastern seaboard. But, springing sheer 
fi'om the water's edge, it presents a more imposing sight 
than any of these eminences, which already stand on 

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plateaux several thousand feet above sea-level The 
Mongo-ma-Loba, or " Mountain of the Gods," as it is 
called by the natives, was first scaled in 1847 by Merrick, 
who, however, &iled to reach the summit. This exploit 
was reserved for Burton, Mann, and Calvo, who, in 1862, 
mounted to the terminal craters, from the highest of 
which (Victoria Peak) smoke was rising. 

Thus was determined the igneous character of the 
Cameroon mountain, which in fact consists of an intrusive 
volcanic mass, everywhere presenting heaps of ashes, 
numerous lava streams, and recent scorise, besides dozens 
of lateral cones, the whole standing on an isolated base 
some 700 or 800 square miles in extent. The lower 
slopes are clad to a height of 6000 feet with a magnifi- 
cent forest vegetation, succeeded higher up by grassy- 
slopes, and towards the summit by bare lavas, which are 
at times streaked with snow. No native habitations rise 
higher than about 3500 feet, wbicli alsn marks the limit' 
of the cultivated plants, such as the coco-nut, banana, 
and oil-palm. Beyond these follows a tangle of bombax 
and other large African species bound in the coils of huge 
lianas, and gradually yielding to woodlands of an almost 
European character. But there is a remarkable dearth 
of Alpine forma, which may, perhaps, be explained by the 
comparatively recent origin of this West African igneous 

North and south of the volcanic mass the prevailing 
formations are sand or gravel underlying a thick layer of 
alluvial mud, while here and there gravel he^hts with 
fragments of porphyry and quartz relieve the monotony 
of the level mangrove swamps fringing the fluvial estuaries, 
and extending to the foot of the hills. " Here are often 
discernible the traces of an ancient shore-line, showing 
that this continuous fringe of fiat marsh-land which 

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bonlera so much of Western Africa was clearly formed 
by the conatajit alluvial depoait of the many streams 
and torrents perpetually coming down from the interior 
tableland " {H, H. Johnston). 


The Cameroons are almost everywhere encircled either 
by marine or fluvial watera. The rivers, though numerous, 
have generally short courses, none except the Sannaga 
(IVIbam) rising iar inland, and all converging in broad 
creeks or estuaries, such as those of the Hio del Hey, the 
Memeh (Ndobe), the Mungo, and the Cameroon. The last 
mentioned, the estuary of which is by far the largest on 
this part of the coast, gives its name to the whole region, 
and was itself so named by the early Portuguese navi- 
gators from the abundance of Oamer&os or " prawns " found 
on its muddy baaks. It was surveyed in 1886 by 
Johnston for some sixty miles to the point where it 
trends south-eastwards, rushing between gneiss walls over 
the &ll8 formed by the outer escarpment of the plateau. 
Some mil^ below the falls, the Wuri, as the natives call 
the main headstream, sweeps round a large island, beyond 
which its united waters develop a spacious estuary, which 
is joined on the north by the Mungo, on the south by the 
Lungasi, Donga, and Kawkwa coast streams. 

By far the most important of all these rivers are the 
Sannaga or Mbani, which rises in the very heart of 
Adamawa, and which is iLavigable for forty miles to the 
falls of Idia, and the Mungo, whose sources lie nearly 
100 miles inland. After receiving the overflow of the 
Balombi-ma-Mbu, or "Elephant lake," the Mungo de- 
scends through a series of rapids a total height of about 
eighty feet, beyond which it continues its south-westerly 

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ccrarse to the Cameroon eBtuarf, where it develops a large 
delta. One branch of this mudd; plain is the Bimbia, 
which enters the Gulf of Guinea at the Btation of 
Bimbia, and which is accessible to vessels of lai^e 
draught. Throughout its lower course of over seventy 
miles, the Mui^ is navigable by laige boats, and is here 
obstructed only by one somewhat difficult rapid. 

All the rivers following south from the Cameroon 
are, like it, interrupted by falls in their middle or lower 
course, and all present the same formation at their 
mouth where the alluvial, mangrove-covered banks are 
all disposed in the same direction from south to north 
under the influence of the marine current, which here 
sets normally from the equator towards the Gulf of 
Guinea. Such are the Edea, which is accessible to 
boats for over thirty-five miles ; the Moanya, navigable 
by small steamers to the falls twenty-four miles irom its 
mouth ; and the Lob^ or Great Batanga, whose pictur- 
esque cascade seen from the sea looks like a silver thread 
suspended athwart the stream, but which is really a 
copious river precipitated from a rocky ledge over fifty 
feet high. The Rio del Campo in the extreme south, 
and the Bio del Bey in the extreme north, are more 
important as political frontiers than as fiuvial basins. 
The latter, which has been carefully surveyed by 
Johnston and Enuston, was long supposed to mingle 
its waters with the Memeh, which is now shown to be 
an independent coast stream reaching the gulf in a 
separate channel to the south both of the Bio del Bey 
and of the Bumbi. 

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CUmat« — Flora — Fatma 

The regret felt in Eugtand at the ceaaion of the 
CamerooDS to Germany was partly due to the prevalent 
belief that these highlands might serve as a sanatorium 
or health resort for Europeans exhausted by the enervat- 
ing climate of West Africa. But such a belief seems to 
have rested on no solid foundation of fact, and further 
sxperience has shown that these uplands, like Sierra 
Leone and so many other high grounds near the equator, 
afford little immunity from the effects of malaria and a 
uniformly high temperature combined with moisture. 
The Cameroons lie just beyond the zone of double rains 
along the Upper Guinea seaboard ; but the numerous 
streams and exuberant vegetation are suf&cient indica- 
tion of an abundant rainfall, a condition which within 
the tropics may always be r^rded as unfavourable to 
the physical constitution of the white race. It is not 
the heat but the saturated hot atmosphere that is so 
oppressive, and in the Cameroons the hot atmosphere is 
not only saturated but also often charged with malarious 
vapours rising to a considerable height from the sur- 
rounding marshy coastlands. 

Higher up, the summer rains, usually lasting from 
May till September, are followed by fierce winter gales, 
and the volcano is seldom clear from f(^ except during 
the prevalence of the dry harmattan blowing from the 
Sahara across the Sudan to the Gulf of Guinea. It is 
obvious that the slopes of the great mountain are not a 
desirable residence for invalids. Owing to the porotis 
nature of the soil, there is also a great deficiency of 
springs, none occurring higher than about 9000 feet 
Hence the zone suitable for health resorts is considerably 

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restricted, and such establishments could be founded only 
at the few points within this zone that aEFord a supply 
of apring-water. Here have been settled for some time 
a few Swedish colonists, some of whom, such as iKnuston 
and Benau, have done much useful exploring work in the 
surrounding districts. 

Besides the already-mentioned banana, oil-palm, and 
coco-nut, the chief cultivated plants are ground-nut«, the 
wine-palm, manioc, yams, sweet potatoes, and the edible 
colocasia. The latter, locally known as " coco," is really 
the same tuber as the taro which is so widely diffused 
throughout Polynesia, whence it was probably introduced 
by English traders. All these useful plants thrive well 
on the rich alluvial plains and lower slopes of the 
uplands. The indigenous vegetation includes the man- 
grove of the low-lying coastlands and estuaries, the 
raffia palm and pandanus, also on the lowlands, and a 
varied growth of tropical and sub-tropical forest trees 
matted together by huge creepers on the higher slopes. 
One of these creepers is the Zandolphia ^florida, which 
grows to a length of 180 or even 200 feet, and from 
which the Swedish settlers extract a kind of caoutchouc 

The elephant, formerly numerous on the seaboard, 
has mostly withdrawn to the interior, where large herds 
are still met in some of the woodlands Mnging the 
banks of the streams, especially in the Mungo basin. 
But the tusks are coarse-grained, and the ivory collected 
in this region is of a brownish colour and of slight 
commercial value. Besident traders speak of the gorilla 
and chimpanzee, but none of these lai^ anthropoid apes 
have yet been seen, although smaller monkeys are 
numerous in the wooded tracts. On the other hand, 
there is an immense variety of the lesser fauna, includ- 
ing several new species of venomous and harmless snakes, 

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batrachianfl, chameleons, and tortoises described by the 
zoologist Buchholz. A curiosity of the marine fauna is 
a pecoliar species of yellow shrimp (Tkalasdna), which 
in tbe months of August and September almost chokes 
the Cameroon and neighbouring estuaries. These 
crustaceans, doubtless the Camerftos of the Portuguese 
navigators, are taken by the basketful, dried, smoked, 
and forwarded in vast quantities to the inland popula- 
tions. The insect world is equally abundant, the ground 
glittering with the metallic sheen or phosphorescent 
light of beetles and fireflies, while the prodigious 
flocks of butterflies produce at a little distance the 
effect of a tremulous haze in the atmosphere. The 
CametooDS do not come within the zone of the true 
tsetse fly, which is here represented by the Qlosgina, an 
apparently closely-allied but harmless species. 


For the ethnolc^t there are few more interesting 
regions than the Cameroons. With the exception of 
tbe Southern Ibeas and of some Efik Kegroes on the 
banks of the Memeb, this region is exclusively occupied 
by tribes of Bantu speech, and we now know ^m 
Johnston's careful survey that the lower course of the 
Bio del Bey coincides very nearly with the parting-line 
between the true Kegro and the Bantu races on the 
west side of the continent. North and north-west of 
this river the Negro domain extends almost uninter- 
ruptedly through Upper Guinea and Senegambia to the 
Sahara; south of the same river the Bantu domain 
stretches across the continent southwards to the 
Hottentot- Bush man territory in the extreme south-west. 

Tbe sigoificance of this great ethnological fact for the 

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future destinies of Africa can scarcely be overrated. It 
probably means that t^e south will eventually control 
the north, for the true Negro is of himself incapable oC 
upward development, and without misc^enation cannot 
even be raised to the somewhat higher stage of culture 
represented by the Mohammedan Arabs of North Africa. 
All the intelligent and dominating peoples of Sudan — 
Fulahs, Toucouleure, Kanuri, Haussas, Mabas, Dasas, 
Nibians — are mixed races, where the Negro element 
is in inverse ratio to the material and moral progress 
of the people. Where that element exclusively or 
mainly prevails, as amongst the Ashanti and others of 
Upper Guinea, the Battas of Adamawa, the Mosgus of 
the Chad basin, the Nubaa of Kordofan, the Bari, 
Stiilluks, and others of the White Nile, there is practi- 
cally no prepress. 

On the other hand, the higher Bantu groups — that is, 
those in which the Negro element is least pronounced — 
are of themselves capable of advancement, and without 
miscegenation can under judicious European control be 
elevated to a relatively high d^free of social culture. 
Here, again, the non-Negro element is in direct ratio 
to the advancement of the people, as witness the present 
condition of Basutoland under healthy European iu9n- 
enees and of North Bechuanaland under that remarkable 
personality Efaama, ruler of the powerful Bamangwato 

The Bantu Races 

What is this non-Negro element ? A satisfactory 
answer to this question will go far to solve the complex 
problem of South African ethnology, and cannot fail to 
be of great practical service to those European statesmen 
and chartered corporations who have recently accepted 

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the reeponsibility of controlling the future destinies of 
half the continent. 

On the constituent elements of the Bantu races the 
present writer remarked in the year 1884 : — 

" llie Wa-Huma, to whom the attention of etbno- 
Ic^ts has scarcely yet been seriously directed, present 
Bome points of great anthropological interest, probably 
affordii^; a solution of the diSicultieB connected with the 
constituent elements of the Bantu races in East Central 
Afiica. Speke had already observed that the chiefs of 
the Bantu nations about the great lakes were always 
"Wa-Hnma, a pastoral people evidently of Galla stock, 
and originally immigrante from the Galla country. Since 
then it has been ascertained that several Wa-Huma 
communities live interspersed amongst the mixed Bantu 
nations of the lacustrine plateau ; and J. M. Schuver 
was recently informed that the N^ro inhabitants of the 
A£ls country were governed by a Galla aristocracy. 

"From these and other indications it seems highly 
probable that in point of fact the Bantu peoples are 
fundamentally Negroes in diverse proportions affected by 
Wa-Hnma or Galla — that is, Hamitic — elements. The 
Wa-Huma, who, under the name of Wa-Tusi, are found 
as far south as the U-Nyamen country, are by recent 
obBcrveis unanimously described as a very fine race, 
with oval face, straight nose, small mouth, and, generally 
speaking, r^ular Caucasic features. Such a type is 
found everywhere cropping out amid the surrounding 
N^roid populations throughout the southern half of the 
continent, and the conclusion seems irresistible that it 
should be referred to those Wa-Huma, or Hamitic 
Gallas, probably for ages advancing as conquerors from 
the north-east into the heart of the continent 

"No distinct mention is made of the Wa-Huma 

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speech. It is known, however, to differ from that of 
the BaiituB proper ; and whea we hear that the late 
King M'Tesa of Uganda epoke Galla as his mother- 
toi^e, and was proud of his GaUa ancestors, little 
doubt can remain on this point. The Wa-Huma are 
also distinguished by their intense love both of personal 
freedom and political autonomy, sentiments which are 
but feebly developed amongst the true n«^o populations. 
Such is theix- horror of captivity and a foreign yoke that 
those who have fiuled to maintain their independence 
are no longer r^arded as true Wa-Huma The very 
women who have the misfortune to fall into the hands 
of the Arab slave-dealers are looked upon as degraded 
for ever, and, should they escape from bondage, are 
burnt alive hy their own people. Traits of this sort 
would almost alone sufi&ce to suspect at least a very 
large infusion of non-Negro blood in the Wa-Huma race. 
This element we may now trace with some confidence to 
the Hamites of Korth-East Africa as its true source." ' 

The Bantus may therefore he r^arded as a Negroid — 
that is, a modified Negro — race, in which the Hamites of 
North-East Africa constitute the modifying element. The 
modification itself is obviously a question of d^ree, 
naturally greater in the east than in the west, with every 
shade of transition in the intervening central r^ons. 
This conclusion is amply confirmed by Stanley, who has 
had more opportunities of studying the various Bantu 
populations than any other living observer. In Hirough 
the Dark CoTUinevi (I 251) he speaks of the Wa-Kerew^ 
of Ukerewd Island, in the Victoria Nyanza, as " a mixture 
of the Ethiopic [Hamitic] and Negro type "; and again in 
Darkest Africa we are told that certain Wa-Huma chiefs 
of Usongora " were as like in features to Uie finest of the 

* Ethnology of Egyftian Sudan, SUnrord, 1684, pp. 9, 10. 

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Somali types and Wa-Galla as though they were of the 
same race" (ii. 317). We now see that they were, in 
lact, of the same race, for both Somalis and Gallas are 
Hamites ; and when it is further remembered that the 
Eaniites themselves are one of the main divisions of the 
prinueval Caucssic stock, we begin to imdeistand the 
comparisons so frequently drawn by travellers between 
certain South African groups and our own European 

At the same time, the term Bantu is far more intel- 
ligible in a linguistic than in an etbnotc^ical sense. We 
can confidently speak of a Bantu stock language, for all 
the Bantu idioms bear the closest family likeness, and are 
admittedly derived from a single source. But we cannot 
speak of a Bantu stock race, for we have seen that these 
populations are essentially mixed; the physical type 
nowhere presents any uniformity, but is continually 
shifting from group to group according to the predomin- 
ance of the N^ro, Hamitic, or possibly even other 
elements; for the world is very old, and who can say 
what migrations and interminglings may not have taken 
place during the countless ages covered by the expression 
" prehistoric times "? 

The Ounermm Bantns 

In this region there appear to be two distinct tribal 
groups — the primitive or indigenous Bantus, who occupy 
the central parts, and who are supposed to represent the 
first waves of migration, probably from the east ; and the 
more recent intruders from the south, who now hold the 
northern plains as far as the Negro domain, and the 
southern slopes to and beyond the Cameroon river. The 
' Seeartiole "CkiiMaio Races," in CaaatiVa Stordunut of Information^ 

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distiuction is based, not on physical appeanmce, which is 
nowhere sufficiently marked for purposes of classification, 
but on linguistic grounds, the indigenous tribes speaking 
archaic Bantu idioms degraded by long contact with their 
Negro neiglibours, while all the later arrivals except the 
Ibeas speak comparatively pure Bantu tongues connected 
by imperceptible transitions along the seaboard with those 
of the Lower Congo. Subjoined is a tolerably complete 
list of all the Cameroon tribes grouped according to this dis- 
tinction, which was first indicated by H. H. Johnston : — 

Indigenotu — 

BajoD , . Extreme Qorth-«Bat 

Ndob and Nsfl . Interior, north slope NUobo Pinda Hountaini. 

BaQken . . About aources of the Wuri. 

Baia .... Betveen the Wuri and Lungasi riven. 

Balult (lialong) . Lower MuDgo river. 

Abo and Buduoiaii . llctweeii the Mungo and Uppet Wuri rirera. 

Uarombi . Upper Mungo basin. 

Wuri. . . . Middle Wuri river. 

North ■meatemmoat of all Banta tribes, near 
the Bio del Key. 
Bakiah . . . Left bank of the Mameb. 
Bakundu . . Northern elopes Upjier Mameh, nnd thenoe east 

to the Mungo. 
BumbokoiOr Bantbuku Western slopes and coaat between the Memeh 
anil Bimbia. 
Southern slopes, north Trom tbe Bimbia. 
About the Bimbia. 
Lower Wuri and Cameroon estuaiy. 

Bakwiri (Btkwili) 


Bakoko 'j 
Basoko uid 

Bapuko, or [ 
"Great Batanga" I 

Bafiudi I 

Ibea or Mabea J 

Coastlands between the Ctuneroon eataary and 
the Kio del Canipo. 

Amongst the northern Bakundus a social movement 
is now in progress, which possesses much interest in 

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coonection with the questiou of domestic slavery. This 
agricultural nation importa all its slaves iix>ni the far 
north — that is, probably from the Benue basin — and to 
these robust and intelligent N^ro or Negroid serfn is left 
the entire cultivation of the land. They occupy separate 
residences, and in some places even form little inde- 
pendent States within the State. The result is that they 
are gradually turning the tables on their enervated 
masters, and acquiring sot only the actual possession of 
the land, but the political supremacy itself (Richardson). 

Of all the Cameroon tribes the best known are the 
Bakwiri and their Buala neighbours, who dwell in the 
vicinity of the European factories and missionary stations. 
The latter are typical Bantus with regidar, almost European 
features, and, what is still more remarkable, with well- 
developed lower extremities, in this respect presenting a 
strikiiig contrast to the characteristic Negro races. Nor 
can their fine physical qualities be attributed to contact 
with the whites, for they are so proud of their racial purity 
that until recently they killed off all half-castes, r^arding 
such fair-skinned offspring as a di^race to the nation. 

Both the Dualas and the Bakwiri are well skilled in 
Uie "drum language," which is so prevalent along the 
western seaboard. This curious " phonographic system," 
the knowledge of which is jealously guarded from slaves, 
women and the whites, is no mere code of signals, but a 
well- developed method of " tam-taming," by which sus- 
tained conversation can be rapidly carried on at great 
distances. Words and sentences are distinctly expressed 
by the varied notes of the drum, and amongst the Bakwiri 
by the bom, whose echoes resound from hill to hill, and 
communicate intelligence of war, peace, or any important 
event to the remotest confines of the land. 

Till recently cannibalism in a mitigated form, or as a 

VOL. II c 

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religions ceremony, was still prevalent amongst most oi 
these tribes, none of which, despite their long intercourse 
with Europeans, have advanced mnch beyond the social 
state represented by witchcraft, ordeals, and human 
sacrifices. Nobody is supposed to die a natural death, 
and as custom exacts life for life, every death, however 
brought about, requires a fresh victim, usually by fire, 
water, or poison. This practice resulted some years ago in 
the total depopulation of the islet of Ambas, near Victoria, 
where, the bulk of the people having exterminated each 
other by their daily ordeab, the few survivors took refuge 
on the mainland. They represented the old Amboz (Zam- 
bua) tribe, from whom the Cameroon mountain was by 
the Portuguese originally named Terra doa Ambozes. 

The Ibeas (Mabea, or " Brush People ") speak a very 
different language from the Dualas and other later Bantu 
immigrants from the south. They appear to have arrived 
still more recently, not from the south, but from the east 
Like the Fans of the Ogoway basin, they have long been 
moving from the interior towards the coastlands, and 
have already reached the seaboard at the Lob^ river. 
They bring down ivory from the unexplored inland 
r^oas which stretch away towards the hypothetical 
"Lake Liba," and beyond it towards the Congo -Chad 
water-parting. It is doubtful whether they are Bantus 
at all, and further research may show that their affinities 
are rather with the Fans or the Zandehs (Niam-Niams), 
whose domain extends from the Congo- Nile divide for an 
unknown distance westwards. 

Statioiu — Trade — ^FrospectB 

The Portuguese seem never to have held any per- 
manent posts in this region, where the most important. 

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if Dot the earliest, European settlemeot is Victoria, 
founded in 1858 hj the English Baptist missiouaries 
after their expulsion hj the Spaniards from the neigh- 
bouriDg island of Fernando Po. Victoria stands on 
Ambas Bay, at the south-west extremity of the mountain, 
whence a superb view is commanded of the neighbouring 
wooded shores and of the Fernando Po peaks in the hazy 
distance. It ia accessible to vessels of average size, and 
might be converted into an important naval station by 
cutting a short canal across the muddy neck of the 
promontoiy separating Ambas Bay from the deep and 
well -sheltered inlet of Man-of-War Bay. Since the 
German occupation the English missionaries have been 
replaced by others from Switzerland, whose efforts to 
substitute the German for the English language have 
caused much meutal confusion amongst their few Bakwiri 

North of Victoria the only post is the fishing-village 
of BOuvdi, to which the German traders are endeavour- 
ing to divert the produce hitherto forwarded to the 
'li:ngliflh factories in the Calabar river. A more important 
place is ^aniia, near the entrance to the Bimbia branch 
of the MuQgo. Although of somewhat difficult access, 
especially during the rainy season, when the surf breaks 
fiercely over the neighbouring bar, Bimbia serves as the 
outlet for the numerous Bakwiri villages dotted over the 
surrounding heights. Farther inland are Mbinga, on the 
Mungo delta, and the American missionary station of 
BaJatndvria-Namiele, in the territory of the Bakundu 

On the south side of the Cameroon estuary, here 
navigable by large vessels, is a group of ten or twelve 
native vill^es, such as Kiv^ Ahea's Town, King Bill's 
Town, (here all the tribal chiefs are " kings "), which are 

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colIectiTelf known as the Camenxmt. Thia place has 
been selected as the seat of the new administration, the 
Governor's reddenoe oocup^mg a neighbonhi^ terrace, 
while a kind of sanatorium has been foimded at Kaiaer 
WUhdm't Bad on the sandy beach at Point SweUaba, 
near Cape Gameroons, on the north side of the entrance 
to the estuarj. 

In the Batanga and Ibea territory, between the 
Cameroon estuary and the French frontier, there are no 
European settlements beyond a few factories near the 
mouth of the Moanya river. In exchange for European 
textiles, hardware, spirits, firearms, and ammunition, 
these and the other factoiiee in the Gameroons take 
such native products as ivoiy, caoutchouc, ebony, dye- 
woods, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, palm oil and ground-nuts. 
Some of the factories are managed by natives, and all the 
coast tribes are keen traders and mostly " middlemen " ; 
that is to say, they stand between the European dealers 
and the producers of the interior. Hence their extreme 
jealousy of all travellers, and their open and secret 
opposition to all expeditions oif;anised to explore the 
" Hinterland." After leaving the seaboard travellers 
suddenly find themselves beset by all kinds of unforeseen 
difdculties ; the guides lose their way, the porters throw 
down their loads and disappear in the bush, the explorer 
himself is even occasionally carried off by a dose of 
poison, or " a gourd of bad water," as the untoward event 
may be reported at the coast stations. 

Under these adverse conditions the Hamburg mer- 
chants may continue to develop a flourishing trade in 
spirits, which are here called " rum," and which have 
hitherto constituted two-thirds of all the imports. But 
for German immigration, a primary object of the occupa- 
tion, there is no field in the Gameroons r^on. The 

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coontiy is absolutely nnsoited for European colonisation, 
md in any case no white peasantry could compete with 
the native cultivators, who are inured to the climate, 
who employ slave labour, and whose plantatioua, as in 
the Bakundu tenitory, are as carefully tended as a Mid- 
lothian iarm. The present political masters of the land 
can scarcely hope to do more than retain a fair share of 
the local trade, and even here they are threatened with 
the increasing competition of the native middlemen. 
There were only about 150 Gtermans in the colony in 
1894, in which year the revenue scarcely exceeded 
£30,000 ; imports (spirits, firearms, gunpowder, salt, 
rice), £232,000 ; exports (palm-oil, kernels, rubber), 

Tha Gulf Islands 

Of the south-east Atlantic islands by far the most 
important is Fernando Fo, whose area and (undeveloped) 
economic value greatly exceed those of all the others 
taken collectively. The present name ia merely the 
Spanish form of FemSo do Fo, its Fortuguese discoverer, 
who himself named it Formosa, or the " Beautiful," a term 
amply justified by its imposing appearance, luxuriant 
v^etation, and charming sylvan scenery. Clarence or 
Isabel Feok, the culminating point (10,000), is an extinct 
or quiesc^t volcano, which, with the Cameroon moun- 
tain on the opposite side of the intervening strait, about 
eighteen miles wide, forms a magnificent gateway leading 
to equatorial Africa. 

This passage, which in clear weather presents one of 
the grandest marine panoramas on the globe, nowhere 
exceeds 280 to 290 feet in depth, and the shallow 
waters extend some distance beyond the island before 

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the soundings suddenly reveal depths of nearly 600 
fathoms. The Fernando I'o volcano thus appears to rest 
on the same pediment as the Cameroons, and evidently 
formed part of the mainlaiul within a comparatively 
recent geological epoch. 

From the summit, which was first ascended by 
Becrofl,' numerous torrents descend in cascades and 

streams to everj' part of the coast, sustaining a vigorous 
tropical vegetation, which is specially remarkable for its 
prolific growth of underwoods, orchids, fenis, and mosses. 
The flora corresponds, according to elevation, with that 
of the mainland, and nearly twenty species on the up- 
lands have been identified with those of the temperate 
zone on the Abyssinian highlands on the opposite side of 
the continent. The cinchona has been successfully 
' Tlie feat has even been perTorTned bj > ladj, the Polish novelut 
Hajota, who accompanied her huaband, LieiiL Ragozinaki, to the eumniit 
in Jannary 1890. On the peak tliey found a bottla with encloaed note 
left by a previous climber, Julinn Pellou, dated April 3, 1860. 

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introdnced; coffee, cotton, tobacco, and the sugar-cane 
ttuiTe well on the plantations, and maize, rice, the 
banana, manioc, and yams yield an abundant supply for 
the local conenrnption. 

Three species of apes, formerly indigenous, have dis- 
appeared, and the lai^ fauna is now exdusirely repre- 
sented by homed cattle and other domestic animals. 
An antelope, however, still snrvlTes on the higher 
grounds. There are several species of snakes, and birds 
and insects are met in considerable variety. 

It is uncertain whether Fernando Po was inhabited 
at the time of its discovery, probably about the year 
1486. But the stone implements that have been found 
in various parts show that it was occupied at some time 
by men of the neolithic period. The Bubi, as the present 
natives are collectively called, seem to have immigrated 
from the mainland about 400 years ago. According to 
Johnston, they belong to the indigenous group of Bantus 
who reached the Cameroons from the east at some un- 
known epoch. The term Bubi, writtei) " Boobies " by the 
English, means " men " ; and these men, numbering about 
30,000, are scattered in five or six distinct tribal groups 
over the interior of the Ackimama, or " universe," as they 
call their island home. They are a feeble folk, who were 
long oppressed by their Portuguese and Spanish tax- 
masters. But they got rid of the former by poisoning 
all the wells and running waters, and nearly compelled 
their Spanish successors to retire by refusing to supply 
them with provisions. Now, however, harmony prevails, 
^nd the chief native " king," who resides on the east side 
of the island, recognises the suzerainty of the Spanish 

The Spaniards have been in possession since 1778, 
when the island was ceded to them by Portugal. But 

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iu ISS? the English occupied Glaremx Town {Santa 
Isabel), on the north coast, as a naval station for the 
suppression of the slave trade Eichatd Lander, the 
African explorer, lies buried in a neighbouring cemeteiy. 
This is the only town in the island : but a kind of health- 
resort has been established at the village of Baeileh, 
which lies a few miles inland from Clarence Town at an 
altitude of over 1000 feet above aea-level. With a 
heavy annual rainfall of from 100 to 120 inches, and a 
normal temperature of about 78° F., Fernando Po is 
necessarily unsuitable for European colonisation. The 
only white resident are a few English and Portuguese 
traders and planters ; but the foreign trade is slight, and 
has recently even diminished. 

About midway between Fernando Po and St. Thomas 
lies the Ilha do Principe, or Pkikce'b Island, so named 
by its Portuguese discoverets because it was granted 
about the year 1500 to a prince of the Braganza dynasty. 
It ia an extremely fertile volcanic rock, the " garden of 
Africa," less than half the size of the Isle of Wight, 
watered by countless streamlets, all flowing northward 
from the southern heights which culminate in a peak 
nearly 3000 feet high. During the days of slave labour 
it was a flourishing sugar-plantation, and also an im- 
portant dep6t of slaves destined for the American market. 
Now all its prosperity is gone, and its few N^ro inhabit- 
ants are mostly centred in the little port of Santo 
Antonio, on a sheltered iolet on the north-east coast 

Beyond Prince's follows the far larger and even more 
lovely island of St, Thomas, which in the wooded peak of 
the same name on the west side rises to an altitude <^ 
7000 feet. St Thomas lies almost on the equator, which 
separates it from the neighbouring Solas, or Dove islet, 
at its southern extremity. But, thanks to the cool 

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southern cnrrent by which it is enveloped, it enjoys a, 
relatively mild temperature, and is by far the healthiest 
of the Golf Islands. The low-lying coast is certainly 
dangerous ; but the higher grounds, despite an excessive 
rainfall, are regarded as a sort of sanatorium by the 
European residenta on the malarious West African sea- 
board. The A{^ Grande, one of the numerous streams 
fed by the tropical rains, tumbles over the romantic Bln- 
BIu cascade just before reaching Cidade, capital of the 
island, on the north-east coast. 

These streams, which water every glen, nourish a rich 
and diversilied Sora comprising nearly 460 species, mostly 
alhed to those of the mainland. Sut the fauna presents 
some remarkable features implying long separation &om, 
if not complete geological independence of, the continent. 
Of the eighteen species of land molluscs, all but one are 
pecuhar to the island, which has also an indigenous 
monkey as well as a bat found nowhere else. 

St Thomas enjoys the distinction of being one of the 
few African tropical lands where the white race has suc- 
ceeded in establishing itself. Soon after its discovery, 
towards the close of the fifteenth century, it was occupied 
by some Portuguese settlers ; and their descendants, 
Aougb long harassed by French corsairs, and afterwards 
by Angolan blacks from the mainland, have become per- 
fectly acclimatised on the uplands. The Angolans also 
still survive on the west side, where they preserve their 
Bantu speech and national usages. In recent years the 
population has rapidly increased, and is chiefly occupied 
on the flourishing coffee, cacao, and sugar plantations. 
Since its introduction some years ago the cinchona has 
thriven well, and as many as a million of these valuable 
trees now cover the slopes up to a height of 4500 feet. 

AsHO&otl, lost member of the Gulf volcanic chain, is a 

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three-created wooded rock inhabited by some 3000 blacks, 
descendaate of castaways or slaves introduced by the 
Portuguese in the sixteenth centuiy, but now Spanish 
subjects. The only anchorage is on the north side, where 
stands San Antonio da Praia, residence of the governor. 
Annobon is the Spanish form of the Portuguese Anno Bom 
— that is, " Good Tear " — so named because discovered 
by Escobar and Santarem on the first day of the year 
1471. No settlement took place till 1550, and in 1778 
it was ceded with Fernando Po to Spain. The island 
has good water, and produces excellent oranges and other 
fruits, which it supplies to passing vessels. 

The British Soutb-East Atlantic Islands 

Ascension lies about 960 miles south-west of Cape 
Palmas, the nearest point on the African mainland. It 
is a rugged volcanic rock of oval shape, seven or eight 
miles long, and apparently of recent origin, resting on 
the " Challenger Bank," a submarine ridge which forms 
the " divide " between the deep south-eastern and still 
deeper south-western Atlantic waters. From the cul- 
minating point of the Green Hills, on the west side 
(2650 feet), a view is commanded of some forty now ex- 
tinct cones and craters scattered in disorder over the 
whole surface. European fruits and vt^tables thrive in 
the fertile valleys of the Green Hills, which enjoy a 
healthy climate, with a normal temperature of 73° F., 
falling on the higher summits to 60" F., but rising to 84° 
at O^ge Town on the north-west side. Owing to the 
excessive heat of this station, which stands on Clarence 
Bay, the only frequented anchorage, the British Govern- 
ment a few years ago built a hospital or convalescent 
home on a neighbouring wooded eminence, 2000 feet 

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high, for troops serving on the West African aeaboard. 
A conduit over a mile long conveys good water from this 
pkice to George Town, 

The chief resource of Ascension are its g^antic green 
turtles (TVs^wio viridia), some of which weigh 10 or 11 
cwL The flesh is consumed by the inhabitants, and 
large numbers are shipped for England to supply the 
tables of the wealthy classes with turtle soup. 

Ascension appears to have been discovered in 1502 
by Juan de Nova, sumamed Gallego — that is, the Gali- 
cian — at that time in command of a Portuguese fleet. 
It remained unoccupied till the year 1701, when Dampier 
was here wrecked. He and his crew would have perished 
of thirst but for some wild goats, by following whose 
track they discovered in the Green Hills the running 
waters still known as " Dampier's Spring," After a three 
weeks' residence they were rescued by an English vessel, 
and the incident was regarded as an act of possession. 
But formal occupation was deferred till the year 1815, 
when the British Government placed a small garrison in 
the island to prevent other Powers from making it a base 
of operations to facilitate Napoleon's escape from St. 

Ascension lies right in the track of the south-east 
trades, under whose influence, perhaps increased by the 
occasional crash of huge icebei^s &om the Antarctic 
r^ons, the Atlantic billows, twenty to thirty feet high, 
break with fury against the windward coast But the 
uplands are not sufficiently elevated to intercept the 
moisture-bearing clouds from that quarter. Hence the 
rainfall is insufiicient to nourish a large indigenous flora, 
which comprises only two flowering shrubs {Hednjotis 
ascensionis and Euphorbia origanoides '), besides less than 
' The badfotu differa little from other African ipeciea, while tlie 

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twenty emaller crjpt<^;amou3 epeciee. But a considerable 
increase of moisture has been observed since the intro- 
duction of nnmeroua exotics hy Mr. Bell, who has con- 
verted the Green Hill elopes into a vast garden of accli- 
mation for the eucalyptus, araucaria, juniper, acacia, and 
hundreds of other foreign plants. This experiment shows 
that at least in some localities the planting of the land 
may have beneficial results on the climat«. 

Dampier's goats were not indigenous, but had been 
landed to stock the island by some passing navigators. 
The cat, dog, pheasant, poultry, guinea-fowl have been 
introduced in the same way, and, like the goats, many have 
reverted to the wild state. As in so many other islands, 
snakes are unknown, and the native fauns is very poor. 

Nominally a Crown Colony, Ascension is practically a 
sort of naval station occupied only by a few oMcers, sailors, 
soldiers, and provision dealers, and administered like an 
English arsenal by an almost absolute governor. 

Some 830 miles south-east of Ascension on the direct 
route to the Cape, from which it is distant 2000 miles, 
lies the larger and more famous island of St. Helena. 
Before the opening of the Suez Canal, which diverted 
most of the sea-borne traffic from the southern waters, 
St Helena enjoyed considerable importance as a victual- 
ling station and port of call for shipping plying round 
the Cape between Europe and the East. In the days of 
sailing-vessels it even served, like Tierra del Fu^o and 
some other isolated points, as a sort of oceanic post-office, 
where letters were called for and left by passing vessels 
under a basalt block which is still preserved. 

oophorbia " b«loDg» to ft group of littoral, moatly shrubby epBdeg, widoly 
spread in PoIynMia, with one apecieB in tha Weat Indies and the Bemudaa, 
and tiro an the vestem coast of tropical Africa" (Chalimgvr Bq^itim, 
Tol. i. BoUny ; Report III. p- 8S)- 

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The formation is entirely igneous — basalts, pumice, 
and other old and recent volcanic rocks, with no trace of 
metamorpbic or sedimentary deposits. Hence the island 
is clearly of oceaiiic origin, and can scarcely at any time 
have formed part of the mainland On the other hand, 
there are abundant evidences of vast denudation, show- 
ii^ that it must have formerly occupied a mudi lai^r 
area than at present The submarine bank on which it 
stands, and which at one time rose above the surface, 
extends all round the periphery for a distance of two or 
three miles, and then the sounding-line plunges abruptly 
from depths of 400 or 600 feet into abysmal waters over 
2000 fathoms deep. Owing to the eztrecae hardness of 
the plutonic rocks, the work of erosion, carried on simul- 
taneously by the marine and running waters, must have 
lasted vast ^es, and it has been estimated that the waves 
must have taken from 40,000 to 50,000 years merely 
to reduce certain headlands to their present fragmentary 

The whole surface of the island is of an extremely 
m^ed character, scored with deep ravines such as 
Gre^ry's Valley, strewn with fantastic blocks such as 
" Lot and his Wife," surmounted by long-extinct craters 
and a chaos of peaks, some over 2000 feet high and 
calminating in Diana's Peak (2720 feet) near the former 
centre of eruption at the back of Sandy Bay on the 
south side. 

Notwithstanding its intertropical position within 1100 
miles of the equator, St. Helena enjoys an equable climate 
with a normal temperature ranging from about 50° to 80° 
F., and a moderate rainfall of fifty inches on the uplands 
and twenty-eight to thirty at Jamestown on the north 
coast. These favourable conditions, which make the 
island quite suitable for European settlement, are due to 

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its position within the zone of the cool Antarctic correDt 
and invigorating south-east trade-winds. 

The moisture suffices to support au exuberant v^e- 
tation, and ut the time of the discovery, the whole island 
was forest-clad from the water's edge almost to the highest 
summits. But this natural flora, which included the 
ebony, a distinct species of tree-fern, and nearly eighty 
other peculiar forms, has mostly disappeared, and is now 
replaced by such economic plants as tea, coilee, sugar- 
cane, cotton, indigo, the vine, apple, pear, besides the 
European oak, cypress, and some other forest growths. 

European domestic animals, ox, sheep, goat, poultry, 
have also driven out most of the indigenous fauna, which 
presented even more independent forms than the vegetable 
kingdom. It comprised a plover {Ckaradrius pecuarius) 
elsewhere unknown, besides nearly fifty distinct species 
of butterfly, and eleven land molluscs whose nearest 
congeners are found in the remote islands of the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans. 

The first inhabitants of St. Helena were some Portu- 
guese mutineers, lauded, with a few slaves, by Albuquerque 
in 1513; that is, eleven years after its discovery by 
Jnan de Nova. But no further settlement was made by 
the Portuguese, who were succeeded in 1651 by the 
Dutch, and these in 1666 by the English, who have 
become perfectly acclimatised. They are even distin- 
guished by personal beauty, though lacking the florid 
complexion of the race, which may possibly be due to 
mixture with the African slaves, Chinese and Malay 
coolies introduced at different times. But since the ruin 
of the export trade caused by the opening of the Suez 
Canal, the population has steadily decreased, especially 
by emigration to the Cape. Nevertheless, England cannot 
afford to abandon this oceanic Crown Colony, whose proa- 

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perity must always revive whenever the overland route 
to India becomes temporarily blocked by naval operations 
in the Mediterranean. "England, the great carrying 
Power of Che world, may find it more advantageous to 
trust to her own strength and the security of the open 
Beas than to run the gauntlet of the numerous strategical 
positions in the Mediterranean, each of which is capable 
of affording impregnable shelter to a hostile fleet ; and 
though the ultimate key to the Indian Ocean is in our 
own hands, our passage to it may he beset with a 
thousand dangers." ' 

The only centre of population is Jamestovm, the capital, 
situated on the west or leeward side, at the outlet of a 
deep gorge, which is occasionally swept by freshets. The 
station is defended by military works crowning the 
neighbouring Ladder Hill, so called trom the long flight 
of steps by which it is approached from the town. The 
tiack leads thence over Rupert Hill eastwards to Zong- 
v/ood, where Napoleon was kept under arrest for six years 
till his death in 1821, His remains, which had been 
interred in the neighbouring " Valley of the Tomb," were 
removed to Paris in 1840. Another memorable site is 
Mount Ealley (2420 feet), so named from the illustrious 
English astronomer, who set up his observatory on this 
peak in 1676, and thus began the observation of the 
southern heavens which was afterwards continued by 
Herschel, and is now being prosecuted with such brilliant 
Buccess by Dr. David Gill at the Cape. 

In the extreme south-east Atlantic are two other 

British islets, Tbistan da Cunha and DiEGO Alvarez. 

The latter, discovered early in the sixteenth century by 

the Portuguese pilot Alvarez, whose real Christian name 

I Sir R. Lambert Playrair, AddTew to tha Britiah Auoci&tioD &t Le«cU, 

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was Cronfoio, is often called Gough, from the English 
mariner who rediscovered it in 1713. It is a ru^ed 
mass 4400 feet high, whose sheltered creeks, fertile dales, 
and well-stocked waters have never attracted any settlers 

beyond some American seal-fishers who have occasionally 
resided on the island during the season. 

Gough lies 245 miles south-east of the little Tristan 
da Cunha group, which is distant 1840 miles west of the 
Cape, Although discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese 
navigator whose name it perpetuates, it was never occupied 

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till the begiuDing of the present ceDtury ; but it has been 
frequently visited by sailing-vessels, which, by deflecting 
their course so far south, fall in with the west winds, and 
are thus enabled more easily to double the Cape. 

The group consists of three volcanoes — Tristan 
da Cunha, 8500 feet high; Inaccessible, about 20 milea 
to the south-west; and Nightingale, 12 miles to the 
south-east of the latter — all composed entirely of lavas 
and terminating in craters now flooded by blue lakelets. 
Of the collective area, some 20,000 acres, two-thirda are 
comprised in Tristan, whose perfectly circular snow-clad 
cone is visible in clear weather for a distance of nearly 
100 miles. Notwithstanding its relatively high latitude 
(37° 10' S.) it enjoys a remarkably mild but damp climate, 
with a temperature varying from about 58° F. in winter 
to 68° in summer. 

Like that of so many other oceanic islands which 
have never been connected with the mainland, the flora 
presents some peculiarities, such as the forests of huge 
algiE, 150 to 200 feet long, fringing the coast to a 
width of nearly half a mile. There are also some heaths 
and a prickly grass growing in dense, tufted masses on 
the lower slopes, besides a solitary indigenous tree 
(Phylica arborea) which here and there reaches a height 
of twenty feet, European fruits and vegetables, and 
even maize, thrive well in the sheltered valleys. 

There appears to be absolutely no indigenous fauna 
except penguins and other aquatic birds. But the island 
is now well stocked with cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, and 
other European animals. 

The first permanent settlers were some Americans, 
who arrived in 1811. The garrison placed here by the 
Sritbh Government in 1816 to watch the prisoner of 
St. Helena was withdrawn after his death, and since then 


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the little colony has been chiefly recruited by shipwrecked 
sailors, a few Boers from the Cape, and half-caste women 
from St Helena. This mixed community, which is 
thoroughly acclimatised, forms a little English-speaking 
repubhc under a " president," who recognises the suzerainty 
of Great Britain. 

Subjoined is a Table of all the Gulf and south-east 
Atlantic islands : — 



8qt»r. Mll<*. 




\ AnniboD . 



f Princa'a . 
y St Thomas 





AMBiiBion . 



St. H«ten> 



TriitsD da Cunha 


110 . 



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„k X 


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GeD«ral Surrey — Besulta of Geogr«phic«l Betearch — Phy«ic»l FeatowS'- 
The Coast Ranges— Rir«r BiBiiu : Gaboon, Ogoway, Kuilu, Chilosngo 
— Climata of tbe West Eqaatorial Seaboard — Flora and Fauna— In- 
habitants— The IndigenouB Bantoa- The Ba-Ea1ai and Fans- The 
Cannibal Zone of Eqaatorial Africa— The Pjgmy Boces — Stations. 

Oeaeial SnrT«r 

With the exception of a few points claimed by Spain, 
the Portuguese enclave of Cabinda, and, a strip of terri- 
tory reserved to the Congo Free State on the north side 
of the estuary, the whole of the seaboard from the 
CamerooDB to the Lower Congo has fallen to the share 
of France in the recent partition of the continent. This 
seaboard has a coast-line of about 900 miles, and with it, 
of course, go the backlands, as far as they can be de- 
fined in a region much of which has never yet been 
visited by a single white explorer. The frontiers ■ 
towards the German Cameroons have been defined at 
pp. 3, 4. A convenient boundary towards the Free 
State is formed by the Bio C'ampo to its mouth in the 
Congo, and thence by the Congo itself to Manjanga, 
below Stanley Pool From this point an irregular con- 

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ventional tine, running mainly west to the Atlantic 
below the mouth of the Kuilu, separates French Equa- 
torial Africa from the Free State and Cabinda. 

The whole territory thus delimited may have an area 
of about 220,000 square miles, with a population vari- 
ously estimated at from two to five millions. But most 
of it is so little known that M. Cholet, Colonial Adminis- 
trator of the French Congo, was the first to survey the 
course of the Sanga in the summer of 1890, although 
that afiiuent of the main stream lies considerably nearer 
the coast than the UbangL 

As indicated by such names as Lopo Gronzalvez (Cape 
Lopez) and FemSo Vaz, the seaboard was first risited by 
the Portuguese, who had already penetrated south of the 
equator in the year 1470, and had even formed per- 
manent settlements in tlie Gaboon and at other points in 
the sixteenth century. But no attempt appears to have 
been made to open up the interior till towards the 
middle of the present century. The occupation of s 
station by the French on the north side of the Gaboon 
estuary in 1842 forms the starting-point of the sys- 
tematic exploration of West Equatorial Africa, which 
thenceforth proceeded at a rapid rate without beii^ yet 

The northern districts between the Rio del Campo 
and the Gaboon estuary have been chiefly surveyed by 
Iradier and other Spanish travellers, who have crossed 
the country in various directions, penetrating at some 
points over 100 miles inland. The most conspicuous 
names associated with geographical research in the 
Gaboon, Ogoway, and Kuilu tmsins, are those of Du 
ChaiUu, Walker, Serval, Aymte, De Compile, Marche, 
Oscar Lenz, both Be Brazzas, Bouvier, and Ballay. After 
the French Government surveys of the £omo and Bambo^ 

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coaat-streams, the Gaboon was twice visited by Paul Da 
Chaillu (in 1856 and 1865), and hia accounts of the 
gorilla, largest of anthropoid apee, and of the Obongo 
dwarfs, at first received with incredulity, have been fully 
confirmed by the researches of later travellers. 

The main results of all these explorations were highly 
disappointing to the French, who had supposed first that 
the Gaboon and then that the Ogoway must be the out- 
lets of great water highways, by which they would 
obtain easy access to the heart of the continent But 
the Gaboon was soon found to be merely a broad tidal 
estuary receiving a few short afSuents irom the coast 
ranges. The Ogoway also, notwithstanding its large 
delta, proved to be navigable only as far as the same 
ranges, where it became obstructed by numerous falls, 
and beyond which it dwindled to an insignificant stream 
flowing from the low water-parting towards the Congo 
basin. This water-parting was crossed in 1878 by 
Lieutenant Savorgnan de Bra^za, who thus came upon 
the Alima and several other rivers flowing south to the 
Congo. It was by following the course of the Alinia, 
two years later, that he reached the right bank of the 
Congo, and made a treaty with one of the " makokos " or 
riverain chiefs, in virtue of which France afterwards 
encceaafully asserted her claim to the whole region from 
the Gaboon to the lower course of the great artery. 
Within this region lies the Kuilu (Kwilu) basin, which, 
though much smaller than that of the C^oway, was found 
t« afford greater facilities for penetrating beyond the 
coast ranges into the interior. Hence the attention of 
the Trench has now been diverted both from the Gaboon 
and the C^way to the Xuilu, which has the further 
advantage of lying at a greater distance from the equator, 
and much nearer to the Congo and to the district through 

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which must run the future railway from the coast to 
Stanley Pool above the cataracts. 

FhyBical FeatnxAs irt Fnnch Equatoriftl Africa 

A little below the equator the South African coast- 
line projects farthest seaward at the island of Cape Lopez 
(properly Lopo Gonzalvez), which almost forms part of 
the mainland, at the north-western extremity of the 
C^way delta. In fact the headland itself is the crea- 
tion of the Ogoway, whose alluvial deposits have here 
encroached considerably beyond the true coast-line. 
Farther inland the low-lying coastlands soon begin to 
rise in a series of e^^carpments to the great central table- 
land, which as it approaches the northern section of the 
continent, here falh to a mean altitude of probably not 
more than 3000 feet. The escarpments themselves, 
which, seen from below, assume the aspect of long, 
parallel ridges, with a uniform trend from noith to south, 
nowhere rise to great altitudes. 

In the extreme north the system appears to culminate 
in the conspicuous peak of Mount Batta (5000 feet ?), 
east of which the parallel Side Sierras (" Seven Ranges ") 
converge towards the south in the Serra do Cristal, or 
" Crystal Mountains," of the early Portuguese writers.' 
This range, with peaks from 4000 to 4500 feet, reaches 
southwards to the right bank of the Ogoway at the 
equator, beyond which the coast hills gradually fall to a 
height of little over 1000 feet in the Euilu basin. Even 
the Igumbi Xdele peak, highest point in the hills about 
the southern branch of the Ogoway delta, falls far below 

t Serra is the Portuguese form of ths Spanish Sierra, a B>r, applied 
originally to jagRed mountain crests, such m those of tho F^reuses, and 
aTterwards to moantain ranges ginenll;. 

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4000 feet, and here the whole system has an average 
elevation of less than 3000 feet. 

In the outer escarpments the prevailing formations 
are chalk and Jurassic (oolitic) strata, in some places 
underlying old eruptive rocks. But notwithstanding the 
reports of " burning mountains," the " fetish " hills and 
rocks of the natives, there do not appear to be any recent 
volcanic cones or ciatera in this region. The calcareous 
rocks are succeeded in the central ranges by gneiss and 
quartz, beyond which the plateau assumes the aspect of 
a perfectly level sandy plain. 

The seaboard, although broken by several conspicuous 
headlands, such as Capes St. John and Lopez, is absolutely 
destitute of any islands, except the Elobey islets in 
Corisco Bay, and even these rocks are evidently mere 
(ragmenta detached in comparatively recent times from 
the mainland. 

BiTen: Oaboon, Ogoway, Kuiln, Ohiloango 

West Equatorial Africa falls within tlie zone of 
perpetual rains, which give rise to the three considerable 
fluvial systems of the Gaboon, Ogoway, and Kuilu, be- 
sides feeding several coast-streams, such as the Eio del 
Campo (Etembwe), San Benito (Eyo), Angra (" Danger "), 
Muni, Sette Camma, and Kyanga, which reach the sea 
in independent channels. 

The Gaboon — that is, the Portuguese Gab5o,or "Cabin" 
— presents a curious resemblance to the Gironde, and 
although, like it, obstructed by a bar, is nevertheless one 
of the finest havens on the West African seaboard. It 
lies just north of the equator, and is accessible to the 
largest vesseb through four well-marked channels from 
twenty-five to thirty-two feet deep at low water. Its 

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two chief affluents, the Komo and Kembo^, with their 
tributaries the Maga and hogv/i, are also navigable for 
some distance by river craft; but the estuary iteeU 
penetrates not more than forty miles inland, to the foot 
of the first escarpments. 

Although no longer ranking with the great con- 
tinental arteries, the Ogoway (French spelling, Ogoou^) 
ia still an imposing river, with a course of over 700 
miles, a catchment basin of nearly 130,000 square miles, 
and an average dischai^e of perhaps 360,000 cubic feet 
per second, rising, according to some authorities, to 
1,000,000, or even 1,750,000, during the floods. It 
may also claim to be not only the largest river on the 
west side of the continent between the Niger-Benne and 
the Congo, but also by far the lai^est strictly equatorial 
stream in the world, for its course, with many windings, 
lies mainly east and west on and about the equator. 
Thus, while the delta terminates at Cape Lopez, just 
below the line, the farthest sources of the main head- 
stream, visited by Be Brazza in 1878, lie a few miles 
north of the same parallel, within 120 milea of the 

In one respect the Ogoway may be described as a 
typical African river, with well-defined characteristic 
upper, middle, and lower coursea Thus, the higher 
reaches, like those of the Nile (Shimiyu), flow at a shght 
incline along the plateau, where, below the Passa con- 
fluence, they are already navigable by boats — at least, in 
the rainy season. Then follows the middle course, where 
the Okanda, as the main head branch is called, becomes 
entangled in the intricacies of the escarpments of the 
plateau, and consequently develops a long line of almost 
continuous falls and rapids, again comparable to the 
numerous cataracts of the Kile valley between Lake 

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L);.I....J by Google 


Victoria and Upper Egypt. Lastly, on escaping from 
the rarines and goiges of the outer ridges of the plateau, 
the Ogoway, again like the Nile, resumes its placid course 
through the low-lying eoastlands to its vast delta below 
the equator. 

Even here the parallelism is continued, for if the 
Egyptian stream has its FayyAm depression and Birket 
el-Qarfln, the Lake Moeris of the Ancients, the Lower 
Ogoway has also its Zonenghway (Jonanga) lagoon or 
reservoir, a lateral depression over 200 square miles in 
extent, which receives the overflow from the main 
branch during the periodical floods. Lake Moeris had 
its islands, temples, labyrinth, and other works of man, 
as became that mar\'ellous artificial basin ; Lake Zonengh- 
way in the same way has its natural insular eminences, 
one of which, the abode of a potent " medicine-man," is 
regarded as a holy island by the surrounding Ivili, Galoa, 
Ba-Kalai, and other tribes. Tliese natives are far below 
the state of culture already reached by the subjects of 
Amenemhat III,; but they also hold in equal reverence 
the great eiiva, or inland sea, which receives and controls 
the excess of annual flood-waters, and thus preserves 
from destruction tlie villages and plantations maintained 
in the delta by the fertilising stream. 

Without rivalling the size and grandeur of the middle 
Zambesi or Somerset Nile cataracts, some of the Ogoway 
falls, such as those of Dume, where the stream turns 
abruptly to the west, and those of Bowe below the con- 
fluence of the Ivindo from the north, are of a verj' wild 
and romantic character. At several places the stream is 
obstructed by the so-called " fetish stones " ; that is, rocky 
barriers almost impassable at low water, and dangerous 
during the floods. One of these, specially known as 
" Fetish Point," at the confluence of the Ngunie, indicates 

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the place where, till recently, all white travellers were 
stopped by the natives and prevented from ascending 
higher up. From Nazareth Bay, where the main branch 
of the delta reaches the coast, the lower course of the 
Ogoway is navigable by steam-launches drawing four 
feet for nearly 200 miles, and the Ngunie, the largest 
tributary from the south, is accessible to small craft for 
sixty miles, as far as the Samba Falls, one of the most 
dreaded fetish stones in the whole Ogoway basiiL 

Including Cape Lopez island, the whole delta covers 
an extent of nearly 2000 square miles. It is intei-sected 
in all directions by numerous backwaters and ehifting 
channels, and by the three navigable branches at Nazareth 
Bay, Cape Lopez, and Fern^ Yaz in the extreme south. 
The Nkorai It^oon, spreading southwards, may be re- 
garded as an extension of the delta in this direction, 
being in fact a backwater of the Wango or upper course 
of the Femao Vaz. But the Eembo Obenga (" Eiver 
Obenga "), which it receives at its southern extremity, is 
not a branch of the delta, as is generally supposed, but 
an independent coast-stream rising on the south slope of 
the Ashaukalo bills which separate its basin from Lake 
Zonenghway. The Nkomi lagoon communicates directly 
with the sea through the Femfio Vaz. 

Beyond the Ogoway follow the Sette Camma estuary, 
the Nyanga, which rises on the seaward slope of the 
Ashango hills (2420 feet), and the Kuilu, whose farthest 
sources lie within sixty miles of the Congo north of 
Stanley Pool. The Niadi (Niari), as its upper course is 
called, makes two great bends, first to the south, then to 
the north, thus describing a figure (0 along the hue of 
least resistance through the schistose escarpments barring 
its passage seawards. It has a total length of 370 miles, 
and after piercing the bills througli a series of tremend- 

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ODs goi^es, where the chancel coQtracts at Bome points to 
little over twenty feet, it becomes navigable for forty 
miles to ita mouth at Budolstadt, juBt below Loaoga 
The £uiln gives access to a diatrict in the interior, which 
ia reported to possess rich copper and lead mines ; but 
in other respects its economic value appears to have been 
singularly overrated by French writers. 

Midway between the Kuilu and tlie Congo occurs the 
little Chiloango coast-stream, which was chosen by the 
CoDventiou of 1885 as the frontier line between Portu- 
guese Cabinda and the Free State, and higher up between 
the Free State and French Congo. 

Olinuite of the Weat Equatorial Seaboard 

As shown by De Bort'e chart indicating the distri- 
bution of cloudiness and moisture throughout the con- 
tinent, French Equatorial Africa lies entirely within the 
zone of greatest rainfall, which on the west side extends 
from beyond the Niger delta to the Congo estuary. 
Nevertheless, within this zone itself there is a steady 
diminution of moisture as we proceed from north to 
south. Thus, the annual precipitation falls from over 
120 inches above the Gaboon estuarj- to 98 or 100 
about the C^way delta. Beyond this region the 
decrease is even more rapid, but also less uniform, vary- 
ing greatly from year to year, and falling from over 60 
to under 20 in exceptional seasons about the lower 
Kuilu district. As the moisture-bearing clouds follow 
the course of the sun between the tropics, there are here 
necessarily two rainy seasons, which have their i-espective 
maximums about December and May. The latter is the 
season of the great rains, which coincides with the 
highest floods in the (^oway and other fluvial basins. 

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The temperatnte, which is considerably influenced by 
the cool marine current setting steadily from the Ant- 
arctic waters along the west seaboard, is, however, sub- 
ject to even greater oscillations than the rainfall Even 
at the equator it ranges from over 90" F. to about 60°, 
and below Loango from nearly 100° F. to under 60°. 
Here the average in the hottest months (March and 
April) is not more than 85°, and about 78° in the com- 
paratively cool month of August. 

Thanks to its sandy bed, the Ogoway is more healthy 
than the marshy Gaboon estuary. But fever may be 
said to be endemic on the whole seaboard, and even the 
slopes of the escarpments are affected by the malarious 
exhalations borne inland ft-om the swampy, low-lying 
coastlands by the daily sea breezes, which here alternate 
regularly with the land winds prevailing during the 
night. But the cool, untainted atmospheric currents are 
themselves to be dreaded, for they necessarily give rise 
to dangerous chills, as they do in all regions where the 
heat and moisture are abnormally high. This is the 
I'cason why throughout the greater part of intertropical 
Africa little immunity is afforded from sickness either 
by altitude or by apparently salubrious plains and 
uplands. They are hot and moist, and imder these 
conditions even slight exertion is apt to occasion sudden 
chills, by far the most fatal of all African plagues. 
Miasma is of course the direct and sole cause of much 
illness ; hut draughts, because less heeded and even 
courted, are far more murderous to Europeans obliged to 
undergo physical labour in tropical Africa. Hence no 
astonishment need be felt at the statement, for instance, 
that " a comparison of the sick lists of the difierent 
[missionary] stations revealed after a time the surprising 
fact that the breezy hill stations were far more fever- 

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stricken than the low-lying riverside ones where miasmic 
inflnences might be supposed to abound 1 " ' This is said 
in reference to the Congo region; but it is true every- 
where throughout tropical, and to some extent even 
temperate, lands. Even in England, with a climate free 
from all extremes, how often is heard the remark, " Oh ! 
he caught a chill and was gone in no time ! " Apart, 
therefore, {rom marsh fevers, the climate of Equatorial 
Africa differs mainly rather in degree than in kind from 
that of other regions. But between tropical and tem- 
perate lands this difference must always be exceedingly 
great, owing to the higher normal temperature of the 
torrid zone. 

riora and Faims 

H. H. Johnston's physical map of the west coast of 
Africa ^ shows a botanic zone, like the rainfall, diminish- 
ing in density from the forest regions of the Gaboon and 
Ogoway southwards to the sandy wastes beyond the 
Cunene river. Dense woodlands reaching almost con- 
tinuously to the Kuilu basin are followed by savannahs, 
interspersed with oil-palms, whose southern limit coin- 
cides nearly with the course of the Cuanza. Beyond this 
latitude {about 10" S.) treeless savannahs merge gradu- 
ally, through tracts of scanty vegetation, in the deserts 
of Ovampo and Damara lands. 

But this broad generalisation is not entirely applicable 
to French Equatorial Africa, where, despite the copious 
rainfall, extensive treeless tracts, due to the sandy nature 
of the soil, occur especially in the Ogoway basin. The 
whole of the Gaboon, however, is essentially a forest 

' Mrs, E. Grattan Gtimnesa, The ,V«w World of Centnd Africa, Lon- 
don, 1890, p. IDS. 

' The River Congo, London, 1884, p. 13. 

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zone, where the huge dracsenaa overtop the more valuable 

ebonies (both green and black), oil and wine palnis, dye- 

woods, sucli as the red varwood, camwood (Baphia 

nUida), caoutchouc ■ yielding lianas, ground - nuts, and 

other economic plants. lartliei- south the Ogoway 

forests abound in the dika ("Gaboon Chocolate"), whose 

large, green fruit supplies the staple food of several 

tribes. " From the Gaboon it has been reckoned tlint of 

sandalwood and 

ebony 40,000 

tons are yearly 

exported under 

French, English, 

and American 

flags." ' 

So vast and op- 
pressi^'e are these 
equatorial wood- 
lands, ■' always 
green, always wet, 
always fireproof," 

HEAD OP K 00E1U.A. ^^^^ ^ ^ '^'^ thcV 

are not favom'able 
to the development of the higher forms of animal life. 
" For months," writes a traveller quoted by Moloney, 
" I have trodden its labyrinths, and seen only a diminu- 
tive deer, a grey monkey, and a few serpents." Never- 
theless the Gaboon is the true home of the gorilla, as 
well as of more than one species of chimpanzee. The 
term gorilla, applied by its discoverer, Du Chaillu, to the 
rijina of the natives, was originally used by the Cartha- 
ginian navigator, Hanno, in reference to certain liairj' 

■ Alfred Molouey, Sketch o/Hu ForeUryof Wtat A/rita, London, 1887, 

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women seen by him during hie exploration of the West 
African seaboard. This largest and most ferocious of 
anthropoid apes appears to be restricted to a compara- 
tively narrow range, extending along the seaboard from 
Loango northwards to the San Benito river. Even this 
rai^ has been contracted since Du Chaillu's time, the 
gorilla having withdrawn from Cape Lopez inland, and 
from several forest tracts where he was met by the early 

Of the chimpanzee at least two species occur in the 
west equatorial region, Trofflodt/tes calvus and the Kulu. 
the latter being described as the most human in appear- 
ance of all the quadrumana. 

The roar of the lion is never heard in the gloomy 
equatorial forests, while the panther, like the crocodile, 
i-arely attacks man. The hippopotamus abounds in most 
rivers, and even in the shallow marine estuaries, as about 
the Bisagos islands on the coast of Senegambia. But 
the elephant, said by some authorities to be a distinct 
species, is disappearing from all the coastlands. Rodents, 
however, are numerous, and include two remarkable 
squirrels — the kendo, smallest member of this family, 
and the mboko, called Sciurus ebot'ivonts from its habit 
of gnawing ivorj'. 

Some of the birds peculiar to this region are noted 
for their gorgeous plumage, such as the Suimanga magni- 
Jicus, a species of thnish with feathers of metallic sheen, 
and the Chrysococcyx emaragdincus, all aglow with gold 
and emerald hues, as indicated by the name. Most of 
the snakes are more or less venomous, and several species 
of ants are of a peculiarly ferocious character, though 
less dreaded than the ji^er, which, since its introduc- 
tion from America, is spreading all over the West African 

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There can be no doubt that the Mjiongwes, Ashaiigos, 
Bakelai, lahogos, and other coast and riverain tril»es in 
the Gaboon and Ogoway basins, as well as the Cabindas 
of the Lower Congo, are of Bantu speech, while here, as 

elsewhere, presenting all shades of transition from the 
Xegro to the Haniitic type. Even the Fans, the Pahouins 
of French writers, who, like the Ibeas of the Camen»ons, 
are recent intniders from the interior, are said to Speak a 
somewhat differentiated Bantu idiom,* although their 

1 Wlndwood ReaJe {Afrkan Sl-cM-booi:. i. 108) says : " It ii like 
llpongive (ft pare Bsntu idiom cut in half) ; for iniCaDce, tijina (gorilla) 
in Mpongire u n;'t in Fan." The collective iialional name Fan, "Man,' 
appear* to be the aame irord oa Banlii, and tlia plural it formsd in tlio 
nansl Bantu way by the prcfiiin; Ba-Fan, i.e. "Hen." Kevertbelesa, 
Osr&r Leuz, who has published the most comprehensJTe treatise on thu 

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scarcely Negroid physique is one of the puzzles of African 

But their tribal relations have been greatly obscured 
throughout West Equatorial Africa by two distinct tides 
of migration that have been converging on this r^on 
for generations, possibly for ages. One, represented 
formerly by the Bakalai, at present by the Fans, has 
been setting from the interior of the continent towards 
the seaboard; the other, represented chiefly by the Ivili 
and kindred Ba-Vili of the Lower Ogoway and its 
Ngunie affluent, have been creeping up the Congo estuary 
towards the equator. The result of these conflicting 
currents has been a general dislocation of the aboriginal 
tribal groups, such as the Mpongwes of the Gaboon, and 
Mbengaa of the Muni basin, which have either been 
driven continually seawards, or broken into detached 
I'ragmentary groups, or else absorbed or extirpated by the 
intruding peoples. 

But although, under such conditions, no systematic 
classification is possible, all these heterogeneous popula- 
tions may still be grouped under three main divisions, 
comprising (a) the indigenous or settled Bantu tribes ; 
(J) the intruding Fans and others from the interior 
and south coast; (c) the Oboi^o and other dwarfish 

Of the indigenous Bantus — that is, those that were 
found already settled in the country at the arrival of the 
whites — the most important are the 

Mpangra About ths QsbooD Mtnir]'. 

ethnology of the Gaboon -Ogow&y region (Skinen aut IVat j^/ribo, 
Berlin, 187S), descHbea tlie Fan language aa "antirelf ditTereaC from that 
of the other Negro tribti," p. 35. More infonnalion is needed berore a 
definite opinion can be formed. 

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Bipnlc* . . . North from Corinco Bay. 

Olekuiii . laUnd from the Mbengs territory 

G»Un« . . . Just above Ogoway delta. 

. . / Lover Ogoway from the Galloas to the Nguoia 

*^ ' ' \ cooflnence, 

Okaada -| 

JiliniboDgo y Left bank Middle Ogoiray, about the Cataracts. 

A[iiDjl J 

ijliaDgol About the Ngunie afBnent. 

Oshebo, AdllDla,^ 

Onka, Airanihi, I Upper Ogoway and thence to the Congo water- 

Mbamba, Ba-j parting. 

Ngwe ! 

Ajuma . About Lake Azingo. 

Apfum, Ba-Teke Alima baiin to right bonk Congo. 

Ba-Lombo {Ba-VJli) Lower Nyanga river and Banya Lagoon. 
Ba-Yaka . . Inland from the Ba-Lambo. 
Ua-Yombe, Ba-'J 

- EuilD basJD and Cabinda territory. 


{Between the Lower Eniln and tbe Congo 

Of all these settled Bantu peoples, the best known 
and at one time the most powerful are the vainglorious 
and somewhat eccentric Mpongwes, whose name must be 
familiar to all readers of missionary reports. They have 
long been in contact with both the Protestant and 
Catholic missionaries, and many round about the stations 
claim to be Christians. Their typical Bantu language, 
of which they are very proud, is widespread amongst the 
Ajnmas and many other surrounding tribes, and has been 
reduced to writing by their religious teachers. But the 
Kpongwes, who clwracteristically call themselves " Ayogo " 
or the "Wise," are mostly indolent ne'er-do-wells, who 
have acquired a taste for drink and other European vices, 
hence they are of little " economic value," and have to be 
replaced on the plantations by coolies imported from the 
Upper Guinea coast Formerly they occupied a far more 

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e>:tensive territory than their present narrow domain about 
the Gaboon estuary, but, like the Mbengas of Corisco Bay 
and many other coast tribes, they have been gradiiallydriven 
seawards by the continual pressure of the peoples attracted 
to the ocean by the reports of white men arriving in winged 
boats full of rum, firearms, salt, and other good things. 

Some of these tribes, such as the Ea-Nf^e of the 
Ogoway basin, are so fond of salt that they will swallow 
it in handfuls as our children do sugar. Others, like the 
formerly powerful Okandas in the same region, have been 
almost rained by their indulgence in aiugu, as mm and 
all other " fire-waters " are liere called, and in the still 
more injurious liamba {diamba), or Indian hemp, a drug 
now widely consumed throughout the Ogoway and Lower 
Congo regions. 

Beyond the Ogoway-Congo divide the most powerful 
nation are the warlike but little-known Apfuru; they 
appear to occupy most of the Upper Alima basin, coming 
in contact lower down with the Ba-Teke, one of the chief 
populations of the Congo above Stanley Pool. The 
Ba-Lumbo or Ba-Vili of the coastlands south from the 
Ogoway delta are not a distinct tribe, but rather a 
miscellaneous group of refugees, runaway slaves and 
others from the Gaboon and Lower Congo factories. 
They are gradually moulding these diverse elements into 
a fresh nationaUty, which, however, is adopting the 
usages of their Ba-Yaka neighbours in the interior, and, 
like the " citizens " of Hayti, i-everting to the savage state. 

The only people in this region who have acquired any 
degree of culture are the Ea-Fyots,' who are the Cabindas 
' The origiu of this word Fi/ot, Tiilgariud to Fijort b; isome EoglUh 
Cockne^p vrriten, hu been much d[sca9sed ; bnt it seems most probablj 
to bo a corrHptiou of ynfioli, a Negro or black man, fioni arnfioli, " black." 
See Rev. W. H. Biotiey't Dictionary and Qrammar a/ the Kongo LatlfVagt, 
London, 1SS7. 

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L)";,„„.j by Google 


of the Portogiieee, and who are the dominant race along 
the coast from Kuilu to the Congo estuary. The 
Ba-Fyots, who may be regarded as a northern branch 
of the Congo nation, may almost claim to possess a 
history, for their territory was formerly included in the 
empire of the great Mfumu, a sovereign of Congo-land, the 
first of the Bantu potentates who accepted Christianity. 
After the Congo realm was shattered by the invasion 
of the Yakka savages, the Kakongo, Lorengo, and other 
provinces lying north of the estuary, became independent 
kingdoms under the former Muenes, governors or vassals 
of the Mfumu. 

In these kingdoms, which again became subdivided 
into smaller petty states, the ruling race has everywhere 
been the Cabinda, which still retains traces of the Boman 
Catholic religion professed for some generations by the 
Mfumu, whose capital, San Salvador, was the seat of a 
bishop. But in course of time Christian and heathen 
practices and beliefs became strangely intermingled, and 
the Nzambi, or chief deity of the Ba-Fyots, is now 
confounded with the Xi^n, or with the universal mother 
earth. The worship of Christian saints and pagan fetishes 
was even associated with human sacrifices and witch- 
burning, practices which su^^■ived down to quite recent 
times.* In other respects the Ba-Fyots are at present 
an industrious and intelligent people, shrewd traders, 
skilful boat-builders, and the best native craftsmen on 
the west coast. 

The Ba-Ealai and Fans 

Of the intruding peoples by far the most powerful are 
the A-Kellai, or Ba-Kalai, mainly from the south-east, 
□ sight of the EuropMU fmctorUi it 

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and the Fans fi-om the east and north - east. The 
Ba-Ealai, whose westward migrations preceded those of 
the Fans, have themselves been hard pressed and driven 
forward by that warlike nation. They are now chiefly 
confined to the left bank of the Ogoway abont the 
cataracts and the lower course of the Ngunie affluent, 
where they number considerably over 100,000 souls. 
Formerly skilled hunters, copper and iron workers, they 
have been compelled in their new homes to rely mainly 
on trade, and the Ba-Kalai are now the chief brokers and 
middlemen between the factories and the inland producers. 
Their language, a pure Bantu dialect, has thus become 
the principal medium of intercourse throughout the 
Ogoway basin. The Ba-Kalai are the Mpangwes of the 
settled tribes. 

The Fans, who appear to have been first heard of by 
Bowditch, in 1819/ were still scarcely known in the 
Gaboon when the French established themselves there in 
1842. Now they not only occupy the head of the 
Gaboon estuary and nearly all the left bank of the 
Middle Ogoway, but have even formed settlements at 
some points on the coast south of the Ciaboon. Within 
the surveyed limits of the Gaboon-Ogoway region there 
cannot be less than 300,000 of these energetic and 
a^^ressive warriors, whose onward march to the seaboard 
nothing seems able to arrest. Captain Burton, Windwood 
Keade, Oscar Lenz, and all other observers, describe them 
aa a race quite distinct from the Negro, well-built, tall, 
and slim, with a light brown complexion, often inclining 
to yellow, well -developed beard, and very prominent 

' Thu tnTeller, who klUet tbein to the FnlahiorWest Sudan, oils 
them Pumvayi, >Dd the Dame hu uramed niny other forniB, sach as 
P«hnin, P>-Mue, Hpangwe, Pkpwe, Fanwe, etc. Tbeniss atrottgnual, 
■ml might b« repre««Dt«d by the Spuiiih &, thna : Fin ; Ba-F*h. 

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frontal bone standing out in a semicircular protuberance 
above the superciliary arches, Morally also they diifer 
altogether from the Kegro, being remarkably intelligeat, 
trustworthy, truthful, and of a serious temperament, 
seldom laughing or indulging in the wild orgies of the 

Yet many ethnolc^ta ally them to the Zandehs 
(Niam-Niams) of the Welle- Nile watersheds, whom they 
certainly resemble in many of their usages and especially 
in their taste for human flesh. Since their arrival on 
■ the coastlands, this taste has been considerably restrained, 
and the practice is now in most places either restricted 
to the chiefs or else reserved as a religious rite for solemn 
occasions. But when they first emerged from the interior 
no such limitations existed, and at that time the Fans 
were as decided anthropopht^ists as the Zandehs or 
Schweinfurth's Monbuttus. They did not eat members 
of their own class, but they bartered the dead among 
themselves, and even disinterred them to be devoured.' 

Tlie Oamiibal Zone 

Such pronounced cannibalism might be expected of a 
people who come from what may be called the " cannibal 
zone" in a pre-eminent sense. Anthropophagy was 
doubtless diffused in former ages all over Central and 
South Africa; but in recent times it has been mainly 
confined to the region stretching west and east from the 
Gulf of Guinea to the western headstreams of the White 
Nile, and from a little below the equator northwards in 
the direction of Adamawa, Dar-Banda, and Dar-FertiL 
Wherever explorers liave penetrated into this least-known 
region of the continent, they have found tlie practice fully 
' StaH ofA/rUa, ii. p. 18. 

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eatablisheti, not merely as a religious rite or a privilege 
reserved for chiefs, but as a recognised social institutioii. 

When Stanley first entered this zone during his 
memorable voyage down the Lualaba-Congo, his flotilla 
was attacked at many points for the avowed purpose of 
procuring a fresh supply of human food. This article of 
diet is here openly sold in the market-place ; prisoners 
of war are killed and cured for future consumption, and 
lierds of human cattle are " presen-ed and fatted for the 
labia" So deeply rooted is the custom, that the victims 
themselves take it as a matter of course, and bide their 
time cheerfully, like those youths and maidens decked 
with wreaths of flowers and bright feathers who went 
jubilant to the shambles of the Mexican teocallL A 
woman recently rescued gainst her will by a missionary 
in the North Congo region, returned of her own accord 
next day to the pen where her associates were all waiting 
patiently to he killed and eaten. Similar testimony is 
given by Herbert Ward, who states that during his 
residence in the Free State savage acts of cannibalism 
were constantly brought under his notice.' 

P^ Angouard, another missionary, who is now 
endeavouring to found a station in the TJbangi valley, 
tells us that the people dwelling on the banks of that 
river, which flows through a great part of the " cannibal 
zone." eat human flesh because they prefer it to any 
other. " Nearly every day some slave is cut up and 
cooked for a village festival, the banquets being organ- 
ised on the least pretext, sometimes even because a head 
or member of the tribe has had some good tidings. It is 
impossible to dissuade these people from their flesh- 
devouring proclivities." 

This was in the year 1890, so that the practice still 

' Mve ytari Kith the Congo CannibaU, 1S90, p. 133. 

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flourishes with unabated vigour, despite the denials of 
certain sentimental sympathisers with the lower races. 
A&iea is not to be regenerated by concealing the truth, 
but by a frank statement of all the facts. 

Tlie Tjgmj BacM 

When Du Chaillu first reported the existence of a 
pygmy people in the west equatorial forests his account 
was received with incredulity, and even with derision. 
A wider knowledge of the continent has revealed the 
presence not only of these pygmies (A-Bongo, 0-Bongo ; 
A-£oa, 0-Koa) in the Ogoway basin, but of very much 
smaller pygmies in many other parts of Central Africa. 
Du Chaillu's Obongos vary in height from four feet six 
inches to abont five feet ; but the Wambutti met by 
Stanley in the Aruwimi forests were only four feet four 
inches, Schweinfurth'a Akkas four feet six ; the Batwa 
seen by Pogge and Wissmann south of the Congo four 
feet four, while those measured by Emin Pasha " never 
exceeded four feet one inch" (Jephson, p. 372). Most 
have the normal Negro features,^ some to an exa^erated 
degree, although the colour is generally described as 
inclining rather to various shades of brown and red, 
chocolate, caf4 au lait, burnt brick, etc., than to black. 

Gathering up the threads of these independent 
accounts, which come from almost every part of the inter- 
tropical forest-lands, anthropologists have already come 
to the general conclusion that all the pygmy peoples 
belong to the same primitive stock, mostly broken into 

' Bot Dr. L. Wolf noticed that the B«tw» in the B>-Knb4 conotr^, 
Kasaai basin, "were all well shaped, had nniforra dark, coffee-brown 
colour, and not apparently any pitheeoid signs whatever. Prognathism 
and alio ateaiopygy were not developed more than with other AMean 
tribes" (Ftoc. R. Oto. Soc. 1887, p. 646). 

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fragments, but in some places still surviving in con- 
tinuous communities spread over the central forests of 
the plateau. They are found generally in contact, and 
often on friendly terms with the tall N^ro and Xegroid 
mces, whom they probably preceded as the true 
autochthones of the equatorial regions. Thus the O- 
Koas, a timid, feeble folk, lurking in the recesses of the 
forests about the head-waters of the Kgunie, ate treated 
with much kindness by the Ashango people of th»t 
district. They form small family rather tlian tribal 
communities, hunting the pj-thon with little darts, but 
living mostly on roots and berries, and dwelling in frail, 
leafy huts which escape observation amid the surrounding 
undergrowth. Next to nothing is known of their 
language, which is presumably distinct from the Bantu, 
except where the latter may have been adopted, as 
Malay idioms have been adopted by many Negrito tribes 
in the Malay Peninsula and Philippine Islands. The 
O-Bongos are also in some places gradually conforming 
to the customs of their Bantu neighbours, with whoia, 
however, no alliances are ever contracted. 

Stations of Frattdi Equatorial AfHca — Trade — FroBpecta 

I/ihreville, founded on the north side of the estuary 
soon after the occupation of the Gaboon, still remains 
the centre of French power in West Equatorial Africa. 
It takes its name, like Liberia on the Guinea coast, from 
the emancipated or rescued slaves settled here about 
1850. But it has developed scarcely any trade, and 
its chief importance is derived from the lai^ Roman 
Catholic Mission established here for evangelising and 
training the natives in various industrial arts. The 
rival American Mission of Baraka lies in the outskirts 

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close to Glass, where are the English and other fore^ 
factories, which nearly monopolise the trade of the Gaboon. 
Thus Libreville continues to be a burden on the French 
Treasury, its revenue from import dues and other sources 
scarcely covering a fourth of the expenditure. 

In the Ogoway and Alima basins there are no 
strictly European settlements, but only a few stations 
founded at the most favourable points for the future 
development of the coiintry. Such are Zawbar^Ti^, also 
with a Catholic Mission and some factories, on the 
Wango midway between Lake Zonenghway and Fetish 
Point ; Nj'ole, above Fetish Point and just below the 
first cataracts, a garrison station and future capital of 
the Ogoway territory ; Franceville, above the cataracts in 
the valley of tlie Passa aftlneut, whence the route leads 
across the water-parting down to the Alima and along 
that navigable stream to the Congo ; lastly Brazzaville, 
on the French side of Stanley Fool. 

On the coast between the Ogoway delta and Cabinda 
France has secured possession of the historic seaport of 
Loango, which had been claimed by Portugal as heir to 
the Emperor of Congo. Formerly capital of a province 
of that realm, and afterwards of the independent 
kingdom of Loango, when it had a population of 15,000 
Loango is still an important place as the natural outlet 
for the whole trade of the Kuilu basin. The roadstead 
is sheltered by the westerly trend of the shore-line, and 
on the protected beach, where vessels can safely load 
and unload, several English, French, and other European 
factories have been established. Loango was the 
starting-point of Gussfeld's expedition of 1873, and of 
wveral other subsequent journeys to the interior. In 
the neighbourhood are the burial-places of the old kings 
of Loango, guarded by potent fetishes. 

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frauca has now been in poesesaion of West 
Equatorial Afnca. for nearly sixty years, but the country 
is still in a backward state. In 1893 all the exchanges 
fell short of £400,000, and the shipping was little over 
95,000 tons. Nearly all the trade is with England and 
Germany, less than £50,000 representing the combined 
importe from and exports to the mother-country, which 
has to meet an annual expenditure of about £212,000, 
with an income of under £60,000 from all sources. 
Yet there is neither postal nor telegraph service, while 
scarcely 400 native children are receiving any kind of 
edncation in the eight schools for boys and two for girls. 
There are nowhere any roads beyond the native tracks, 
and the country is still mostly covered with dense forest, 
while the exports are mainly limited to the natural 
produce, such as ivory, ebony, caoutchouc, and palm oil, 
though some experiments have been made with coffee, 
cotton, tobacco, sugar and vanilla growing. The white 
population is limited to about 300, dispersed amongst 
the twenty-eight stations, mostly in the Ogoway basin. 
But none of these are settlers, the Gaboon -Ogoway 
being absolutely unsuited for European colonisation. 
The prospects of the colony are not br^ht, and as at 
present administered French Equatorial Africa seems 
incapable of development 

gpuiali FoBsessionH 

The islands of Corisco, Great and Little Elobey, 
together with a considerable tract on the opposite main- 
land, constitute the Spanish claims in this region. The 
territory is nowhere strictly defined, and is rather a 
sphere of infloence than a possession in the ordinary 
sense of the word. It is officially dependent on the 
VOL. n F 

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Government of Fernando Po, but Spaniah authority ia 
unrepresented by a single Custoin-House officer. Even 
the foreign factories, all now concentrated in Little 
Elobey opposite the Muni estuary, trade freely with the 
natives without paying any imposts to Spain. 

Corisco — that is, " Lightning," so named from the 
thunderstorm raging at the time of the Porti^uese 
discovery — is a low island, some six or eight square 
miles in extent, inhabited, like the neighbouring Great 
Elobey, by Mbengas, many of whom have been converted 
by the Protestant and Catholic missionaries long settled 
amongst them. 

Fortoffaese Possessions — Oablnda 

At the time of the foundation of the Congo Free 
State, Portugal made repeated attempts to secure per- 
manent possession of both banks of the Congo estuary, 
which would have had the result of depriving the Free 
State of all direct communication with the sea. Fortun- 
ately the Portuguese pretensions were not rect^nised by 
the other Powers, and a compromise was efTected by the 
Convention of 1885, by which the north side of the 
estuary was secured to the Free State, Portugal retaining 
possession of the little enclave of Cabinda wedged in 
between the Free State and French Congo. 

This territory comprises the two circumscriptions of 
Landana in the north and Cabinda in the south, so 
named from their respective chief towns. Landama., a 
little below the mouth of the Chiloaugo, is, perhaps, the 
pleasantest place of residence on the whole West African 
seaboard. Its port, like those of Loango and Cabinda, 
is protected by one of those numerous headlands, all 
projecting westwards, which are characteristic of this 

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aesboard. To the Catholic Missions are attached some 
flourishing plantations and orange groves, said to be the 
finest on the west coast But the great drawbacks are 
the miasmatic exhalations from the neighbouring lagoon, 
wbieh has now been planted with the febrifugal eucalyptus 
from Australia. 

Although lying nearly forty miles north of the Congo 
the spacious and well- 
sheltered port of Cabin- 
da has alreadyattracted 
some of the trade of this 
estuary. It seems des- 
tined to becom* the 
chief emporium of this 
region, and cannot fail 
to enter on a period of 
great prosperity when 
the projected railway 
is opened from the 
coast to Stanley Pool 
The chief factory flies 
the British flag, and 

Cabinda is already the nativb of cAanmA. 

centre of the English 

traffic between the Cameroons and Angola. Besides 
the intelligent Ba-Fyots it Is inhabited by a commun- 
ity of Ma-Vambus, who have the reputation of being 
the Jews of Africa. By the Portuguese they are even 
called Jndsos pretos, or " Black Jews," and their arched 
nose and cunning eyes certainly give them a curious 
resemblance to the Semitic type. There is a local Baying 
to the effect that the Ma-Vambus were specially created 
to punish other men by their ruinous competition in 

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For administratiTe purposes the Portuguese enclave 
north of the Congo is attached to the possessions soutb 
of the estuary, fonning a separate province with the 
district bounded on the south by the river Loge. Of this 
province Cabinda is the capital 

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GeucrU Survey : Formatioii of the Free Stets — Progreat of geographical 
reMtvch — BoDnd&riea. eiteat, populktloii — Phyaictl features — The 
Congo basia — The LiHogitons F&lls and Congo eatnary — The Middle 
Oongo and ite affluents — The Upper Congo, it* lakes and tribntarie* — 
I^ke Tanganyika and the Loalaba — Climate of the Congo basin — 
Hon and fauna — Inhabitants and natiTs Statsa — Qarenganze, 
Eatanga— Landa, the Unata Yamvo's kingdom— Ths U-Bna State— 
Manjnema and the Arabs of tha Lnalaba— The Ba-Lolo, Ba-Ngala, 
and Ba-Yansi nations — The Ba-Luba and Tn-3hilange tsnitarfes — 
The Ya-Cbibokire and Ewango Ba-Ngalas— Table of the Congo tribes 
and nations — Bantu and Negro contrasted — Mission of the Congo Fres 
State — Hallway projects — Trade and fres-trade area—Administration. 

Oeneral Bmrey — Formatioii of the Free State 

The cre&tion of the Googo Free State will in future ages 
probably be regarded aa one of the most memorable 
events in the social history of the human race. It is of 
too recent occmrence for the present generation to grasp 
its iiill significance; nevertheless even casual observers 
cannot ftiil to perceive that it ranks with the emancipa- 
tion of the plantation slaves by the British Government 
B8 one of the two philanthropic measures which reflect 
most credit on the civilisation of the nineteenth century. 
The Emancipation Act directly affected the African 
peculations transported beyond the seas. The formation 

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of the Free State, inapired rather by humanitarian than 
political motiTee, is intended to affect the African popula- 
tions in their native land. The former measure has not 
realised all the hopes of its generous promoters; the 
latter enterprise may also possibly be doomed to partial 
failure. But even so both will always stand out as the 
noblest efforts ever made to improve the moral and 
material well-being of the least advanced section of 

Soon after Stanley sailed down the Lualaba and found 
it the Congo, a " Comity d'£tudes du Haut Congo " was 
formed, under the auspices of Leopold II., King of the 
Belgians, for the purpose of studying the physical 
conditions, material resources, and ethnical relations of 
the vast repon thus suddenly revealed to the outer 
world. In 1879 Stanley himself was commissioned to 
proceed again to the scene of his great exploit, and in- 
quire on the spot into the best means of introducing 
orderly trade and European culture amongst the savi^ 
populations dwelling on the banks of the great artery, 
" I am charged," he wrote at the time, " to open and keep 
open, if possible, all such districts and countries as I 
may explore for the benefit of the commercial world. 
The mission is supported by a philanthropic society, 
which numbers noble-minded men of several nations. 
It is not a religious society, but my instructions are 
entirely of that spirit. No violence must be used, and 
wherever rejected, the mission must withdraw to seek 
another field. . . , I have fifteen Europeans and a 
couple of hundred natives with me." 

Here, therefore, was a new departure in the history of 
European enterprise — an attempt to conquer by peaceful 
means, and for peaceful aims ; to conquer also at least 
as much in the interest of the vanquished as of the 

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controlling power. A bloodless victory of prodigious 
magnitade was the outcome of this mission, which lasted 
altc^ther five jeftrs (1879-84), and which involved avast 
amount of hard pioneering work especially in the r^on of 
the cataracts between the estuary and Stanley FooL It was 
at Vivi, the base station at the foot of the last falls, that 
Stanley earned the title of Buta Matadi, or " Stone- 
Breaker," from the natives amazed at the eneigy with 
which he overcame all phyeical difficulties in the pre- 
liminary work of Toad-making, required to keep open the 
OMmnunications between the stAtions successively founded 
above Vivi at Isangila, Manyanga, and LeopoldviUe at 
Stanley Pool on the plateau itself. 

The hardest task was thus successfully accomplished 
towards the close of 1881, and Leopoldville, terminus of 
the portages along the escarpments of the plateau, at 
once became the starting-point of the fluvial nav^tion 
for hundreds of miles along the main stream from Stanley 
Pool to Stanley Falls, and for thousands of miles along 
the countless affluents ramifying in all directions through- 
out the Congo-Lualaba catchment basin. 

A steamer, well named the En Avant, was now 
launched for the first time on these inland waters ; an 
event soon followed by the foundation of Ireah stations 
at Mswata, chief Gobila's village, and a little higher up, 
at Kwamouth, the converging point of the great Kassai 
affluent, with its endless cortege of navigable secondary 
tributaries. Ascending the Kwa the pioneers, taking a 
wrong turning, missed the Kassai, but through the Mfini 
reached Uie considerable lacustrine basin now known as 
lake Leopold IL After a brief visit to Europe to report 
progress, Stanley returned at the end of 1882 with 
increased powers to treat with the native chiefs, and 
acquire the lands and privileges necessary for the 

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coDSolidatioa and further development of the work 
already done. 

Continuing its onward march, though with ever- 
increasing difficulties, the miaaion now ascended the great 
horseshoe bend of the main stream, founding stations 
at Wangata, on the equator, henceforth known as 
Equatorville, and at Stanley Falls, above the equator, at 
the eastern side of the bend, and at the head of the 
navigation of the Middle Congo. 

The preliminary work of the Mission and of the 
" Comity d'^tudes " was now done ; it remained for 
international diplomacy to accomplish the rest. Stanley 
returned to Europe in 1884, leaving his charge in the 
hands of Colonel Sir Fr&ncis de Winton, while the 
Comit^ became merged in the "African International 
Association." This body, still sustained exclusively by 
the private puree of the Xing of the Belgians, but now 
armed with 450 treaties made with various AMcan chiefs, 
appealed to the civilised world for pubUc recognition. 
England stood aloof ; the energies of France and Portugal 
were chiefly displayed in the endeavour to seize vantage 
points in a region to the development of which they had 
contributed nothing. But the United States came 
forward and first recognised the " Congo Free State," which 
was at last formally constituted a sovereign power under 
international guarantees by the Congress of Berlin in the 
year 1885, The monarchial form of Government was 
adopted, Leopold II. being chosen its first king, with the 
Belgian capital as the seat of the administration. But in 
1889 Leopold bequeathed to Belgium aU his sovereign 
rights, and in 1890 the whole territory was declared 
inahenahle, the right being reserved to Belgium of 
annexing the Free State after a period of ten yeais. 

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FrogTMS of OsognipbiCAl Exploration 
The expIoratiOD of the Congo basin was now actively 
continaed, chiefly by the European officials in the service 
of the State, but also by individual enterprise, and by 
tbe missionaries, who have not been slow to occupy a 
new field offering unlimited scope for their Apostolic 
laboois. Even before Stanley's withdrawal from the 
scene. Lieutenant WissmaDD and Dr. Pogge were already 
at wco-k on behalf of the German African Association 
among the southern Congo afBuents. Before the end of 
1880 they had made their way from Loauda across 
Portuguese territory to Kikassa on the Eassai, and thence 
next year across the Lulua and through the Tii-Shilaogc 
territory to Lake Munkamba, reported to be " a vast sea," 
bat now shown to be a small tarn scarcely three miles 
long. The expedition then pushed on to the Lubl and 
Lnbilash, headstreams of the Sankuru, and after crossing 
the Lomami, then considered a branch of the same great 
Congo affluent, it crossed Cameron's route of 1874, 
reaching Nyangwe on the Lualaba in 1882. Here the 
explorers parted company, Dr. Pogge returning westwards 
and Wissmann continuing the journey across Lake 
Tanganyika to Saadani, on the Indian Ocean. 

la 1884 Wissmann entered the service of the Congo 
International Association, and, in company with Dr. 
Wolf and Lieutenant Miiller, resumed the survey of the 
Eassai waters, which had also, meantime, been visited by 
Buchner and Schiitt After founding the important 
station of Luluabei^, on the Lulua, some miles above its 
confluence with the Eassai, the flotilla formed at this 
station descended the Lulua, and, after encountering some 
rapids near its mouth, entered the Eassai and followed its 
whole course without further obstruction down to the 

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Sankuru confluence on the right and the Kuango on the 
left, and bo on past the Mfini confluence to Xwamouth, 
in July 1885. Next to Stanley's descent of the 
Luolaba-Oongo this was the most important expedition 
in the Congo baein, for it determined the true character of 
the vast Kasaoi hydr<^raphic system, and showed that the 
Kwa, a sort of inland Humber, was not so much a river 
in the ordinary sense as a broad, deep channel through 
which a multitude of streams — Kwango, Kassai, Lulua, 
Lubilash, Sankuru, Lomami, with all their head-waters — 
convei^d on the left bank of the Congo above Stanley PooL 

This great fluvial system, ramifying in every direction 
on the south side, is, so to say, balanced on the north by 
the Ubangi (Mobangi), which was first ascended to the 
Falls by the Itev. Mr. Grenfell in 1885-6, and again in 
1888 by Lieutenant van Gele Dr. W, Junker, advanc- 
ing from the White Nile regions, had, in 1883, already 
followed the course of the Welle-Makua to the station of 
Abdallah (22° 65' E., 4° N.), within sixty miles of the 
farthest point afterwards reached by Tan Gele on the 
Ubangi. Thus was solved the last great hydrc^raphic 
problem in Africa ; for it now became evident that the 
Welle, supposed by its discoverer, Schweinfurth (1870), 
to drain through the Shari to the Chad basin, was, on the 
contrary, the upper course of the Ubangi, lai^est afSuent 
of the Congo on its right bank. The connection was soon 
after completed by Van Gele, who steamed up the Ubangi 
to Abdallah's in 1800, and afterwards penetrated up the 
Mbomu, Mbili, and other aflluents of the Welle-Makua. 
Treaties have already been made with the native chiefs 
and stations of the Free State founded in the Welle basin 
itself, most of which was a terra incognita before Junker's 
explorations of 1876-83. 

Junker had penetrated in the year 1882 through the 

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Ntatn-Kiam country southwardB to the Nepoko, the 
month of which river was passed by Stanley daring bis 
ascent of the Aruwiuu in 1887. Its lower course has 
not yet been surveyed ; bnt there is no longer any doubt 
that it flows through the Aruwiml to the Congo. The 
Aruwimi itself was found by Stanley to rise on the 
plateau, near the west side of Lake Alberi; Kyanza, which 
belongs to the Nile system. The true position and lintits of 
the Congo-Nile water-parting are thus finally settled, and 
within little more than a decade of Stanley's expedition 
down the Congo the extent, outlines, and more salient 
features of the whole basin had already been determined. 

Boandwies, Extent, and Population of tb« Free State 

But at the time of the Berlin Congress many of these 
discoveries had yet to be made, and, despite Stanley's 
preliminary surveys, much of the Congo region still 
remained to be explored Hence the frontiers of the 
new State coidd only be roughly indicated, in many 
places by little-known water-partings or unsurveyed 
river-courses, or the pretended boundaries of conterminous 
European claims, or else by purely arbitrary conventional 
lines traced along the meridians and parallels of latitude. 

The principle that the Free State should coincide with 
■ the fluvial basin itself, so as to correspond with the 
natural physical divisions, was found to be impracticable ; 
for the basin had already been encroached upon at various 
points by rival European Powers. But in working out 
the details this principle was kept in view, and adopted 
wherever possible. The result is that for all practical 
purposes the Congo State and the Congo basin are one. 
Thus the Congo-Zambesi divide has been chosen as the 
Bonthem boundary, while on the east side the line follows 

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the western shore of Lake Tanganyika, which is ahaost 
an inland basin, draining only intermittently to the, Congo. 
In the sonth-east the British sphere of influence en- 
croaches by appropriating Lake Bangweolo and the east 
side of Lake Moero both in the Luapula, or Upper Congo 
valley. On the other hand, in the north-east the 
conventional line of 30° K longitude crosses Lake Albert 
Edward at the Semliki river — that is, takes in a comer 
of the Albertine branch of the Nile, which should be 
included in the sphere of influence of British East Africa. 
By the Franco-Belgium Agreement of August 1894 the 
frontier towards French Congo coincides with the valley 
of the Ubangi up to its confluence with the Mhomii, 
and then follows the course of the Mbomu to its source 
at the Congo - Nile water - parting, which forms the 
boundary as far as its intersection with 30° R longitude. 
A seaward outlet along the right bank of the Congo 
estuary was secured to the Free State by the Convention 
of February 1885 between Portugal and the AMcan 
International Congress, and in March 1894 the fixintier 
towards Portuguese West Africa was finally settled by 
the acceptance of the line proposed by the Eev, George 
Grenfell, delegate of the Free State. Here the boundary 
partly coincides with the Ewango south to the Tungila 
confluence, from which point it runs eastwards mainly 
along 8° S. latitude to the Luita tributary of the Kassai, 
then north by east pai-tly along the Loangwe valley to 7° 
S. latitude, and thence mainly along thiB parall^ east- 
wards to the Ghikapa river a Uttle above its junction 
with the Kassai. From this point the line turns abruptly 
south along the Chikapa valley to 7° 1 7' S., which parallel 
is followed east to the KassaL As thus constituted the 
Congo Free State has an area roughly estimated at 900,000 
square miles, with a population of about 14,000,000. 

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Fbyitcal Featnrw — The Owgo Buin 

When Diego Cano (Diogo Cam) reached the Congo 
estuaiy in the year 1482/ struck by its immen- 
aity and ignorant of any local appellation, he called 
it the Foderoso, or " Mighty." Then hia Porti^ese suc- 
cessors learnt from the natives that they also designated 
it by the corresponding word Nzadi, or " Great Biver." * 
Bnt this word, which still lingers on some European maps 
under the cormpt form of Zaire, gradually gave place to 
the term Congo, from the name of the once powerful 
empire through which it flowed, and this designation has 
be(» finally accepted in geographical nomenclature, despite 
Stanley's attempt to substitute that of Livingstone in 

In superficial extent the basin of the " Poderoso " 
{about 1,600,000 square miles) ranks next to that of the 
Amazons (1,800,000 square miles), while two at least of 
its affluents, the Ubangi on the right and the Kassai on the 
left bank, drain areas very much larger than the whole 
of the British Isles (170,000 and over 200,000 square 
miles respectively). Others, such aa the Aruwimi, Loika, 
and Alima on the north, the Boloko, Lopori, and Juapa 
on the south side, vie in length and volume with the 
Blune, the Loire, and other great rivers of West Europe. 
The farthest headstreams rise thousands of miles away 
to the south-east, where the somxies of the Chambezi are 
separated only by a narrow ri<^ from the affluents of 

' Not 1434 aa hitherto luppoasd. The two pillars erected by the 
Darigator to oommamorata thU ezpeditioa were brought to Liabos in 
1892, when an inacriptiou was diaoovered od one of them ahovring that 
the ooart had b»eD traced all the way to Bengnela in 1482, two yeara 
larlier than the date Danallj asaigned. 

' Hence Ntadi a Jfioi^mis " The great salt river," the sea. 

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Lukes Nyasaa and Hikwa, within 450 miles of the Indian ' 
Ocean, and where those of the Lualaba rise at the foot of 
Mount Kaomba, Arnot's " Border Gra^," close to the maiii 
source of the ZambesL On the other hand the Mouyango, 
southernmost tributary of the Kaasai, has its source in the 
Chibokwe country, close to the north-western feeders of 
the Zambesi, and within 350 miles of the Atlantic 

over a great part of the continent, and are met hy 
travellers crossing from ocean to ocean along the whole 
extent of the great central plateau, within its eastern 
and western escarpments. 

In its general outlines the section of the plateau lying 
within the Congo basin presents the aspect of a somewhat 
depressed alluvial plain witli a decided tilt towards tlie 
Atlantic, and rising round the periphery to heights of 
from about 3000 to 6000 feet, but nowhere traversed by 
continuous lofty ranges. The Katanga copper -country 

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towards the south-east is described by Mr. Amot as dis- 
tinctly " mountaiDous " ; the same traveller crossed the 
Bih4 eBcarpments 100 miles &om the Atlantic at aii 
altitude of 6000 feet. The Eifumaji Flat, where some of 
the Zambesi and Congo head-waters are intermingled about 
I^ke Dilolo, stands 4000 feet above the aea ; Lake Bang- 
weolo, in the extreme south-east, is nearly as high (3700 
feet) ; the passes leading from the north to the sources 
of the MakuB in the extreme north-east were foand by 
Junker to be 4000 to 5000 feet, and the whole region 
may be said to culminate a little farther south in the 
snowy Buwenzori group, 17,000 to 20,000 (?) feet high. 
But no such elevations occur anywhere within the 
periphery, where no part of the whole r^on is crossed 
bf any distinct mountain i-ange. The fall is continuous, 
and for the most part gradual, from the surrounding 
Congo-Zambesi, Congo-Nile, Congo-Shari, Congo-Ogoway 
water-partings down to the central artery, which, after 
making a tremendous horse-shoe bend to about 2° 30' 
north latitude, discharges the whole drainage of a well- 
watered catchment basin nearly 1,600,000 square miles 
in extent, 1400 miles long, and 1200 broad, through a 
sin^e estuary some six d^rees below the equator. 

The ZAvingBtaai Pklls and Congo EstnarT 

In fact this great Central Atrican depression wa» 
probably at one time the bed of a vast inland sea, which 
may have included the Chad basin itself, but which is 
now represented in the Lower Congo r^ons only by 
Stanley Pool, a sheet of water less than 100 square 
miles in extent, hut over 200 feet deep. Here were 
collected all the equatorial waters, which, owing to the 
excess of rainfall over evaporation, gradually surged up 



against the coast ranges, which barred their passage sea- 
wards. At last the summits were reached, and theu the 
overflow of the lacustrine basin was discharged towards 
the Atlantic through a series of tremendous cataracts, 
which have slowly eaten away the escarpments down to 
the levels of what are now collectively called the 
Livingstone Falls. Thus, like the Niagara and so many 

that have not yet 

completed their life history, the Congo still rushes with fury 
down to its placid estuary, descending between Stanley 
Tool and the Yellala, or lowest fells, a total height of 
nearly 900 feet through as many as thirty-two distinct 
rapids, in a distance of somewhat less than- 170 miles. 
This region of the lower cataracts, formerly the great barrier 
to the seaward -course of the Congo waters, is at present 
the great barrier to the inland flow of European trade and 
culture. As it must take ages before Stanley Pool can 
be cut down to the level of the estuaiy, even by a dis- 

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charge estimated according to the seaaons at from 
1,300,000 to nearly 2,000,000 cubic feet per second, it 
ia clear that a railway from the coast to Stanley Pool, or 

some other point above the falls, is a primary' condition 
for the development of the Congo Free State. 

The estuary itself, which is 120 miles long, with an 
r average breajh of five or six miles, and a depth in some 
places of over 200 feet, looks like a delta iu course of 
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formation. While rivers are eating their way dowo to sea- 
level, all their energies are devoted to the work of erosion : 
bat this once accomplished, as in the Lower Zambesi and 
Lower Nile, their current becomes sluggish and they 
begin to deposit sedimentary matter, which in the Congo 
estuary is estimated at over eleven billion cubic feet a 
year. This would suffice, if centred in one spot, to create 
an island 1000 feet high and half a Bgnare mile in 
extent. But, being spread over a wide space and arrested 
by the tidal current, it accumulates now in one place, 
now in another. Shifting sandbanks are thus created, 
shoals and aubfluvial banks are developed, through which 
the stream has again to cut its way, as on the north side 
of the Congo estuary, where a channel already twenty 
feet deep at low water branches off to the right, and after 
ramifying round several flat deltaic islands reaches the 
coast at Banana (French Point) over against Shark Point 
(Cape St. Antonio) at the southern entrance of the estuary. 
Similar formations are being developed in the Kissanga 
district on the south side, and the time is perhaps not 
distant when a true Congo delta will be created rivalling 
in extent those of the Niger, Nile, and Mississippi. 

The Uiddle Congo and its Affluents 

Above the narrows there is a clear waterway of nearly 
1000 miles, stretching without interruption from Stanley 
Pool round the great horseshoe bend to Stanley Falls on 
the equator. Throughout this section, constituting a well- 
defined middle course, the Congo Sows in a majestic 
island-studded current, in some places broadening out to 
a width of eight or even ten miles, along the lowest part 
of the old lacustrine bed at a mean eIe'\'ation of aboat 

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1200 feet aboye the sea.' Tho station of Kwaraouth, 
about ninety miles above the pool, indicates tlie point 
where the main stream is joined on the left bank by the 
Kwa, which collects in a single channel the drainage of 
a region fully as large as France. This channel, through 
which the Kassai with its vast ramification of secondary 

affluents reaches the main stream, is scarcely a third of a 
mile wide at the narrows where it pierces the rocky ridge 
formerly separating it from the Congo, and even at the 
confluence it is less than half a mile wide, but it has 
a depth of at least 130 feet, and a velocity of four 
miles an hour. 

1 Juat below StanUy Falls, Stsolej {Tkroagh the Dark Contitte^) gives 
the height of the river *t 1511 feet, while Grcnfell estiniBtea that of 
Stanley Pool at 800, others at 916 hct, leaving an average or about 1200 
foi the whole courw between these two jxiints. 

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At about 5° south latitude the Kassai is joined on its 
right bank by its largest tributaxj, the Sankuru (Sankulu), 
whose iarthest south-eastern headstream, the Lomami, 
is no less than 750 miles long. The Lomami, whose 
source was discovered byLeMarinel (1891), in 8° 45' S., 
24° 55' E., is not to be confounded with the eastern 
Lotnami, Grenfell's Boloko, which joins the Congo in an 
independent channel much fartiier east some miles below 
Stanley Foils. The Boloko was ascended towards the end 
of 1889 by Mr. Janssen, Governor-General of the Free 
State, to the head of the navigation about the latitude of 
ISjaagwe, and it was thus shown that this great trade 
centre could be reached much more easily by the Lomami 
than by the main stream, which is obstructed by numer- 
ous rapids beyond those of Stanley Falls. 

The Kassai, central artery of the great southern 
hydrc^raphic system, flows first nearly 200 miles due 
east to the northern mai^n of the Eifumaji (Chifumachi) 
Flat, which Cameron had heard of as a great lake, but 
which Amot found to he " an immense sandy plain, flooded 
to the depth of two or three feet during the rainy seasons; 
but the water speedily drains away and leaves a dry arid 
plain in winter." ' The lowest depression in this plain is 
flooded by the permanent Lake Dilolo, where some of the 
Congo (Kassai) and Zambesi head-waters are intermingled 
during the rains, as are those of the Amazons and Orinoco 
in the Cassiquiare channeL 

At the Kifiunaji Flat the Kassai bends abi-uptly 
northwards, and mainly follows this direction for the rest 
of it8 course to the Kwa. Below the Wissmann Falls at the 
head of the steam navigation it receives the copious Lulua 
above the Sankuru, and at the Kwa Confluence the Mfini, 
through which Lake Leopold II. sends its overflow to the 
' Proettdings o/Ai Soyai Otographical Society, Januai; ISSB. 

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Congo. A little above the same coaflueoce the Kassai is 
joined from the south-west by the Kwango, largest of the 
tributaries on its left bank. But the Kwango, flowiog 
Dorthwards aloDg the eastern or inner foot of the escarp- 
menta, is so obstructed by falls and rapids, that it is iar 
more useful as the political frontier of the Free State and 
Portuguese West Africa, than as a highway of commumca- 
tion with the interior. NerertheleBS its lower course is 
navigable for nearly 200 miles trom its mouth to the firet 
rapids at Eingunji. From its source to the confluence, a 
distance of over 600 miles, there is a total descent of 
over 4000 feet, and at the Caparanga (Louisa) Falls 
there is a clear drop of 163 feet. 

A few miles below the equator, the Middle Congo is 
joined by its great affluent from the extreme north-east, 
the Ubangi, whose farthest headwaters are now known to 
rise on the southern watershed of the Congo-Nile divida ' 
From this point (Mounts Chippendall, Speke, Junker, and 
Schweinfurth, within a short distance of Wadelai, aa the 
White Nile), it flows as the Welle Kibali or Kibbi, or 
simply Welle, that is, " fiiver " in a pre-eminent sense, 
first north and then neariy due west, and lower down 
takes the name of Makua, receiving the Werre, Eengo or 
Mbomu, and other lai^ affluents, nearly all on its right 
hank, from the Dar-Fertit and Krej watershed of the 
divide towards the Nile and Chad basins. On the south 

> Even in good ^ographieg there it much canfbaion in the use of lach 
tcnni u leater-parting, divide, and vjaUrshed. It may therefore be well to 
eipUin that Tster-pirting and dirtde ara ijnonynioai, msaning the ridge 
or rieiog groand, howereT low, which aeparatea the aourcea of atreama 
flowing to two or more dilTereiit baiitis ; bat a n-atenhed is « slope ; heDce 
one diTide maet have two, and maj' have more watershede, one for each 
buiii, of which it forma the parting-liae. Thui Mr. Arnot'a "Bonier 
Ctaig," taken at a whole, a a divide or watei-parting with three watersheds 
or alopes, from which atreama flow north-west to the Lulna-Easad baab, 
north to the Laalaba, and aonth-west to the Zambesi respective);. 

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Bide its largest feeder is the Bomokandi, which appears 
to rise a few miles south-west of Mount Schweinfurth, 
and after a westerly course of over 300 niiles reaches 
the left bonk of the Welle, some distance above the 
Werre coDfluence. Farther on, according as it traverses 
different Niam-Kiam and other populations, the Welle 
takes other names, such aa the Koyu and the Dua, 
the latter prevailing both above and below the dangerous 
Zongo rapids, where its westerly course is arrested by 
a group of hills 600 to 800 feet high. Here the Dua 
trends abruptly south for the rest of its course to 
the Congo, which it enters as the Ubangi or Mobangl, 
through a broad island-studded channel, which has often 
been mistaken for that of the main stream itself. 

This Ubangi-Welle affluent, draining a region larger 
than the United Kingdom, must prove of vast importance 
for the future development of Central Africa. Its 
navigation is certainly obstructed by the Zongo Falls 
(which, however, have already been surmounted by Van 
Gele), and again by the Eibali Falls on its upper course. 
But between these two points and throughout its lower 
reaches it is everywhere navigable for hundreds of miles 
by river steamers of considerable si^e. At the Zongo 
rapids, which can be easily turned by portages, the stream 
is 640 yards wide and 25 feet deep, with a current of 
nearly two miles an hour, and a volume of 75,000 cubic 
feet per second, or about two-thirds of all the other Congo 
tributaries below the Aruwiml Even at low water in 
February it is never less than 600 yards wide, and with 
its numerous tributaries cannot have a navigable water- 
way of leaa than 2000 miles. It thus afifords almost 
unbroken water communication from Stanley Pool right 
across the continent to the Nile basin in the east, and to 
the Chad basin through the river Shari in the north. 

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The Ubangi also traveraes one of the finest and most 
densely peopled r^ons in the whole of Africa, a r^on 
of which, despite the prevailing cannibalism, its first 
explorers speak in enthusiastic language. Thus the 
country above the Zongo Falls is described by Captain 
"Van Gele as " beautifiU in the extreme On both sides 
rise gently sloping hills, woods and pasture lands ; fields 
of maize and bananas pass in endless succession. . . . 
Sometimes the banks seem at first sight to be uninhabited, 
because the villages lie about a hundred yards inland; 
but the moment one accosts a parsing canoe the inhabit- 
ants flock down to the water's edge. I never saw such a 
quantity of proviaionB everywhere, not only in one 
particular spot, but during Uie whole voyi^; bananas, 
maize, flour, sorghum, sweet potatoes, yams, beans, sugar- 
cane, sesame, ripe bananas preserved in honey, palm-wioe 
infused with kola nuts, tobacco, sheep, goats, splendid 
fowls, were offered in abundance. To sum up, it is the 
most densely peopled and fertile land I have come across 
in Africa." ' 

Beyond the Ubangi, the Middle Congo receives also on 
its right bank three other lai^e afBuents — the Ngala, or 
Mongalla, surveyed by Baert and Werner as far as the 
Hugwardie Falls and £apids in 1886,* the Loika or 
Itimbui, ascended in 1884 by Grenfell and again by Van 
Gele, as far as the Lubi or Rubi Falls, and the Aruwimi 
(Biyere), traversed nearly from mouth to source by 
Stanley's Emin Pasha Belief Expedition of 1887-89. 
Here is entered the great Central African forest zone 

' Proe. Royal Oeograpkieal Society, 1889, pp. 835, 836. 

' TbU expedition settlad tlie tnie cliarecter of tiie NgaU rirar, «bieh 
by iome bad prerioualy been taken fot a brBbch of tbe Ubangi ; but nhich 
waB BOW ihowD to be an independent etream, apparentlj Mnding aome oC 
its overflow to the Ubangi during the floods.— J. B. Wemer, A Viiil to 
Stanky'i Jtcar-Oaard, 1889, p. ISl. 

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stretching from about the Congo-Kile divide Boutbwarda 
to Manynemalaiid, and &om the AJbertine Nile westwards 
to and beyond the Lomami (Boloko) afiQuent of the Conga 
Dnring his toilsome inarch up the Aruwimi valley, 
Stanley plodded for 160 days " through the forest, bush 
and jungle, without ever having seen a lat of green sward 
of the size of a college chamber floor, Nothing but miles 
and nules, endless miles of forest, in various stages of 
growth and various d^rees of altitude, according to the 
ages of the trees, with varying thickness of undergrowth."' 

The Aruwimi was found to have a course of about 
700 miles, rising as the Ituri on the plateau above the 
weat side of Lake Albert Nyanza, near the sources of the 
Welle ; it flows thence south-west and west parallel with 
that river, and collects through the Lenda from the south, 
the Ihuru, Nepoko and other affluents fixim the north, 
the running waters of a densely-wooded region nearly 
70,000 square mUes in extent. But as a highway of 
communication with the Nile basin it cannot compare 
with the Ubangi-Welle, for it flows mainly through un- 
cleared land, and is obstructed by numerous rapids 
throughout the whole of its middle course. The Nepoko 
also at the confluence develops a picturesque waterfall 
which bars all access to the Upper Welle or to the Nile 
by that aflluent. 

Till quite recently these north-eastern tributaries of 
the Congo were separated by an unexplored tract from 
Junker's itineraries in the Welle-Makua basin. But this 
intervening district was crossed at two diSerent poiuta 
in the summer of 1890 by Captains Bi^t and Becker, 
in the service of the Free State. Bc^t, starting from 
the Loika, made his way northwards to the Makua, at a 
place a little above Abdallah, Junker's westernmost point 

' Darkttl AjTka, i. p. 188. 

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in the direction of the TJbangi (February 1 883). Becker, 
setting out from Yambuya, on the Lower Aruwimi, ad- 
vanced Qorth-westwarda across the Lulu afHuent of that 
river and then across the Loika, which was here found 
to be identical with Junker's Rubi,' and which was joined 
on the right by the Hiketti, Junker's Rikkiti or Likkiti, 
though by him placed too far west, Becker took 200 

uaya wj ui-oss iii« ucuoc iui^sl. 
region, reaching from the Aruwimi to the Makua, whicli 
at the point struck by him had a breadth of nearly a 
mila All the itineraries of explorers penetrating south- 
wards from Egypt were thus at last connected with 
those spreading northwards from the Cape, and it is 
now possible to proceed by known routes across the 
whole length of the continent from the Nile delta to 
Cape Town. 

' The letters r, / an<l d interchsDgo iu the Bantu anil other African 
lenguigei. Hence Grenrell's Lubi Falle were the blU of Juiiker'a river 

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Tbe Upper Congo, its Ltktm aoA TribnUiiw 

Stanley Falls, where tbe Coiij^o begins its middle 
course, are still diataot from 1400 to 1500 miles from 
its farthest headstreams ; the Chambezi, which rises near 
" Stevenson's Road," on the plateau between lakes Tan- 
ganyika and Nyassa, and the Lualaba, which has its 
source on the southern slope of the Lokinga (Mushinga), 
tange at about 13" S. latitude, close to the head- waters 
of the Zambesi Throughout this section the Upper 
Congo drains a vast lacustrine r^on, the true character 
of which has not yet been det«Tinined. The western 
chain of little known lakes, including Easali (1800 
&et above sea-level), Kowambe, Bembe, and others, 
Difty possibly, like Stanley Fool, be surviving fragments 
of the ancient inland sea. But those lying more to the 
eist and south-east— Bangweolo (4000), Moero (2820), 
Mid Tanganyika (2665) — evidently belong to different 
geological systems. 

The Chambezi, whose upper course, the Chazi, rises 
within less than 430 miles of the Indian Ocean, flows 
mainly in a south-westerly direction through a swampy 
district to the east side of Lake Bangweolo or Ecmba,' 
Boathemmost, and next to Tanganyika lai^est of all the 
lacustrine basins draining to the Congo. Its name will 
always be associated with that of Livingstone, who dis- 
covered it in 1868, and who ended his days in 1873 
at Chitambo's station of Ilala on its southern shore. 
Bangweolo, which lies at the northern foot of the 
Lokinga range, is merely a shallow, reedy, and island- 

' Neither of lhe«B names u koown to the nativea, and Mr. Alfred 
Shirpe thinks that LiTingatona's " Hangireolo " is a cormption of Pa- 
nvelo, "at tha lake." South of Tanganjika all lakes are called Mwelo 
»t tlwela, Mworo or Unera {Geo. Jour. 1893. p. 561). 

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studded depression, fiooded to a depth of from fifteen to 
twenty feet by the Chambezi and several smaller streams 
from the surrounding moiass. It appears to change its 
form and size from season to season, Livingstone describ- 
ing it as an oval, with its long axis disposed from east to 
west, whereas Giraud found it in 1886 stretching in the 
opposite direction &om north to south, and sending its 
overflow from the south-west comer through the Luapula 
to the Lualaba. Bangweolo stands at an altitude of 
3800 feet, or about 100 feet higher Uibq Livingstone's 
rough estimate. In 1893 Bangweolo was visited by 
Joseph Thomson, who corrected some of Girand's esti- 
mates, and reduced the area of open wator in the dry 
season to about 1670 square miles, and its altitude to 
3760 feet. 

At the outlet the Luapula is already a copious stream 
600 feet wide and twenty deep ; but it is soon obstructed 
by the dangerous Mombottuta (Mambirima) Falls, beyond 
which point it ilows in a northerly directioQ through 
Lake Moero (Mweru, " white ") to its confluence with the 
Eamorondo (Lualaba), a little above the junction of the 
Lukuga Irom Lake Tanganyika. 

In the section of the Luapula between Baugweolo and 
Moero, a distance altogether of not more than 300 miles, 
there is a total fall of about 700 feet (3800 to 3100). 
But Sharpe (1893) gives Moero an altitude of 3000 feet, 
and a length of 68 miles, with a mean breadth of 24 miles. 
Although smaller, Moero presents more the character of a 
true lake than the Bangweolo depression. It lies on the 
same plateau and stands at about the same level as 
Tanganyika, from which it is distant less than 100 
miles ; it presents an open expanse broken by few 
islands, about 90 miles long and very deep, especially 
towards the north, where the encircling wooded mountains 

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^ve it a Bomewhat Alpine aspect. Its great age is 
betrayed by ita iauna, which includes some remarkable 
es of the Silurian epoch and of amphibious habits. 
After the periodical inundations which here cover vast 
[:es, tbese Siluroids leave the lake to feed on the 
reptiles and other ftnimftlH left dead on the ground after 
the subsidence of the waters. Moero was visited in 
1892 by Mr. Alfred Sharpe, who founded the station of 
Rhodesia at its north-east comer, and again in 1894 by 
the Rev. Mr. Crawfurd, who found that the Luapula 
entered the lake through two mouths, although one only 
is shown on Mr. Sharpe's map.' 

Beyond Moero the Luapula, here known as the Luvwa, 
and by Livingstone called Webb's Kiver, still continues 
its precipitous course down to its junction with the 
Loalaba descending from the south-west Several of 
the bead streams of the Lualaba, such as the Lokoleshe, 
Lnburi, Lufapa, and Lulua, all rising about the Border 
Craig vater-parting, were crossed near their sources, on 
his journey to Garenganze, by Mr. Amot, who found 
them already " large streams over which we had to make 
brictees." Thus a great volume of water is carried down 
by the Lualaba to its confluence with the Luapula, and 
Beichaid, who in 1884 crossed it 120 miles above this 
point, supposed that it was the more copious of the two. 
Bat M. Delcommnne, who explored a great part of this 
lacustrine r^on in 1891'2, found that in the month of 
Aogust the eastern branch had a dischai^ of 1830 
cubic feet per second at its outflow from Lake Moero, 
while the volume of the western branch was not more 
than 890 cubic feet near the confluence. Of the 
numerous lakes lying in its valley the largest appear 
to be Lo-Hamba and Eassali, the latter lying at the 

' Jmit. Oto. Soc, Jqdb 139S, p. Gfil. 

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convetging point of the Lualaba, Lufira Etnd Luburi. 
But the gecgraphical nomenclature of this region is very 
confusing. The Luapula itself often takes the name of 
Lualaba, and J:hese two great headstreama of the Congo 
are by some writers distinguished as the Eastern and 
Western Lualaba. Of the western branch the chief 
tributary is the Luburi or Lubudi (Lububuri), which was 
explored in 1893 by Lieut. Francqui, who thinks that, 
although smaller at the confluence, it must have a much 
longer course than the eastern branch.' 

Lake Tanganyika and the Lualaba 

Below their junction the main stream has in recent 
years received the overflow of Lake Tanganyika through 
it« Lukuga emissary. At the time of its discovery by 
Burton and Speke (1858), this great equatorial lake was 
certainly a land-locked basin without any outflow, the 
evaporation balancing the contributions received from 
the Mnlagarazi, Busizi, Lofu and some smaller affluents. 
Since then its physiography has been carefully studied 
by Livingstone, Stanley, Cameron, and especially by 
Edward C. Hore, who was settled with his family for 
ten years (1878-88) on its banks.^ This observer is of 
opinion that the discharge through the Lukuga is quite 
a recent phenomenon, due to a gradual gain of inflow 
over the evaporation. M. Delcommune, who completed 

' MoiiMment Qiogra^ique, IBBi, No. 8, 

* Hra. Hare hw the distinction of being the first European womui 
viiio penetrated iota Eut Equatorial Africa from the Zanzibar Cout. 
For a graphic account of her journey and residence on the lake Me To 
Lake Tanganyika in a Bath-Chair, hy Aniiie B. Hor«, 18S7. Tangamyikm 
is the Swahili name of this basin, nhich all the nativea call Nyat^a, 
LUinia, MiDtra or Raera, that ia, the " Inke," in the local Bania 
dialects (H. H. Johnaton, "Report for 1S91-93," p. 6}. 

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the survey of the Lukuga in 1892, found that it has a 
total length of 235 miles, with a fall of 1035 feet (2665 
to 1630). At the confluence, where it forms a delta of 
considerable size, it is 187 feet wide and 5 feet deep, 
with a discharge of 50 cubic metres per second in the 
dry season. Neither M. Delcommune nor Capt. S. L. 
Hinde, who explored the lower reaches of the Lukuga in 
1893, saw any trace of the Lake Lanji (XJlenge), which 
is figured on all maps at or near the converging point of 
the Lualaba, Luapiila, and Lukuga. 

Tanganyika, that is, the " mingling of the waters," 
occupies the lowest cavity of a depression in the plateau, 
apparently of volcanic origin, and is 400 miles long with 
an average breadth of 20 miles, and a depth in the 
central parts of from 500 to 2000 feet. It bears a 
curious resemblance in its general outline to the more 
southerly Lake Nyassa, which doubtless belongs to the 
same great volcanic fault stretching north-west and 
south-east between the Buwenzori and Shir^ highlands, 
parallel with another line of igneous eneigy indicated by 
the Comoro group, the north of Madagascar, and the 
Mascarenhas Islands. " Xot only the appearance of the 
depression and the lake lead one to think of volcanic 
action and earthquake movement, still more practical 
and impressive evidence has been forced upon me during 
t«n years of residence, in the frequent recurrence of 
shocks of earthquake, sometimes so severe as to open 
cracks in the ground, as well as in the presence of 
several hot springs and jets of steam and petroleum, 
while still more frequent gloomy rumblings beneath the 
surface (the complaints and warnings of the storm demon 
Kabogo) indicate that the fires below are still active" 

The lake, which stands 2665 feet above sea-level 

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(Popelin), is remarkably free from shoals, reefs, or 
Ulauds, except Eavala's and a few others close iu-shore. 
But it is exposed to sudden squalls and fierce storms, 
especially at the turn of the seasons, and these are 
accompanied by waterspouts, the " St Elmo's fire," and 
other electric disturbances. Tanganyika is a fresh-water 
basin, well stocked with fish, and containing a remark- 
able shell-fish fauna, more than half the molluscs being 
peculiar to the lake, while others resemble the extinct 
marine species of the European cretaceous period. 

The section of the Lualaba from the Lukuga confluence 
to that of the Luama above Nyangwe was first explored 
in 1894 by Captain Hinde, who describes it as a noble 
stream, in some parts from one to two miles wide, 
bduding the islands, and over thirty-five feet deep, but so 
obstructed by the Kyangy Falls and many other rapids 
as to be of little use for navigation.' From the Luama 
confluence, where it is a copious water-way nearly three- 
quarters of a mile wide and from ten to sixteen feet deep, 
the Lualaba flows mainly north through a little known 
forest region to the equator. Here the Stanley Falls, 
a series of seven formidable rapids completely obstruct- 
ing the navigation, mark the t«i'mination of the upper 
and beginning of the middle course of the Congo. 
Above the falls the main stream is joined by several 
large affiuents, such as the Lufubu, Ruika, and Kasuku 
on its left, the Eipembwe, Vrindi, Lulu - Lowwa, and 
Leopold on its right bank. 

Climate of tii« Congo Baaim 

There can be no doubt that the climate of this region 
is very trying to the European constitution, not so much 
' "Three Years' Travel in tlie Congo Free State," in Jirur. Oeo. Soe., 
Hay 1895. 

vou n H 

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from the tropical heat, as from the excessive moisture of 
the atmosphere. This is shown by the fact that English 
travellers and residents, accustomed to the damp toggy 
climate of the British Isles, resist its influences better 
than the Belgian and other European offtcials of the Free 
State, better even than the Nuhian inhabitants of the 
almost rainless Middle Nile valley, who "are not so 
tolerant of moist heat as Englishmen."^ But it would be 
a mistake to suppose that the English or any other 
Europeans can ever hope to found permanent colonies 
except in some fovoured districts about the periphery of 
the Congo basin. Such might possibly be the Tanganyika 
uplands, where " tlie climate on the whole is by no means 
unhealthy. ... I have no doubt that, as a few civilised 
surroundings are secured, and the country and conditions 
of life become better understood, there will be no complaint 
of the climate." ^ Such also- might be the Katanga high- 
lands, which Mr. Amot speaks of as "a healthy part of 
the interior," and where he himself resided for some years 
without any detriment to his physical or mental euet^es. 
But taken as a whole the great Centi'al African 
depi'cssion must necessarily be debilitating and more or 
less dangerous for all European residents, because of the 
high normal temperature ranging from about 60° to 90° 
F.,^ the sudden transitions from hot days, with the glass 

1 J. T. Willfl, Prac. Royal Geographical Sodtty, 1887, p. 294, 

' E. C. Hore, 16, 188B, p, 5S9. 

' Whurcvcr accurate records liBve been taken we find high toniperaturea 
prevailing all the year munil, both in the ilry &nd net saasoiu. Thus at 
Luebo Station (Lnebo-Lnliia Conflilence, Ksasai banin) the glass never fell 
in 1886 below 83° F. in July, h ihy month, rii.hig in October, r wet month, 
to 105°, the average for both being at '1 f.K. 86° anil 97° reapectivelj 
(Batoman). This means a cliiuato niide up entirely of aUenaiuig «*t 
and dry hot nimmat. Luebo stauds almost in the mathematical centi-e 
of the Congo basin at an altitude or about SODO Tcet It may thererore ha 
taken as ropr<'*enting the normnt climatic conditions in Central Africa. 

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often Btandiog at 100" F. and even 109° (Lower Ubai^), 
to chilly D^hta, when Cameron found the water freezing 
abont the sources of the Kassai ; the absence of distinct 
summer and winter seasons, here replaced by two rainy and 
two dry periods ; lastly, the &ee play of high winds, which 
are often chained with miasmatic vapours walled from 
great distances across the open plateau or along the large 
river valleys, and which, when cool, are apt to give rise 
to chills and ague of a peculiarly treacherous character, 

Stanley, who has had more experience of the climatic 
conditions in the Congo r^oos than any other living 
authority, concludes generally that "from to 5000 feet 
above the sea there is no immunity from fever and ague ; 
that over forty miles of lake water between a camp and 
the other shore are no positive protection ; that s thou- 
sand miles of river course may serve as a flue to convey 
malaria in a concentrated form ; that if there is a thick 
screen of primeval forest, or a grove of plantations between 
the dwelling-place and a large clearing or open country, 
there is only danger of the local malaria around the 
dwelling, which might be rendered harmless by the 
slightest attention to the system. But in the open 
country neither a house nor a tent is sufiicient protec- 
Uon, since the air enters by the doors of the hoiise, and 
under the flaps and through the ventilators, to poison 
the inmates.'" 

But if under these adverse conditions the European 
race cannot be perpetuated in the Congo basin, European 
oflicialB, missionaries, traders and travellers may by due 
precautions greatly reduce the risks to which they are 
exposed by residence in the country. Doubtless the 
death-rate has hitherto been excessively high amongst all 
these classes. But they may be regarded as pioneers who 
' /n Darkat Africa, ii. p. 82. 

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have BufTered for the benefit of their soccessoiB, and the 
history, for instance, of the first expeditions up the Niger 
shows how much may be done to lessen the mortality of 
Europeans obliged to reside for a term of years in Cougo- 
land. Of the forty-nine whites on board the two steamera 
that first ascended the Kiger in 1832 aU but nine perished. 
A steam flotilla despatched in 1841 by a philanthropic 
society lost forty -eight out of 143 whites in a few weeks, 
and the " model farm " founded by the survivors above the 
Benue confluence had been scarcely cleared for tillage 
when " the death of all the Europeans restored the land 
to wild beasts and the jungle." Then followed Baikie's 
famous expedition of 1854 up the Lower Niger and 
Betiue, accompUshed without the loss of a single life, 
thanks to proper attention to diet, sanitary arrangementa, 
and a judicious use of wine and quinine. Some of the 
unfortnuate Congo missionaries were rigid teetotallers, 
forgetting that alcohol is medicine, food, and poison 
according as it is used or abused. 

The Congo basin lies within the track of the south- 
east trades, which set steadily from that quarter except 
where deflected by mountain barriers or attracted by 
fluvial valleys. Thus in the west they assume the 
character of south-westerly monsoons, and in the south, 
follow the northerly course of the streams flowing to the 
left bank of the Congo. They prevail especially in the 
two dry seasons which intervene between the wet season 
from October to the end of December, and the much 
heavier rainy period from February to May. The 
droughts are sometimes protracted with disastrous results, 
especially when intensified by the prairie fires, which rage 
over wide spaces, filling the atmosphere with dense 
volumes of smoke, and destroying vast quantities of 
vegetable growths. 

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Flora and Faona 

The common idea that Central Africa is one vast 
primeval forest has long been exploded. Nevertheless a 
far greater space is covered with continuous and almost 
impenetrable woodlands than might be inferred from 
some hasty generalisations, such as those of Professor 
Dmmmond-' From this point of view the Congo basin 
might be roughly divided into two distinct regions — a 
forest zone, occupying nearly the whole of the north-east 
from about the confluence of the Lualaba and Luapula 
northwards to the Welle-Makua basin, and an open zone 
mainly of savannah and arable lands comprising all the 

Stanley, who crossed the northern section of the 
forest zone during his expedition up the Aruwimi, 
estimates its length north and south at 620 miles, with 
a mean breadth of 517 miles and a total area of 320,000 
square miles, exclusive of many broken stretches of 
timber and the long leafy avenues which fringe botli 
banks of nearly all the rivei-s converging on the main 
stream, as well as those of the main stream itself. 
Characteristic of these, as of the Amazonian forests, are 
the huge lianas or creepers, by which in many places the 
v^etation is matted together in an inextricable tangle. 
" Imagine the whole of France and the Iberian peninsula 
closely packed with trees varying from twenty to 180 
feet high, whose crowns of foliage interlace and prevent 
any view of sky and sun, and each tree from a few 
inches to four feet in diameter. Then from tree to tree 
run cables from two to fifteen inches in diameter, up and 
down in loops and festoons and Ws and badly-formed 
' Tropical AfrUa, 1888. 

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M'8 ; fold them round the tree in great tight coils, until 
they have run up the entire height, like endless ana- 
coudas. Let them Bower and leaf luxuriantly, and mix 
up above with the foliage of the trees to hide the sun ; 
then from the highest branches let fall the ends of the 
cables reaching near to the ground by hundreds, with 
frayed extremities, for these represent the air roots of 
the epiphytes (parasites) ; let slender cords hang do^n 
also in tassels with open thread-work at the ends, work 
others through and through these as confusedly as 
possible, and pendent from branch to branch, and at 
every fork and on every horizontal branch plant cabbage- 
like lichens of the largest Mnd, and orchids and clusters 
of vegetable marvels and a drapery of delicate fronds. 
Now cover tree, branch, twig and creeper with a thick 
moss hke a green fur, and the ground with a thick crop 
of phrynia and amoma . . . until the whole is one 
impervious bush." ' 

In general the water-partings coincide with or deter- 
mine the range of the prevailing species. Thus the oil- 
palm is limited southwards by the Congo-Zambesi divide, 
and westwards by the escarpments of the plateau beyond 
the Ewango basin. In the same way the oil-palm is 
again arrested northwards by the Congo-Nile divide, 
which also appears to be the northern limit of the kola, 
raphia, and pandanas. 

Owing to the great uniformity of soil and climate, 
the same economic plants, such as maize, manioc, millet, 
tobacco, hemp and sugar-cane, are everywhere success- 
fully cultivated. These, with the banana, which yields 
prodigious quantities of wholesome food, form the chief 
agricultural resources of the countiy ; but it is evident 
from the few experiments already made that most 
■ In Darkat A/riea. ii. p. TO. 

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Earopean fruite and vegetables might be raised on the 
plateau and surroundiiig slopes. Junker grew excellent 
radishes in Makarakaland ou the northern slope of the 
Ck)ngo-Nile divide, and the vine and orange as well as 
the coffee shrub run wild in the £assai valley. It is 
noteworthy that most of the economic plants have been 
introduced by Europeans from America, and it has been 
well remarked that their introduction has more than 
compensated " for the evils caused by the sale of firearms 
and spirits. Four centuries ago the Congo tribes Uved 
mainly by hunting wild beasts or man himself, by fishing, 
and at most a rudimentary agriculture, whereas they 
now depend altc^ther on a well-developed system of 
husbandry, enabling them to increase tenfold, without 
exhausting, the fertile soil." ' 

A characteristic feature of the African fauna is the 
vast range especially of the larger quadrupeds and 
amphibia, a fact due to the absence of great mountain 
barriers traversing the continent continuously in any 
direction. Thus the elephant, found ou the banks of 
I^ke Chad in the north and of Lake Ngami in the south, 
also frequents every part of the Cougo basin except the 
st«ppe lands, which are exposed to constantly recurring 
conflagrations, and are consequently almost destitute of 
animal life. The hippopotamus and crocodile, which 
infest the Nile, Zambesi, and Limpopo, also crowd the 
Congo waters to such an extent as almost to obstruct 
the nav^tion in some rivers. Other widely diffused 
animals arc the buffalo, several species of antelope, and 
the chimpanzee, the last-mentioned being limited, like the 
oil-pedm, northwards by the Congo-Nile, southwards by 
the Congo- Zambesi divide The attempts made to 
acclimatise European domestic animals have hitherto 
> Koclua, xii. p. 441. 



failed, and some asses introduced by the English mission- 
aries a few yeara ago all succumbed either to the climate 
or to the tsetse fly. A similar experiment made with 
the Indian tame elephant in the Tanganyika district had 
no better result. 

licichard, who in 1890 explored the Upper Congo 

regions, penetrating 

southwards to Garenganze, discovered on the western 
slope of Tanganyika the anthropoid ape already heard 
of by Stanley under the name of Soko, and seen by 
Livingstone in Manyuemalaiid. Tliis huge ape is 
nearly four feet high, but resembles the chimpanzee 
rather than the gorilla. They form colonies or settle- 
ments in the forests, building habitations in the branches 
of the trees, and are much dreaded by the natives for 
their " evil eye," sure precursor of death. 

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Znhabitaiits ind Hfttive States of the Congo Buin 

From the anthropological etandpoiDt Central Equa- 
torial Africa may be deacribed as a region of physical 
diversity and lingnistic unity. Closely related Bantu 
forms of speech bold almost exclusive possession of the 
land, while the Bantu populations themselves present the 
usual transitions &om the Negro to the Hamitic or other 
higher typea They are commonly designated as Negroid, 
an elastic term applicable to all populations betraying 
essentially Negro features in any modified degree. But 
the Negro element is perhaps less conspicuous in the 
south and east than in the west and north, and in the 
Welle basin both the Negro type and Negro or non- 
Bantu tongues are distinctly dominant. During his 
ascent of the Ubangi, Van Gele noticed that about the 
district of the Zongo Falls the language changed al- 
together, and this may perhaps be taken as the parting- 
line between the Negro and Bantu domains in the 
central equatorial region. Here is also entered the 
already described Cannibal Zone, and the same explorer 
tells us that " the Ba-Ati make constant raids against the 
other tribes, but their only object is rapine and the pro- 
curing of meat. AU that is killed is eaten on the spot ; 
what is captured alive is carried off and eaten as the 
occasion arises. I have met with one of these maraud- 
ing expeditions; it was composed of about fifty canoes 
divided into vanguard and main body, and the meat I 
mention is, it must be avowed, human flesh, for cannibal- 
ism exists on a large scale along the whole river (Ubangi) 
and its tributaries. I have seen houses surrounded by a 
border of skulls for a distance of at least twenty-eight 
yards. During the whole of my voyage I was unable 

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to deliver a single one of these wretched creatures reserved 
for food, and this despite the most liberal oflfera ' It is 
meat,' they always replied, ' and we don't sell it.' " ' 

Higher up. Junker and Schweinfnrth have shown 
that the Welle-Makna valley and the water-partings 
towards the Sbari and Nile basins are all occupied by 
peoples of Ne^ro type and speech, such as the powerful 
Niam-Niam and Monhuttu nations. Lower down, the 
Mon-Tumbi, Moa-Zembo, Ba-Ati and Bangala are all 
Negroid peoples of Bantu speech. 

Farther enst a sort of transition is effected between 
the two domains by the A-Babua and Mabode tribes of 
the Upper Loika and Nepoko rivers, who appear to be 
Berai-Bantua conterminous on the north with the Men- 
buttn and Niam-Niara negroes, on the south with the 
Ba-Bunda, Ba-Buru, and other true Bantua of the 
Aruwimi valley. 

About Lake Tanganyika towards the eastern frontier 

there is a mingling of tribes as well as of waters, these 

minglings being due to many causes, such as voluntary 

or forced migrations, slave -hunting razzias, famines, 

prairie fires, inundations, exogamous or extra-tribal 

marriages. Around the shores of the lake E C. Hore 

enumerates ten distinct tribes "representing all the 

"es of Africa," including the Hamitic 

Vajiji of the east coast, originally from 

itill retaining " the splendid physique and 

I of their forefathers." Farther south the 

,ed Mazitu and Watuta, have gradually 

lake as conquering intruders from the 

lity of the continent But since the 

ivarlike chief, Mirambo, their power has 

d the survivors have now found a home 

Roj/al QtograpKical Soddi/, 1889, p. 328. 

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amongst the Wanyamwezi between Tanganyika and the 
Zanzibar Coast. 

The Wanyamwezi themselves have in recent times sent 
oat colonies to the Katanga country, where they were 
for some years the dominant people, in the district to 
which their late kii^, Mzidi (Muebidi), gave the name of 
Gartngaiae, on old designation of their mother country, 
UnyamwezL Little was known of this State before the 
expedition of Capello and Ivens, and the mission of Mr. 
Amot, who was well received by the king. But Mr. 
Amot's efforts to found stations and strengthen Mzidl's 
hands against the Arab slaveis from Manyuemaland were 
arrested by the action of the Congo Free State, by which 
the inevitable collision between the Europeans and the 
Arabs was precipitated in the Upper Congo region. The 
treaty made by the British South Africa Company had 
extended the British sphere of influence up to Garen- 
ganze, and it was feared that Mzidi also would accept 
the British protectorate, and surrender the rich mineral 
district of Katanga to the English. An expedition was 
accordingly sent in 1S92 gainst Mzidi, which resulted 
in his death and the annexation of the whole region to 
the Free State. Thereupon a number of agents were 
sent up the Congo to survey the Katanga copper mines, 
and to trade directly with the natives. 

The Arabs who were stationed at Riba - Kiba, 
Nyangwe, Kaasongo, and other points on the Upper 
Congo, and who had hitherto acted as the middlemen 
in all commeixnal relations between the natives and the 
whites, took alarm at these proceedings, and with the 
aid of their Manyuema allies cut off or captured all the 

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Belgian troops and traders in the country. The newly- 
founded stations were destroyed, the whites eveiywhere 
driven out, and for a time (1892-3) the whole r^on 
again became the hunting-ground of the Aiah Blavers. 
But their triumph was short-lived. A first repulse at 
Stanley Falls was followed by a series of encounters, in 
which the combined forces of the Free State and Anti- 
Slavery Society successively defeated Sefa, eldest son of 
Tipoo Tib, his cousin Rasbid, and the powerful Arab 
leader Bumaliza ; thus by the spring of 1894 the slave- 
hunters and their " native " allies had everywhere been 
crushed, and order once more established throughout the 
whole of the Upper Congo basin. In 1896 this region 
was constituted an administrative district, including all 
the zone of Riba-Riba, Nyai^we, Eassongo, and Manyue- 
maland, as far east as Lake Tanganyika. Kyangwe bas 
been chosen aa the permanent capital of this vast terri- 
tory, which extends from Stanley Falls south to British 
Central Africa. New stations have also been founded 
at Istangi — formerly an entrenched Arab camp at the 
Congo-Lomami confluence — at AlbertvUle on Lake Tan- 
ganyika, and at other strategical pointa 

The territory over which Mzidi held sway lies mainly 
between the two head branches of the Upper Congo, 
the east and west Lualabas, stretching eastwards to LaJce 
Moero in the north, and nearly to Lake Bangweolo in 
the south, and westwards to the ill-defined fix>ntiers of 
the Muata Tamvo'e kingdom of Lunda. Much of the 
country is distinctly mountainous, dotted over with 
numerous lakes, well watered by the copious head- 
streams of the Lualaba, and possibly healthy enoi^h 
for European settlement. 

Mzidi's capital, Mnkuru, or Unkeya, which was 
destroyed by Captain Stairs' expedition of 1892, lay 

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in the northern part of the kingdom, on an open plain 
watered by the headatreams of the Lufira, and enclosed 
on three sides by lofty mountains. It consisted of several 
villa^ groups clustered round a twin -crested hill,and it was 
here that Mzidi welcomed Mr. Arnot, " sitting in the centre 
of a large court surrounded by his five hundred wives." 

A short distance west of the capital are the famous 
caves of Mount Sombwe, still inhabited by a section of the 
indigenous Samba tribe, who here found such safe retreats 
that Mzidi was never able to extort tribute from them. 
The inside of the caves has the appearance of pumice- 
stone, and one of them (Kalosa) is no less than five miles 
long, with entrances at both ends and running water in 
the interior. 

During their journey across Africa in 1884-5 the 
Fortuguese travellers CapeUo and Ivens crossed the famous 
Eatanga Copper Country, and visited the Kalahi Mine, 
which, however, had been abandoned two years previously 
owing to a subsideuee causing the loss of many Uvea 
The mine is situated in an extensive formation of paleozoic 
schists, which prevail throughout the whole region, and 
are associated with quartz, iron and copper ores, and 
malachite both in mass and in scattered boulders. Coal 
was also discovered, and there was ample evidence that 
the current reports of the vast mineral resources of the 
Katanga country are by no means exaggerated. The 
natives display great skill both in smelting the copper 
ores and working up the metal, which is largely exported 
in the form of ingots, wire, armlets, and other ornaments. 
" Katanga must become an important centre of exploration, 
thanks to ita mines, which, according to native report, 
are very numerous. The copper here produced in various 
forms is circulated throughout the whole region from 
Manyuema and Urua to Genyi and Bih^, and only awaits 

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better ineaDS of transport by I^e Kyaasa and Loanga 
to reach the coast" ' 

Limda, the Unata TamWa Kiagdom 

Adjoining Mzidi's former territory on the west is the 
still larger and at one time far more powerful kingdom 
of Lunda, ruled for many generations by the present 
dynasty of the Muata Yamvo. Lunda, or Ulunda, which 
takes its name &om the widespread Wa-Lunda nation, 
is a hilly region sloping from the Congo-Zambesi divide 
northwards to about 6° S. latitude, and stretching west 
and east between the Kwai^, separating it from Angola, 
and the Lubilash, its somewhat fluctuating limit towards 
the Lualaba valley. But this vast region is now 
politically dismembered, the greater portion being included 
in the Congo Free State, and the rest in the Portuguese 
West African possessions, in accordance with the Agree- 
ment of March 1894, referred to at p. 76. The Muata 
Yamvo had already accepted the suzerainty of the Free 
State in 1890. 

This step had been foreseen aa inevitable, for nothing 
could prevent the disintegration of a state which had 
entered on a period of decline, torn by internal strife 
and wasted by revolted vassals or independent chiefs 
round all the outlying provinces. In recent times no 
one had contributed more to shake the empire to its 
foundations than Kangombe, a powerful chief of Luvale- 
land, on the Congo-Zambesi divide, about the Eifumf^'i 
Flat. This chief annually collected large bands of followers 
to ravine Ulunda, the marauders being attracted irom 
far and wide by the hope of plunder and the promise of 
indemnity to their friends in case they should fall in 
^ CapcUo and Itcds, De Angoid a OoTitra-Cotla, Liaban, 18S6, p. 71. 

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battle. With the aid of guns and ammunition from 
Angola, Kangombe usually returned successfully from 
these incursions, in which whole provinces were laid waste. 
On one occasion Mr. Amot had to follow for days in the 
wake of the retiiming hordes and to wituese " the 
horrors connected with African slave-raiding. Although 
Kangombe had passed along that road six days previously, 
I found that some of his victims, who had been left to 
perish, were still in life ; some were tied to trees with 
bark cords, others were mutilated and partly torn by 
wild animals." ' 

The present Muata Yamvo, fourteenth in descent 
from the founder of the dynasty in the seventeenth 
century, claimed to be the feudal lord of about three 
hundred monas and muenas, that is, vassal chiefs and 
kinglets, who paid tribute in kind — ivory, lion and 
leopard-skins, com, cloth, salt — so long as their suzerain 
was strong enough to enforce it. His territory was about 
100,000 square miles in extent, with a total population 
scarcely exceeding 2,000,000. "The succession goes to 
one of the sons of the two chief wives, chosen by four 
official electors, and confirmed by the Lukoshesha, or 
' Mother of the Kings and Peoples.' The Lukoshesha, 
whose election was made in the same way from the 
daughters of the two chief wives, and ratified by the king, 
was exempt &om his jurisdiction, and above all law, holding 
her own court, ruling over her own territories, and 
enjoyii^ independent tribute." ^ 

I'he Mussamba, or royal residence, which was displaced 
at every succession, but always within the limits of the 
plain stretching between the Luiza and Kalangi tributaries 
of the Lulua, was at Eisimeme, on the left bank of the 

I froe. Soyal Oeographital Society, 18E9, p. 71. 
» SUUaman'i Year Book, 1880, p. 810, 

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Kalangi, at the time of Fore's visit in 1876. Four 
years later Buchner found it had been removed to 
Eawanda, twelve miles farther to the south-west. In 
this distric^t dwelt the first Muata Yamvo, and here la 
the burial-place where the remains ate still preserved of 
all the rulers of Lundaland 

The £a-Lunda' nation, dominant in the empire, 
appear to have come originally from the Lunda country, 
about Lake Moero, formerly governed by the Kazembe. 
Physically they are a tall, well-proportioned Bantu 
people, of fairer complexion and more regular features 
than their western neighbours. They still trade meetly 
in ivory and slaves ; but the land is extremely fertile, 
and well watered by the numerous afituents of the £as8ai, 
and when trade ceases to be a royal monopoly, and more 
settled relations are established with the Free State, it 
will be able to offer much agricultural produce in exchange 
for the textiles, iron and copper ware, which it now 
imports from the surrounding countries. 

' Kft- ii one of the numeroiu cUsi pnfii«8 irhich in Bantn (peech 
iodicstQ tha personal plural. Dialectic variuits are Sa, Wa, Oea, Va, 
Vva, Ua, U, A, 0, Ma, Mu, Ama, Aba, Ethi, 3'u, and others, with cor- 
retponding singular prefixes. Thus from the root n(w=pMB0iu1it7, are 
formed in the organic language the singular Um-ntu and Muntu^a person, 
a man ; and tlie plural aba-iUu, ia-nfu^ persons, people, men ; whence 
the term Bantu adopted by ethnologists as the collective designation of 
all Bantu -speaking peoples. So Hwtshi-Eongo — a Qative of Eongoland ; 
but Eshi-EoDgo^the KoDgo people : Ama-Zulu, Ma-Sorongo, Ha-Yombo, 
0-bongo, Vua-Tna, OTa-Herero, Wa-Nyamwezi, Ba-Suto, Ba-Bolong, etc. 
Eqnally numeroua and coDrosing are the clasa preGiea indicatiug speech, 
including such diTerae forme as £t, KitJii, Di, Lu, So, St, eto. Thus Se- 
Suta = thelauguageorthelta-Suto; Kishi.Eonga = tkatoftheEshi-EonRo; 
Di-Kele = that of the Ba-Kele ; Lu-Wnmbu = that of the Ba-Wumbu ; 
Ei'Snahili = that of the Swihili (Zaniibari), etc. In Kishi-Kongo the 
English language ia called Ki-Ngelezo. But as a rule kiahi corresponds to 
eaki; Htoa, un, or ba; lu to ma, etc 

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Tha TT-Bnk State 

The region stretching north from Garenganze and east 
from Lunda, across the Lualaba lake district (£amolondo), 
and beyond the Luapula in the direction of Lake Tangan- 
yika, is the domain of the powerful but extremely barbar- 
ons Wa-Kua (Mo-L«a) nation. The country, which was 
traversed in its entire length from north to south by 
Cameron on hia journey across the continent in 1874, is 
governed by the Kassongo, one pf the most ruthless 
despots in Africa. His territory is divided into provinces, 
either under hereditary chiefs or governors appointed for 
four years, and then either promoted or mutilated at his 
caprice. Mutilation and death are the only punishments, 
and these are inflicted in the most arbitrary manner for 
trivial or imaginary offences. The Kassongo ranks as a 
god, whose death must be honoured by atrocious sanguin- 
ary rites. His grave, like that of Alaric, is dug in the 
bed of a stream diverted from its channel, and here the 
corpse is laid on a number of living women. Then the 
pit is filled in and saturated with the blood of more 
victims, afrer which the river is restored to its bed, and 
the burial-place of the divinity thus concealed for ever 
trom mortal eyes. 

Xilemba, the royal capital, is merely a palisaded 
village lying a few miles to the north-west of Lake 
Kaaaali The surrounding district is extremely fertile, 
and abounds in mineral wealth, silver, quicksilver, iron, 
and petroleum. Despite their barbaric laws, the Wa-£ua 
are a gifred people, with a highly-cultivated artistic taste, 
as shown in their industrial processes, and especially 
their dwellings, which Cameron describes in enthusiastic 
language. The Arab slave -hunters from the Lower 

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Lualaba had already reached this country before their 
overthrow in 1893, so that the people in many places 
were driven to take refuge tn the forests, or else Id the 
limestone caves of the Mitumbo Hills, which are said to 
be even more spacious than those in Garenganze. 

Th« Bo-Lolo, Ba-Ngala and Ba-Taad Nations 

Within the great horseshoe bend of the Middle Congo 
the dominant people are the great Ba-Lolo nation, of 
whom little was known tiU quite recently. Yet their 
domain, which is about bisected by the equator, hlls 
nearly all the space within the bend, while their speech 
has a still wider range, being current right across the 
whole of the enclosed region, and stretching from the 
parallel of Bolombo, on the left bank of the main stream, 
southwards to the Ikata, and at some points to within 
a few miles of the Sankuru-Lomami valley. The Ba- 
Lolo people thus occupy a territory considerably larger 
than the whole of the British Isles, and the Ki-Lolo 
lai^uage is spread continuously over a space about the 
size of France, and spoken by at least ten millions of 

The Ba-Lolo, that is, " Men of Iron," either in reference 
to their strength in battle (compare Ironsides), or more 
probably to their skill as forgers, are both physically and 
mentally one of the finest Bantu races. The slight 
strain of Negro blood is betrayed chiefly in the tumid 
lower lip, but for which the features — high forehead, 
arched or straight nose, delicate under-jaw, bright eye — 
might fairly be called Caucasic, fully equal to the average 
European in their regular outlines and intelligent ex- 
pression. They appear to have m^rated early in the" 
century from the east or north-eaat, especially Galla or 

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Kaffiiland, to their present homes, where they have cleared 
the forests, brought vast tracts vinder cultivation, and 
bnilt towns like Mnloogo'a or Boyela's, regularly laid, 
out in the American style, but with the houses so wide 
apart that it takes hours to traverse them. The Ba- 
Lolo are extremely skilful workers in iron, producing 
agricultural implements such as hoes, spades, and axes, 
as well as knives, spears, and ornaments, all of excellent 
quality and mostiy in good taste. They also display 
great skill in the construction of their canoes, and 
understand the division of labour, "farmers, gardeners, 
smiths, boat-builders, weavers, cabinet-makers, armourers, 
warriors, and speakers being already differentiated 
amongst them." * 

The women have also their rights, and take part in 
the pubUc assemblies, where all important questions are 
discussed. But although they recognise their common 
nationality throughout Balololand, no powerful states 
have anywhere been founded ; the nation remains with- 
out political cohesion, and the tribal organisation still 
everywhere prevails. For our first knowledge of this 
remarkable people we are indebted to the Bev. Mr. 
John McEittrick, who made their acquaintance at 
Equatorville in 1884, and who has fotmded stations 
amongst them under the auspices of the East London 
Institute for Home and Foreign Missions. 

The r^ons about the TJbai^ and Kwa confluences 
are respectively occupied by the widespread Ba-Ngala 
and Ba-Yansi peoples, the former a fine race with regular 
features, the latter betraying the Kegro element in a 
more pronounced degree than amongst most Bantu races. 
Ibaka, " King of Bolobo," in the Bayansi country, 
figured in Johnston's Miver Congo, is even of a repulsive 
■ ThtNtK W<trld of Cmtral AfrUa, p. 471, 

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KegFO type, and there is certainly a large measure of 
txuth in this explorer's remark that aa the coast is 
neared the Congo tribes " begin to loee their distinctive 
Bantu character, either through the d^radation the 
coast climate seems to entail, or because on their migra- 
tion westward and from the north-east Bantu focus, they 
originally met and mixed with in the low-lying coast- 
lands, an entirely Negro population." ' But there are 
numerous exceptions to this law, and the Ma-Bungu 
people, for instance, who dwell away to tiie east on the 
west side of Tanganyika, show in an exa^erated form 
such characteristic features as a flat nose, wide nostrik, 
decided prognathism, and disproportionately abort legs. 
They are akin to the Vua-Eungu, on the opposite side 
of the lake, who, however, have acquired somewhat more 
regular features, probably by contact with the ZanzibarE 
coast people. 

Eoth the Ba-Ngala and Ba-Tansi, as well as the Ba- 
Teke on both sides of the main stream about Stanley 
Pool, still remain broken into tribal groups. This absence 
of laige native states along the whole course of the 
Congo, from the Luapula-Lualaba confluence to the 
estuary, laigely accounts for the rapid progress of 
exploration and settlement in the Free State, just as the 
incoherent condition of the Ostyaks, Vogula, Tonguses, 
and other Siberian peoples enabled a handful of Cossacka, 
under Yermak, to overrun a great part of Northern 
Asia in a single generation. 

The Ba-Ngala, who occupy both sides of the Congo, and 

> Op. of. p. 397. At the death of this chief in 188S hanikn sacrificu 
n-ere renewed UDdet the very ejes of tlia Free Stita officUU. Three of 
hia wives were buried ■live, and eeveral Blarea elsughtered on his grkve, 
" for Ibak> had beeo a great chief, Aod must enter Uie next world with 
a suitable retinue " (H. Ward's Five Yean wUh iKt Congo CannibaU, 18B0, 
p. 298). 

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who give their name to the station founded hj the Free 
State above EquatorviUe, are ruled by numerous petty 
chiefs, with a collectiTe population of nearly 150,000. 
They are an intelligent people, who have already begun 
to appreciate the comforts of civilised life, having to 
a considerable extent exchanged their scanty costume 
of T^etable fibre for European clothes. The Ba-Hgala 
are also amongst the few races at a low state of culture, 
who are apt to take a pessimistic view of life, their 
moody fits at times even ending in suicid& Unfortunately 
witchcraft, human sacrifices, and even cannibalism are 
stUl rife amongst them. At the death ot their late 
chief, Mata Bwyki, a gigantic Bantu six feet four inches 
high, ten slaves were sacrificed in the neighbourhood of 
the Bangala station, and on another occasion Captain 
Coquilhat met a canoe, also close to the station, from 
which the natives landed several large pots containing 
portions of human arms and legs. 

Tbe Ba-Lnba and Ta-Shllan«e Territories 

In the middle Kassai basin, south of the Ba-Lolo 
domain, a dominant race are the Ba-Luba, whose various 
branches — Ba-Songe and Ba-Sange of the Sankuru 
headstreams,* Ba-Shilange (Tu-Shilange) about the Lulua 
conflnence, and many others — occupy the greater part 
of tbe region stretching from Manyuemalaod westwards 
nearly to the Kwango, Wissmann and Po^e, by whom 
they were first visited, in 1881, describe them as one of 
the finest of all Negroid peoples, highly intelligent, indus- 
trions, and surprisingly skilful workers in iron and copper. 

Captain C. S. Latrobe Bateman, who resided in 1885- 

* Kot to be confounded irith th« B^Senge of ths Lukenye yUej 
fikTtbsT north, who are probtbljr Bft-Lolo. 

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86 amongst the Ba-Shilaoge, Buperintendiiig the fonnda- 
tioD of the new station of Luebo at the Lolua-Lnebo 
confluence, was mnch struck by the remarkable qualities 
of that group. Wissmann had already called them " a 
nation of thinkers, with the intem^tive ' why ' con- 
stantly on their lips." Bateman, in his turn, fonnd 
them " thoroughly and unimpeachably honest, brave to 
foolhardiness, and faithful to each other and to their 
superiora, in whom, especially if Europeans, they place 
the moat complete reliance. They are prejudiced in 
favour of foreign customs rather than otherwise, and 
spontaneously copy the usages of civilisation. They are 
warm-hearted and affectionate towards their iriends, and 
they are the only African tribe among whom, in their 
primitive state, I have observed anything like a becoming 
conjugal afiection and r^rd. To say nothing of such 
recommendations aa their emancipation Irom fetishism, 
their ancient abandonment of caunibalism, their hereto- 
fore most happy experience of Etiropeans, and their 
national unity under the away of a really princely prince 
(Calemba), I beheve them to be the most open to the 
best influences of civilisation of any African tribe 
whatsoever." ^ 

It is, however, to be observed that Tu-Shilange, the 
name of the primitive populations adopted by the Ba- 
Luba intruders from the south-east, is a collective term, 
comprising several groups differing greatly in appearance. 
usages, traditions, and stages of culture. The best known 
and most important district in Tuahilangelaud is the so- 
called Lubuka, or land of " Friendship," a sort of African 
" Philadelphia," where a strange revolution took place 
some years before the arrival of the first European 
explorers. The so-called institution or secret brother- 
' The First Aaant <!/ lAt Ka$)ai, 1SS9, p. 20. 

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THE CONGO FREE S'hkfV- . 119 

hood of the Bena-Eiamba, or " Sons of Hemp," seems to 
hare grown out of a general political and social move- 
ment, which took place about the year 1870, when a 
large section of the Tu-Shilange became divided into 
two hostile factions on the question of admitting foreign 
traders (Angolan Portuguese from the west, Zanzibari 
from the east) into their territory. The king, having 
sided with the young or progressive party, the old people, 
here as elsewhere " Conservatives," were defeated with 
great slaughter and driven eastwards beyond the Lulua. 
Then the barriera of seclusion were broken down, com- 
mercial relations were entered into with foreigners, and 
the custom of riamba {bhang) smoking, already prevalent 
on the Zanzibar Coast, was introduced, with many other 
innovations. Such appears to be the origin of a practice 
which soon became associated with strai^ rites, rapidly 
dc^nerating into one of the most baneful institutions in 
Central Africa.^ 

On the right bank of the Lulua, about Luebo Station, 
dwell the Ba-Kete, a somewhat efieminate Negroid people, 
vassals of the powerful Ba-Kuba, whose territory stretches 
farther north towards the Kassai - Sanknru confluence. 
The Ba-Kete are noted for their excellent husbandry, 
possessing admirably tilled plantations, " arranged in 
separate plots and beds, and separated by wide, perfectly 
straight alleys, weeded, swept, and maintained in the 
greatest neatness and order." ' Here are grown a pro- 
fusion of cereals, fruits, and vegetables, amongst which 
Bateman mentions manioc, maize, yams, sweet potatoes, 
ground-nuts, soighura, gourds, beans, peas resembling the 
Egyptian "mummy pea," bananas, plantains, and aatfu 

' A. H. Keane, Aeadmiy, April 6, ISSS. 
' Batsman, op. cU. ■p. ii. 

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North-eastwards, in the hilly country between the 
Lubilaeh and Lomami, dwell the Ba-Songe, remarkable 
for their splendid physique, and for their skill in various 
crafte, such as pott«7, weaving, wood carving, iron and 
copper work. Like the Ba-Lolo and Ba-Ngala, the Ba- 
Songe build towns of immeuae length, one of which, with 
a population of nearly 15,000, Dr. Wolf took five hours 
to traverse from end to end. 

Tb« Ta-Ohibolnre and Kwango Bo-NgalM 

In the Upper Eassai and Upper Kwango basins the 
dominant people are the Kiokoa (Chibokwe), probably the 
most enterprising of all the Congo nations. They came 
originally from the Zambesi valley, and still occupy the 
western water-parting between that river and the Congo 
basin. Their territory is crossed by the trade route 
leading from Angola eastwards to Lunda, and all travellers 
describe them as famous hunters and craflismen, noted 
especially as skilled forgers and armourers. The Va- 
Chibokwe " are remarkable for their activity and in- 
dustry, and command the fear and respect of all native 
travellers who pass through their country. Their wild 
independent ways were a constant source of anxiety to 
me, but personally I suffered no injustice at their hands. 
These people were the first to discover a method of 
extracting rubber from the " Talamba " root, which has 
led to a great improvement in trade at Benguela and 
other parts ; and this shows that these Africans are not 
altc^ther incapable of utilbing the resources of their 
own country without the help of Europeans." ' 

In the Middle Kwango, north of the Va-Chibokwe 
and of the savage Minungos, another Ba-Kgala nation 
' F. 8, Araot, Ice. cU.^ 71. 

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baa developed a certain political organisation under a 
Eassa^j^, or supreme chief elected by four nobles from 
three royal families. The Ba-K'gala have long been in 
contact with the Fortuguese of Angola, and under their 
inflnence have acquired a certain degree of culture^ They 
are great traders, and their capital, Muene PtUo Kaseaiyi, 
the Feira or " Fair " of the Portugueee, ia the centre of 
the exchanges and transit trade between the west coast 
and the interior. The Portuguese, who were driven ont 
of the country in 1860, have since returned, and their 
suzerainty is now accepted by the Kassanj^ Most of 
lii* territory lies east of the Upper Kwango, within the 
Portuguese sphere of influence as determined by the 
Agreement of March 1894 (p. 76). 

Our information regarding the Central African peoples 
ia still far from sufficient to attempt any scientific 
claasificationa baaed on their, physical or linguistic 
affinities. Hence in the appended table the Congo 
tribes are grouped solely according to their gei^raphical 

Table of the Congo Tribes and Nations 

Tna-Rundi, Tna-Vira, Tna- '\ North end TaDganyika. and thence to. 

Kghe, Tna-Eombe / wards the Albirtine Nile diride. 

Vna.Hha, U-Vinza, U-Ea- \EBBt Coast TangaDjika iii order from 

■ende, Tna-Fiba / north to south. 

Tua-Bembe, Vua-Songit, 'Vni- j West Coast TangaD^iks fn order from 

Simalansa, U-Gaha, Ma- j- north to south, and thenc« ton»rd« 

Rnn^ I-t«ira J tlie Luapala. 

Vua-Rnngn .... South end Tanganyika. 
Voi-Bemba, Vna-Kissinga, \Round Lake BaUfpreolo in order from 

Toa-Biaa, Tua-Uisi / north by east to south and west 

Ka-LuDda .... South-east aide Lake Moero. 

*t-£,"£"&S,-°""' }""•»«•"" »«"«•)• 

^u-Roa .... Upper Lualaba lake region. 
Hi-Hyuema ... 

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Bi-Kn**a, Ba-BIm, Wa-Rnru. 
U-Knmo, Vambarri, Voa- 
Twa (Batwa) 

Vaiifs, Bs-3oko. Ma-Knka, 

Wa-Uknga, Lu-Ali, Ba- 

Ondo, Ba-Bileko, Ba-BaU 

Ba-Bauda, Ba-Bs, Ba-Bcue, 

Ba-Biassi, Ba-BoliBa, Ba- 

Bmtda, Ba - Bum, Ba- 

Biuease, A-TiaibK A-Ye- 

jcli, B*-Kandi, Ba-Easa, 

Ba-Nalva, Wa-MbutH, Ba- 


Ha-Bobe, A-BaboB. 

tfa-RDk>, Bs-PutQ, Ba-Sebj, 

U-Banga, Ba-Sombo, Wa- 

Tomba, Ha-Lmm 

A-Babombo, A-Babombna, ' 

A'Bwija, A-Mab«nsa, Mil- 

Naamba, Ma - Beuge, A- 

IMggi, A-Bito, A-Neakkara 

Ba-Atti, Ha-N7embo, Mu- 

Tvinbi. Hon-Bangi, B»-Lm, 


Ba-Tanai, Ba-Nana, Ba ' 

Tends, Ba-Fam 
Ba-Teke, Wa-Buma, Ma-' 

Kongo, Ba-Fiot 
Ba-Smidi, Eaht-EoDgo, Ba- 
Fiot, Hoshi-EoDgo 

Bo-Kakala, Houro, Ba-Ngonzi 
Ba-Laba, Ka-Wanda, Tq- 
Shilange, Tn - Bindi, Ba- 
Kete, Ba-Undi, Ba-Sanse, 
Ba-SoDKe, Ba>Enba, Ba- 
Songa-Mino, Ba-Entn 
Va-Eioka (Ta-Chibokwe) 

Left bank Lower Lnalaba, bttwMn 

Nyangwe and Stanley Falla. 
Bstwean Lower Loalaba and Lake Albert 


n Arawimi and Upper Wslla. 

-Middle Cbangi CWelle-Makna). 

S Middle Congo between Ubangi and Kwa 
I cooBaencee. 

\ Middle Congo between EtramoDth and 
/ Stanley Pool inclusive. 

} Lower Congo, from Stanley Pool to 
{About the equator within the horeeshoe 
bend of the Middle Congo. 
Lulonga-Lopori Valley. 

Easui-Sonkara Basin with Lnebo, 
Lulus, Lubllaih, Lomami, and other 

Hiirango, Ba-Nsala, Ha- 1 
Shuge, Ma-Yakka, Wa- U 

Muata Yamvo'a tarritoiy. 
South frontier Lunda. 
Upper Easeai and Kwango. 

Middle and Lower Ewango. 

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Baatn and Negro contrasted 

Before Stanley's descent of the Congo leas than two 
decades ago, scarcely any of these teeming multitudes. 

collectively numbering probably lliirty millions, were 
known even by name. Some have not even yet been 

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visited hj any EuiopeaDS ; our knowledge of others is 
limited to the vague reporta of one or two explorers 
traversing their territories ; but others, again, including 
nearly all the more important groups, have been for some 
time in ' direct contact with the whites, and have been 
studied by careful observers, such as Johnston, Wissmann, 
Amot, Bateman, Junker, Wolf, and Grenfell. From the 
accounts of these men, embodied in ofGcial documeuts, 
in books of travel, in scientific memoirs or missionary 
records, it may be concluded generally that the more 
or less N^roid Bantu populations of the Congo r^ons 
are &r superior both in physical and mental qualities to 
the true Negroes of Upper Guinea and the Sudan. 

Herein lie the best hopes for the future prospects 
of the Free State. Even under wise and equitable 
European control the Negro proper is incapable of rising 
except by misc^enation, which involves a corresponding 
degradation of the higher element The late Colonel F. 
G. SufEin, perhaps the best authority on the N^ro 
question in the Southern States, declared that it was im- 
possible " to educate the coloured people. Their industrial 
condition, their criminal record, their social, moral, and 
religious state, all show that &eedoai is a disadvantage 
to them ; that they are worse in bU these particulars 
than they were before the war, and are deteriorating 
every day. . . . The Negro is incapable of receiving 
vhat white men call religion and education, and he is 
worse after professing to have received them than he 
was before." ' 

It may be confidently asserted that no purely Negro 
population ever produced such a personality as Calamba, 
" the intelligent and noble-minded king of the Ba-Luba," 
who, Bateman tells us,' " would amongst any people 

> SiiAnunid Dapalch, September 21, 1890. 'Op.ea.p. 114. 

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be a remarkable, and indeed, in many respects, a magni- 
ficent man," and who some years ago of his own accord 
abolished fetishism independently of any European 
influences. But steel-grey eyes are prevalent amongst 
the Ba-Luba (Tu-Sbilange), betraying a distinct Hamitic 
strain, and the Hamites are a main branch of the 
Caucasic or highest division of mankind. Hence the 
Congo Bantu peoples, largely Negroid Hamites, are 
naturally capable of upward development, and all the 
more rapidly according as the Hamitic element pre- 
dominates. The witchcraft, human sacrifices, savagery, 
eind even ctmnibalism, still prevalent in some communi- 
ties, may be considered due to the Negro substratum. 
Their surprising skill in the industrial arts, such as 
weaving, pottery, wood carving, iron and copper smelting 
and forging, house and boat building, as well as their 
capacity for pohtical organisation, as seen in the power- 
ful states founded at various times by the £azembes, 
Muata Yamvos, Mzidis, and others, may in the same way 
be regarded as inheritances from their Hamite ancestry. 
It is noteworthy that, as a rule, the higher faculties 
increase eastwards and southwards (Ba-Luba, Ka-Lunda, 
Va-Chibokwe, Mzidi's Wa-Nyamwezi, Ba-Lolo, compara- 
tively recent immigrants from the east) ; the baser 
qualities westwards (Minungo, Ma-Takka), and especially 
northwards, that is, in the direction of the Negro domain 
proper (Ba-Yansi, Mon-Bangi, Ba-Atti). 

Hiflsion of ths Congo Free Stats 

The numerous civil and missionary stations founded 
at various convenient points in the Free State — Banana, 
Boma, Matadi, Lukungu, IsauguLa, Manyango, Leopold- 
ville, Kwamouth, Bolobo, Equatorville, Ban,gala, Bolombo, 

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Upoto, JRembo, Stanley Falls, along the main stream in 
ascending order ; Yambuya on the Aruwimi ; Sasoko on 
the eastern Lomami ; Molongo's, Maringa, Mumbimba in 
Bftlololand ; Bangodl, Badinga, Luebo, Luluaburg along 
the Lulua-Kassai ; Benabendl at the Kaaaai-Sankum 
confluence, and fourteen others in the Kasaai basin 
— are fast becoming important centres for the diffu- 
sion of civilising influences amongst the surrounding 
populations. Their founders have hitherto met but 
alight opposition on the part of the natives, some of 
whom even clamour for the privil^e of securing such 
atmngholds of law and order in their midst. Here 
they learn improved methods of tillage and better 
industrial processes ; they grow accustomed to orderly 
dealings, become gradually weaned from their barbaric 
usages, b^n to despise their witch-doctors, and acquire 
a taste for better clothing and other European comforts. 
Thus while being themselves raised to a higher level 
of culture, their very increased necessities tend to develop 
the elements of the future conunercial relations, by which 
alone these stations can acquire a permanent character. 
They are, it may be hoped, the modest beginnings of 
flourishing trade-centres for the spread of wealth, refine- 
ment, and civilisation throi^hout the Central African 

Bailway Frojecta — Trade — Fres Trade Area — 

But from the first it was foreseen that a railway 
nmning from the coast or the estuary to Stanley Pool 

^ According to C&pUin Hinde a» many as twelve posts in tho Sankuni 
Tklley were niresdy engaged io 1S94 "in the collection o! e 
qmntitiesof indiarubbet" {/our. Geo. Soe., May 1895, p. *29). 

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would be required to turn the Livingstone FaUs and 
reach the many thousand miles of 'naTigable waters 
ramifying throughout the Congo basin. Such a line, 
without which the interior would remain for trading 
purposes almost as secluded from the outer world as 
before the Stanley expedition, was felt to be a primary 
condition of success. At present a ton of goods, the 
freight of which from England to Banana or Boms in 
the estuary costs only £2, cannot be transported thence 
to the Middle Coi^ under an expenditure of £70 for 
porterage Hence it is satisfactory to know that the 
Free State has at last granted to a Belgian company 
the concession of a railway to run along the left bank 
from Matadi, opposite Vivi, just below the Yellala Falls, 
to Leopold ville on Stanley Fool. The line, 270 miles 
long, will traverse a somewhat rough country, of which, 
however, only about twenty-five miles appear to present 
any serious engineering difBculties. The first section, 
from Matadi to Kenge, 25 miles long, was completed in 
September 1894 at a cost of £734,000, the estimate 
for the whole line being £2,250,000. 

Another line has been projected to run from Kabinda 
along the right bank to Boma, the chief outlet of the 
whole basin, and theuce to Brazzaville, the French 
station on Stanley Pool, opposite Leopoldville. Doubt- 
less both will be ultimately needed for the requirements 
of the free trade area, which, as determined by the 
Berlin Conference of 26th February 1885, comprises a 
far wider space than the Free State itself. The 
boundary line is traced very irregularly from the Sette 
Camma estuary eastwards and northwards along t^e 
Congo - Ogoway divide, then round again to the east 
along the Congo-Shari divide to Ndoruma at 28° E, 
longitude, and thence still eastwards along 5° N. latitude 

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to Lado on the White Nile, and so on to the Somali 
coast on the Indian Ocean. On the south side of the 
Free State the line runs from Anibriz above Loanda on 
the weBt coast south-eastwards along the Congo-Atlantic 
divide to Eanjamba, near the souree of the Kwango ; 
then eastwards between the Congo-Zambesi divide to the 
source of the Loangwa, a northern affluent of the 
Zambesi, about 33° E. longitude ; then south-eastwards 
along the secondary Nyassa • Zambesi divide to the 
Zambesi at the Shir^ confluence, and thence along the 
left hank of the Lower Zambesi to the delta below 
Qnilimane on the Indian Ocean. Within these limits 
the several interested Powers agree to levy no customs 
dues on imports and exports beyond what may be 
required to defray the cost of keeping the routes them- 
selves open for the free trade of the world.* 

At present the trade of the Free State is limited to 
a few imports, such as woven goods, tobacco, spirits, 
Greanns, and ammunition, taken in exchange for ivory, 
rubber, ground-nuts, coffee, palm oil, gum-copal, orcbilla, 
cam-wood, wax, and other natural produce, the annual ex- 
changes being valued altogether at less than £1,000,000. 
The navigation of the Congo, represented by about 1000 
vessels entering and clearing the ports of the estuary 
and a few small steamers on the inland waters, is 
controlled by an international commission nominated by 

' But in 1890 the Free State aDthorities BQcceeded in obtaining tlie 
nnction of the contncting Povers to Isvy duties on certain imports, 
nch M ipirits, Greamu, ammunition, and the like, for general adminis- 
trative porpoees, and especially for the suppression of the slave trade in 
ucatdauce mth the dccUrationa of the BrusseLa International Anti- 
Slavery Congress of 1800. The general import duties are fixed at 5 pet 
mat, while an export dutj of 10 per cent will also be allowed on ivoiy 
ind gutta-percha. On the other hand the license duty is sappie«sed, 
and those on spirituous liquon are reduced to one-thiid of their actual 

VOL. n K 

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all the Powers who were parties to the Berlin Conference 
of 26th February 1885. 

In the same year the Free State itself was placed by 
the Belgian Legislature under the sovereignty of Leopold 
II., not as King of the Belgians, but in his individual 
capacity. In 1890 the territory was declared inalien- 
able, while the right was reserved to Belgium of annex- 
ing the Free State after a period of ten years. The 
Central Government, consisting of the king and three 
heads of departments for foreign affairs and justice, 
finance, and the interior, is located at Bruesels, There 
is also a local government, comprising a govemM-- 
general, vice -governor -general, state inspector, general 
secretary, directors of justice and finance, and com- 
mander of the forces, with official residence at Boma, 
on the right bank of the estuary. The annual expendi- 
ture, estimated for 1895 at £270,000, does not yet 
appear to be covered by the income, and in fact is 
largely derived from a subsidy of £80,000 granted by 
King Leopold, and an advance of £80,000 made in 
1890 by the Belgian Government for a period of ten 

The revenue has to provide for a force of 3800 
natives under white officers, and a steam flotilla of seven 
vessels on the Lower and eleven on the Middle Conga 
Provision has also to be made for numerous white officials, 
including the heads of the twelve administrative divisions : 
Banana, Boma, Matadi, The Falls, Stanley Fool, Kaasai, 
Equator, Ubangi, Aruwimi-Welle, Stanley Falls, Ewango 
Oriental, and Lualaba. 

There is a regular steam service between Europe and 
the Free State, which is now included in the international 

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Extent, boundarieB, popuktLon—PortugueH ftdninUtratioD, the SUve 
tnde — Eiploration — Physical features — Rivera Co»iii*, Canene— 
Climate, Flora, Fauna — iDhabitants: the Congo Empirs: the A-Bunda 
Ifation i the Ganguellas ; the Aborigines — Tableof the chief Angolan 
tribes — Towns, Btatioag— The Boer immigrants — Resources ; gorern- 
nieut ; prospects. 

Ext«nt, Bonndaiies, Fopnlation 

Till recently the Portuguese pOBseseions on the west side 
of the Continent were limited to the zone of coa^tlands 
stretching from Ambriz at 8° S. latitude for about 850 
miles southwards to Cape Frio, beyond the Cuuene river. 
The frontiers towards the interior were nowhere very 
clearly defined ; but the country as actually administered 
had an average width of about 220 miles, with a total 
area of nearly 200,000 square miles, and a population of 
about 2,000,000. The district extending from Ambriz 
northwards to the Congo estuary was also claimed by 
Portugal, but the claim was contested by Great Britain, 
and no attempt had ever been made to settle or even 
administer that region ; it was, and still is, mainly held 
by the savage and predatory Mushi-Kongo tribes. But 

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after the opeuing of the Congo a rush was made by , 
France from the north and by Portugal from the south, 
to seize the estuary with a \iew to commanding the 
outlets of that ba^in. 

The result, as regards Portugal, was the recognition 
by the Berlin Conference of her claim to the disputed 
district, thus biingii^ her territory right up to the left 
bank of the Lower Congo. By aubset^uent agreements with 
France (December 1885), with Germany (December 1886), 
and with Great Britain (August 1890), the Portuguese 
Hinterland was also accurately determined. The bound- 
ary is traced on the north in a straight line from Nokki 
on the estuary eastwards to the Kwango, which river 
from this point to 8° S. forms the east ^ntier to- 
wards the Congo Free State. The south frontier towards 
the same State follows the Congo-Zambesi divide, thence 
eastwards to the source of the Liba, a main head- 
stream of the Zambesi, where the line is deflected south- 
wards round the source of the Lualaba, and north-east- 
wards to the source of the Eabompo, easternmost head- 
stream of the ZambesL Here the course of the Zambesi 
and Kabompo rivers is taken as the provisional Anglo- 
Portuguese boundary, pending a definite settlement of 
the frontiers. A nearly straight conventional line drawn 
from the Katima rapids of the Zambesi westwards to the 
mouth of the Cunene separates the Portuguese posses- 
sions fiom the German South- West African protectorates. 

Historic Betrospect — The Slave Trade 

Thus the Portuguese Hinterland, as recognised by the 
treaty with Great Britain, extends in the north-eastwards 
to the Free State frontier, in the south-eastwards to 

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Britiflh Zambeaia, and southwards to the German sphere. 
Within the specified limits the whole region forms a 
domain about 520,000 square miles in extent, with a 
population vaguely estimated at from 5,000,000 to 
3,500,000. The western parts alone, comprising the 
low-lying coastlands between the escarpments of the 
plateau and the sea, are occupied and administered by 
Portugal The whole of the uplands are practically 
independent, and even the important trading station of 
BihiS was only recently brought within Portuguese juris- 
diction. When Mr Amot visited this place on his first 
journey to Garenganze, he found that " the Portuguese 
had no administrative power there," and Silva Porto, the 
official resident, had no force behind him to check the 
slave trade still openly carried on by the Bih^ dealers. 
Mr. Amot confirms by independent evidence the state- 
ment made by Mr. Bsteman that individual Portuguese 
did much to encourage the slave trade. People from 
Bih^, penetrating into Lunda, where there is no ivory, 
exchange cloth, guns, and other European wares for 
slaves, who are then "carried away to the lower Eassai 
country and exchanged for ivory." ' 

But these practices still exist on the seaboard itself, 
which has been continuously occupied by Portugal for 
over three hundred years, that is, dating from the first 
actual settlement made at Loanda in 1574. Formal 
possession had already been taken in 1482, when Bic^o 
Cam, discoverer of the Congo, set up the stone monument 
at the mouth of the estuary. Nine years later an expedi- 
tion had already reached the Mbanza, or capital of the 
Congo empire, since known as San Salvador ; this place 
itself became the seat of a Boman Catholic bishop and 
the centre of missionary zeal, which resulted in the formal 

' Lot. cit. p. 81. 

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acceptance of Christianity by the Mfumu, or emperor, 
and a large section of his anbjects. Portuguese women 
arrived in 1594, wheu regular European households 
were established, and for at least three centuries the 
Mnata Potu, or " King of Portugal," has had undisputed 
sway over the whole seaboard except for a brief interval 
in 1641, when the coast towns were seized by the Dutch. 

We also read that from these coast towns the ascend- 
ency of the Portuguese " pioneers of a higher culture " 
gradually penetrated beyond the coast ranges and plateaux 
far into the interior. Nevertheless Cameron was in- 
formed in 1875 that " slaves were still exported from 
the coast, especially from Mossamedes, where they were 
held in readiness for embarkation, although scattered 
about the town in small parties, instead of being kept in 
barracoons as formerly, and a eteamer came in for an 
hour or two, shipped the slaves, and was off again imme- 
diately." Cameron failed to discover their destination ; 
but it is now known that they were intended for the 
plantations of the Portuguese islands of St. Thomas and 
Prince. The complete aboUtion of slavery in Angola was 
doubtless decreed to take place in 187S ; but the official 
edict has remained a dead letter, and vessels flying the 
Portuguese flag still convey slaves both from the West 
and East African Portuguese possessions to the same 
islfiuds. One of these ships, from Mozambique, the 
steamer Hei de Portvgcd, put into Capo Town in 
16th September 1890, when an application made to the 
Supreme Court for the liberation of the captives failed 
on technical grounds. Some, however, who had effected 
their escape from the vessel were declared firee, the Court 
refusing to assist in their recapture. 

Even in Angola itself the hands employed on the 
plantations, although legally free, are practically little 

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better than serfs. According to the terms of the Act 
of EiDancipatioii, the slaves were required to work for 
seren ^eers as a compensation to their owners ; but 
little efibrt was made by the anthorities to enforce the 
eufranchisemeDt after the expiration of that period. 
Thus the status of many remained unchanged, especi- 
ally on the large domains where the whole system of 
cnJtivation has for centuries been dependent on forced 
labour. Here the owners are called employers, and the 
labourers are called free ; but these free labourers fall 
into the power of the employers through money advances 
at high interest, and the prevailing truck system of pay- 
ment Generally speaking, the debtors have no means of 
meeting their engagements, except by manual labour, and 
thus they continue to toil for the planters to the end of 
their days. 


The terra Angola, properly Ngola, originally restricted 
to the territory east of Loanda, where the first settle- 
ments were founded, was gradually extended to the 
whole of the northern province, and is now also the 
official designation of all the Portuguese West African 
poeaesaions. It therefore comprises the Cabinda enclave 
north of the Congo, the territory or " kingdom " of Congo 
south of the estuary, and the three administrative pro- 
vinces of Angola, Benguela, and Mossamedes, taken in 
their order ft^m north to south. 

Although the Catholic missionaries had at an early 
date penetrated as far as 150 miles inland, and although 
the country had long been traversed by the porabeiros ' 

' FombeiTM is not a proper name, u is often supposed, but BJmplj 
meuB those emancipateil bUvcb vho ainoe the begitining of the present 
ceatar; h»»e been employed by the Portuguose as cartran leaders, anil 

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with their coffee, ivory, and slave caravans, very little 
was IcnowQ of the interior till about the middle of the 
present century. Closed to strangers by the exclusive 
policy of Porti^al, the country had scarcely been visited 
by travellers till the year 1853, when Livingstone 
crossed from the Zambesi to Loanda. This event was 
immediately followed by the researches of Dr. Welwitsch 
during the years 1855-59, while the Hungarian, Ladis- 
laus Magyar, who had married a native of Bih^ and 
settled in Bengnela, explored every part of the southern 
provinces during the nine years from 1849 to 1857.' 

In more recent times the survey of the whole r^on 
was continued and completed by the Portuguese them- 
selves — Silva e Costa in the north, Silva Porto and 
Serpa Pinto in the central districts, Capollo and Ivens 
in every part of the Angolan territory. The district 
lying between Benguela and Bih^ has been repeatedly 
ti-aversed by explorers such as Cameron and Amot, 
either penetrating inland or advancing from the interior 
to the coast. The Congo country in the extreme north 
has also been visited by Bastian, Comber, Biittner, and 
. Wolf, and the southern border lands by Gallon and 
Andersson, followed later by Palgrave, Hartley, and 
others. The Chella range was first crossed by Capello 
and Ivens during their journey from Mossamedes to the 
Zambesi in 1884-85. 

wbo *re still unt into the interior to ptocare altvei and irorj in ezohtnga 
for European wares. They are agents aeldom trading directly on thai 

' The results of thcM Kssarchea were summariaed in J. J. Uonteiro's 
Angola and tilt River Congo, London, 18TG, atill the mast Taln4ble trestlN 
on Portuguese West Africa. 

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Pbydcal Feattms of AagtHa, 

These explorers, when proceediDg inland ti-om Loauda 
to Malauge, or from Benguela to Bih^, traverse first the 
low-Iyiug zone of alluvial coastlands, which form the 
periphery round the greater part of the continent, and 
which in Angola broaden out northwards m the direc- 
tion of the Congo estuary, and gradually conti'aet south- 
wards to their narrowest part at Mossamedes, with a 
mean hreadth of scarcely more than fifty miles. Beyond 
this zone the ground rises very rapidly along the seaward 
face of the escarpments, on the highest passes reaching 
an altitude of between 6000 and 7000 feet, and then 
falling again to 4000 feet, which is about the mean 
elevation of the central plateau between the Congo and 
Zambesi watersheds. Thus Mr. Amot tells us that 
" travelling inwards from the coast through the Ovim- 
bundu country the road ascends a steep escarpment of 
the plateau, so that on the fourth day (from Benguela) I 
reached an altitude of over 4000 feet, and subsequently 
over 6000 feet at 100 miles from the coast. This 
elevation continues eastwards with little change — only 
dipping somewhat as it reaches the valley of the Coanza 
— until about 4000 feet is again attained, near 20° £." 

The escarpments, which generally affect a terrace 
formation running in parallel ridges north and south, 
are interrupted about midway between the Congo and 
Cunene by the deep valley of the Coanza. North of 
this valley the system falls somewhat gently seawards, 
but on the east side the incline is very abrupt down to 
the valley of the Kwango. Here both the crests and 
the mean altitude are generally lower than farther south, 
where the Angolan highlands appear to culminate in the 

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lofty Mount Lovili, nearly 8000 feet high, a little north 
of the trade route between Benguela and Bihi. This 
route crosses the Andrade-Carvo (Jamba) range, where 
several other peaks, such as Elongo and Hambi, rise 
considerably above 7000 feet 

In the extreme south the uplands have been greatly- 
denuded and eroded by the running waters, far more 
copious formerly than at present, which find their way 
to the Atlantic through the Cunene valley. But even 
here the Chella range is still elevated enough to retain 
the winter snows for a short time, whence its Portuguese 
name of Serra da Neve, or " Snowy Mountains " ; some 
of its peaks rise considerably above 6000 feet. 

Of primitive rocks the most prevalent appear to be 
gneiss and mica schists, whose surface has in several 
places been weathered and decomposed as laterite of 
somewhat recent formation. Elsewhere they underlie 
secondary and tertiary sedimentary deposits, such as 
limestones, sandstones, clays, and conglomerates, which 
are remarkable for their regular stratification. In some 
places the limestones are pierced by cavernous recesses 
often containing wells of prodigious depth. 

Hot springs occur in several districts, but there are 
no traces of recent volcanic disturbances. The Mulondo- 
Zarabi burning mountain, mentioned by Magyar in the 
Libollo district south of the Coanza, has not been seen 
by any recent explorers, who regard its existence as 
more than doubtful 

Rivers — Ooanza — Onneue 

Except the Lufu, Mposo, and a few other streams 
flowing north to the left bank of the Congo, all the 
Angolan rivers find their way mostly through indepen- 

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dent chanDeU directly to the Atlantic. Bising on the 
plateau, they have to force a passage seawards through 
the intervening ranges and escarpments, carrying down 
mnch sediment, which is deposited about their estuaries. 
The consequence is that nearly all are blocked by bars 
at their month, and obstructed by rapids in their upper 
reaches, thus being useless for navigation, and accessible 
even to light craft only for short distances inland. 

In the north the Mbrish escapes from the uplands 
near San Salvador, through a continuous series of rapids, 
with a total fall of nearly 450 feet, one of the upper 
cascades having a clear drop of 150 feet. The Loge, 
coming from the south-west, and throughout its whole 
course indicating the limit in this direction of the free 
trade area, reaches the coast just below the Mbrish, at 
the port of Ambriz, whose name is the Portuguese form 
of Mbrish. 

But the great watercourse of Angola, the most im- 
portant on the west coast between the Congo and Orange 
rivers, is the Coanza, which rises In Lake Mussombo on 
the plateau south of Bih^ 5500 feet above the sea. 
Here is another great " border crajg " forming the divide 
between the Zambesi, Coanza, and Congo (Kwango) 
watersheds, and from this point the Coanza sweeps in a 
vast semicircle over 700 miles long round by the north- 
east, north, and west to its mouth, a short distance below 
Loanda. Like its chief tributary, the Lucalla, it forces 
its way in a long succession of romantic gorges and 
foaming rapids through the ranges obstructing its sea- 
ward course, at one point developing the magnificent 
Livingstone (Cambambe) Falls, with a clear drop of 
seventy feet Even in its lower course of 120 miles 
between the foot of the escarpments and the sea, there 
ia a total incline of 300 feet. This section, although 

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navigable by small steamers, is cut off trom ( 
tioD with the Atlantic by an extremely dangerous bar, 
which is crossed on fi?ail rafts three or four feet wide by 
the local boatmen. Like the Ogoway, the Coanza has 
alao its "fetish stones," one of which, the Pedra doa 
FeUiceiroe, was formerly a sort of Tarpeian rock, from 
which persons accused of witchcraft were precipitated 
into the swift current washing its basa 

Beyond the Coanza most of the coast streams, Sowing 
through a perceptibly drier region, are mere " wadys," 
which reach the sea only during the rainy season from 
December to April This explains the remarkable fkct 
that the Cunene' itself, forming the southern frontier 
toward German South-West Africa, after its mouth had 
been discovered by an English skipper in 1824, could 
not again be found the next year, and remained un- 
known until rediscovered and ascended for 25 miles in 
1854, It had been sought during the dry season, when 
its channel was merely a sandy bed fringed here and 
thei'e with a little scrub. 

Yet the Cunene, rising in the Jamba highlands near 
tlie source of the Kubango beadstteam of the Zambesi, 
and Sowing for about 720 miles south and west, has a 
catchment basin of no less than 115,000 square miles. 
At Quiteve, where it was crossed 240 miles from its 
source by Capello and Ivens, it is already a copious 
stream 500 feet wide and 9 feet deep even in the dry 
season. Such a volume of water, swollen farther down 
by the drainage of the Chelia Mountains discharged 
through the Caculovar affluent on its right bank, could 
not fail to reach the Atlantic throughout the year but 
for the fact that several branches both above and below 
>r Great River ; it is the Nourse of eM-Iy Eogliak 

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the Caculovar confluence are thrown off from its left 
bank southwards to the extensive saline depression of 
lake Etosha in Ovampoland. This depression, alter- 
Dately a shallow lagoon and a morass, may be r^arded 
as a sort of inland delta through which the Cunene 
probably sent the whole of its waters at one time to the 
Zambesi lacuBtrine basin. The Cunene would thus 
appear to belong originally to the Zambesi hydrographic 
system, with which Lake Etosha do doubt still com- 
municates during the floods, while another branch of 
comparatively recent formation reaches the Atlantic 
intermittently during the same season. But pending a 
more detailed survey of the little known region lying 
between Etosha and the streams flowing west to Lake 
Ngami, this view of the remarkable Cunene regime can 
be regarded only as a probable hypothesis. 

OUnut« — Fltnra — Faniu 

The Coanza valley forms, at least in its lower course, 
ft climatic and botanic, as well as a physical parting- 
line. In these respects the region to the north of the 
Coanza still belongs to the Congo basin, that is to say, it 
is essentially Central African — hot, moist, more or Iws 
malarious, unsuited for European settlement, somewhat 
thickly wooded, and forming the extreme southern limit 
of the palm family. Thus " the raphia, whence maluvo 
is extracted, and which is so profusely met in the north, 
disappears as if by enchantment south of parallel 8°," ^ 
The Lower Coanza basin itself is described as an ex- 
tremely fertile plain, capable of growing an almost un- 
limited quantity of sugar, "if the difficulty of the 
pestilent climate could only be got over." 

' CapeUo and iTtma, From Benguda to Yacea, iL p. IIS. 

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Yet even in the north tlie heats are uot excessive, 
being somewhat tempered both by the land breezes from 
the plateau and by the fresh sea breezes, cooled hy the 
cold marine current which sets steadily along the 
Angolan seaboard from the Antarctic waters. At 
Loanda the mean annual temperature is not more than 
74° F., seldom rising above 90° or falling below 55*". 
Here also the rainfall may even be called slight, falling 
in some years as low as six, and rarely exceeding thirty 
inches. But though the precipitation is small on the 
lowlands, the atmosphere itself is constantly eaturated 
with moisture, and the first rains stiiTing up the decayed 
vegetation give rise to miasmatic exhalations, and are 
consequently always unhealthy. Thus Angola, north of 
the Coanza, may be broadly described as a fever-stricken 
productive region, inhabitable only by natives or half- 
castea, and well adapted for the cultivation of such 
economic plants as manioc, soi^hum, massango {Penni- 
setum typhxyideum) and maize. These, in fact, yield the 
various breadstutfs which constitute the staple food of 
the natives, while from the forests are derived the 
articles of export, such as caoutchouc, orchilla, ground- 
nuts, and palm oil. 

In the region south of the Coanza, the conditions 
are greatly modified, temperature, rainfall, malaria, and 
vegetation decreasing gradually in the direction of the 
arid and almost rainless districts about the Lower 
Cunene basin. Hence South Angola may be described, 
in contrast to the north, as a moderately pi'oductive, 
somewhat healthy region, merging in the desert wastes 
of Damara and Great Namaqua Lands. Mr. Amot 
noticed that on the table-land, about the latitude of 
Benguela, " the easterly winds which prevail come from 
the far interior, not charged with sand or deadly malaria, 

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but cool and invigorating." ' They come, in fact, from 
the Garenganze highlands, one of the very healthiest 
regions of Central Africa, and they blow across the 
great plateau, over 5000 feet high, which forms the 
water-parting between the Congo and Zambesi depres- 

Here also the influence of the cold marine current is 
naturally greater than farther north, and to it the pro- 
minent headland, a little south of the Cunene, owes its 
name of Cabo Frio, " Cold Cape." Thanks to this 
relative coolness, with a temperature ranging from 68° 
to 74° F, {Capello and Ivens), and an extremely dry 
atmosphere, the southern provinces of Benguela, and 
especially jMossamedcs, enjoy a tolerably salubrious 
climate, in which the European race can be and has 
been perpetuated. 

Very striking also is the contrast between the two 
vegetable zones, the northern euphorbias, palms, erioden- 
drons, bombax, baobab, and lianas yielding in the south 
to various gummiferous plants, and to such highly dif- 
ferentiated fomLs as the parasitic hydnom and the 
remarkable trailing tree, Welwitsehia, mirabilis. Here also 
lai^ tracts are covered with tall steppe grasses, which 
in the Lower Cunene basin assume the aspect of bound- 
less prairies, and, like them, are subject to frequent 
conflagrations consuming all living things. 

Notwithstanding these destructive tires, many parts 
of the savannah still abound in lai^e game, such as 
buffaloes, zebras, gazelles, the straight-horned galengues 
{Oryx gaxdla), the fceisas, leucoryx, and many other 
varieties of the widespread aotelope family. The ele- 
phant has mostly disappeared from the coastlands ; but 
large beasts of prey, lions, panthers, leopards, and hyaenas. 
* Loe. eit. p. 70. 

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are still numerous. Bodents {Mus ratus, Mus doi-saiis, 
Miis pumilio, Steatomys edtUis, and others) occur in sur- 
prising variety aud numbers, while the rivers, especially 
the Cunene, swarm with crocodiles and hippopotami. The 

latter are generally taken by means of a pitfall sunk 
three or four feet in the ground with a sharp atake 
driven point upwards into the bottom, and covered over 
with brambles and a layer of clay like that of the sur- 
rounding ground. 

Angola supplies the Portuguese market with several 
rare birds, such as the auspicious quioco, and the ill- 
omened little Cori/tkru! paulina, whose funereal notes 

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suffice to depopulate whole villages. According to 
MoQteiro the brilliant red wings of this remarkable bird 
yield a proportion of copper when steeped in water. 
Equally characteristic are some of the snakes, one of 
which, the "spitter," ejects an acrid secretion which 
destroys the eyesight of its pursuers. The Angolan 
waters teem with fish, amongst which are an edible 
shark and the pungo, or singing fish, with a soft note like 
that of the flute. Hie ba^, a large siluroid, seven or 
eight feet long, has almost become amphibious, having 
acquired the power of living for many hours out of the 
water. Bees, ants, and mosquitoes abound ; but beetles 
and butterflies, as well as other insects, are somewhat 
rare, at least on the seaward slope of the country. 

InhabitantB of AugoU — The Ooogo Empire 

The Bantu populations of this region represent nearly 
every shade of transition from the Negro to the Hamitic 
type, and every degree of culture, from the absolutely 
savage state of the MusM-Kongo ' to the almost semi- 
civilised condition of the kindred and neighbouring 
Esbi-Kongo. The latter are grouped by many writers 
with the people of Gabinda, north of the estuary, under 
the collective designation of Ba - Fiot Both belong 
undoubtedly to the same ethnical family, and as 
descendanta of the dominant race in the ancient king- 
dom of Kongo (Ekongo), both preserve the same historic 
traditions and social usages, and have developed a certain 
sense of solidarity tending to mei^ tribal distinctions 
in a common national sentiment They also speak the 
same Kishi-Kongo language, which is a typical Bantu 

' Donbtlea » corruption of Mutishi- Kongo, which is itself a tiugulu 
rann, consequently a miatake for the plural EaM-Kortgo, 


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idiom already reduced to written form over 250 years 
ago by the Portuguese iiua5ioDarie&' This language, of 
which the Bev. W. Holman Beutley has published an 
excellent dictionary and grammar (London, 1887), is 
current with little dialectic variety throughout a great 
part of the former Kongo empire, that is, along both 
sides of the estuary from Loango southwards to the 
froutier of Angola proper, and Irom the coast inland to 
within fifteen miles of the meridian of Stanley Pool 

But the empire itself, first shaken to its foundations 
by the irruption of the Yacca hordes, and further 
weakened by the expulsion of the Jesuit missionaries 
about 120 years ago, was rapidly broken into fr^imenta, 
and the mfumu reduced to the position of a Portuguese 
pensioner. The present emperor, Ntotela, bearing the 
high-sounding title of " Dom Pedro V., Catholic King of 
the Kongo and its dependencies," exercises a nominal 
authority over a district extending in no direction more 
than forty miles from the capital, Sfbanza, the Ambassi 
of the old maps, at present better known as San Sal- 

This place occupies a commanding position on the 
lower terraces of the escarpments near the sources of the 
Lueji, some miles. south of the Yellala Falls. But its 
vaunted splendours are gone, and when visited a few years 
ago by Mr. Beniley, nothing was seen but " mouldering 
ruins." Even the old Boman Catholic rites had fallen 
into abeyance, or become mingled with heathen practices, 
till they were recently revived by the missionaries. 
Certain emblems of that religion, such as crucifixes and 

' There bCUI exist two copies of a treatise on Christiaa Doctrine nritteu 
or tranBlaitcd into Kongo by Fr. Marco Jorge, with interlined Portugues» 
text, and published in Lisbon in 1S24. This appears to have been ths- 
Grat work printed in KiBU-KoDgo, or in any Bantu language. 

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effigies of the sainte, were, however, still jealously 
preaerved and borne in processions, being r^arded 
either as potent fetishea or tndges of authority. 

But Portuguese culture never penetrated very deep 
below the surface, and even during the most flourishing 
" Christian period " the people remained polygamists, 
and continued to be addicted to barbaroua practices 
connected with witchci-aft, ancestral worship, and the 
barial of kii^ and chiefe. Outlying tribes also re- 
mained wholly unaffected by these exotic influences, and 
till quite recently the Congo estuary was still infested 
by the predatory Mushi -£ongo8, Muso-Bongos, and 
others occupying the left bank of the river. All these 
closely related peoples constitute the Fiot, or Congo 
group proper, whose domaiu extends from the Lower 
Congo southwards to about the parallel of Ambriz, and 
from the coast inland to the Kwango Biver. 

The A-Bunda Hation 

South of Ambriz follows the widespread A-Bunda 
(Bin-Bundo, Ovim-Bundu) nation, whose territory extends 
alon;; the whole of the seaboard to the Cunene River, 
and inland to the plateau. It thus occupies the greater 
part both of the low-lying coaatlands and of the terraced 
escarpments, and is accordingly divided into two main 
branches, the Ba - Naiw, or " Highlanders," and the 
Ba-Baero, or " Lowlanders." 

Like the Ba-Fiot, the A-Bunda have been long in 
contact with Europeans ; the mutual relations have even 
been more intimate in the south than in the north. 
Owing to the unfavourable climatic conditions few Portu- 
guese have ever settled in the Kongo country, whereas 
in the southern provinces whites both from Portugal 

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Bod Brazil have contracted numerous alliances with the 
natives, resulting in a ki^e mulatto element, dis- 
tinguished by conaiderable intelligence, energy, and 
capacity for trade. Such are the Ambaldstas — that is, 
the inhabitants of Ambaca in the Coanza valley, and 
some of the Bihenoa, or natives of the Bih^ district, both 
widely spread throughout a great part of Central Africa, 
and everywhere noted for their commercial enterprise, 
and al80, unfortunately, everywhere associated with the 
slave trade. 

Most of tbem are bilingual, speaking both Portuguese 
and Umbandu (Bundu), a Bantu idiom, which in Angola 
proper and Benguela takes the place of Kishi-Eongo, 
and which is intermediate between that language and 
the Ova - Herero of Ovampo and Damara lands. 
TTmbundu is the lingua franca of the west, as Ki-Swabili 
is of the east coast, and any person familiar with these 
two Bantu tongues could easily make bis way without 
any interpreter along tbe trade routes right a(^x)ss the 
continent from Benguela to Zanzibar. Mr. Amot 
studied Umbundu with tbe American missionaries of 
Bih4 for the purpose of communicating with the tribes 
farther east This traveller also speaks highly of the 
enterprising spirit of tbe Ovimbundu between Benguela 
and Bih6, who " have done their full share in developing 
the resources of Central Africa," and who " are the real 
suppliers of tbe Portuguese markets at Catumbela and 

All these settled and somewhat civilised Bantu and 
half-caste populations are collectively called Pretos by 
the Portuguese, in contradistinction to the Negros, or 
independent wild tribes. These terms therefore express 
social rather than ethnical difTerences, and in fact many 
of tbe Pretos cannot be distinguished physically from 

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the average West African Bantu, while others approach 
the European type in appearance and complexioD. It 
is mainly by misc^^nation that the Portuguese have 
perpetuated their race in Angola. Of full-blood Lusi- 
tanians there are not more than 4000, including officials, 
soldiers, and traders, in the whole colony, and scarcely 
any family groups are met except in Moseamedes, where 
they have alone succeeded in acclimatising themselves. 
A few Boeis, penetrating from the south to Ovampoland, 
also effected settlements about the upper course of the 
Ounene ; and although these settlements were afterwards 
dispersed, other " trekkers " from Transraal followed in 
1892, and attempted to set up an independent Boer 
republic in Mossamedes. On the whole the Gunene basin 
may be regarded as the northern limit of possible white 
colonisation on the south-west side of the continent. 

The Qangnellaa 

In the Portuguese Hinterland beyond Bih^ the numer- 
ous Bantn nations whose territories are traversed by the 
trade route between Bih^ and Lake Dilolo are grouped 
by some writers under the collective name of Ganguella. 
But this term, however convenient for classification, has 
no ethnological value, for it simply means " Stammerers," 
being the nickname apphed to those eastern peoples by 
the Ovimbundu because of their unintelligible speech. 
In the same way the Giennanic peoples called the Italians 
and Britons Welsh,' that is, " foreigners," and were 
themselves called Hitmce, tJiat is, " speechless," by their 
Slav neighboura Of these " Stammerers " the most 
important groups are the AmbueUa, Luimbe, Chibokwe, 

■ Of. Au^o-SuiOD •Matt = foreign, u in tmlnut ; m also Welschluid = 

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Luyale, and Lunda (Wa-Lunda and Ba-Lunda), who are 
s southern branch of the Muata - Yamvo's £a - Luuda. 

The Lunda dwell chiefly about the head-waters of the 
Liba affluent of the Zambesi, where they constitute a 
powerful nation independent alike of the Muata* Yamvo 
and of the Barotae ruler, though some of their chiefs 
recognise the suzerainty of the former. They have long 
had indirect dealings with the Portuguese through the 
Bih^ traders, and most of the beeswax exported from 
Angola comes from their country. The Ba-Lunda rival 
the Javanese themselves in their love of ceremony, as 
displayed in their extreme courtesy to strangers and 
obsequious servility towards their chiefs. To their 
numerous modes of salutation they have added Ave-ria, 
a corruption of Ave Maria, introduced by the Bih^ 
traders, and have also learnt to express surprise by the 
exclamation Allah! derived through Arab influences 
from the opposite quarter. They are amoi^t the few 
South African peoples who respect their women, some of 
whom even rise to the rank of queena Their territory 
is extremely fertile, yielding provisions of all sortB in 
great abundance, while the forests contain immense 
stores of such natural products as rubber, gums, wax, 
honey, ground-nuts, and timber. 

Th« AborigtneB 

Intermingled in the southern districts of Angola with 
the more or less civilised peoples are certain wild tribes 
of low stature and primitive usages, who should probably 
be grouped rather with the Bushmen of the Kalahari 
Desert than with the Kegroid Bantus. Such are the 
Ba-Kwisse, Ba-Kubale, Ba-Simba (Cimbeba), and othera, 

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of MoBBamedes and the Lower Cunene valley, who mostly 
hold aloof from the settled communities, keeping to the 
recesses of the mountains, the arid coastlands, or the 
remoter parte of the savannaha, and living almost exclu- 
nvely by the chase or by fishing and capturing the 
jetsam cast ashore on the south coast. All these savage 
tribes, or rather family groups, may be regarded as the 
true aborigines, who have been gradually driven to the 
southern confines of the land by the Banta peoples 
advancing from the interior seawards. 
Subjoined is a 

Table of the Chief AugoUui Tribes 


T, or I EaLi-Eanso, Huahi-KoDgo, Mnso- 
iNOo V BonKo, Sonho, Bamba, Muyolo, 
ot j Ma-Tnmba, Ma-Yncca, Dembo 

(Bih-Bdmdo or 

(Biiahm«a t) 

Ba-yimo (" High laud en ") 
Hollo, Ba-Kgsla, Sougo 

BBilnndo, Einibande, Bihenos, 
Ba-Eanliala, Lu-3hu«, Ba- 
Nhaneka, Ba-Mkoinbi, Ba- 
Ba-Butro (" Loirhadera ") 

QuUasTna, Amboalla, LiboUo 

Uu-Ndomb«, Mn-Seli . 

Ba-Kvcande, Ba-Kalaba (Caba^), 
Ba-Kirirae, Ba - Eoroka, Ba- 
Kanaka, Ba-Simba (Cimbeba) 

CoDgoland, from 
the Lower Congo 
1 soathwards to 
' Ambriz 

C Front the Middle 
■< Coana eastwardR 
I, to the Ewengo 

LowerCoBBza valley 
Bengneta coast 
( Hossamedea coast 
-I and Lower Cnneoe 

Towns — Stations 

Owing partly to its shoals and shifting sanda, partly 
to the inhospitable character of the lawless riverain 
tribes, the south or Portuguese aide of the Congo estuary 
continues to be practically deserted. Here the only port 
accessible to large vessels is iVoW (Lukango), just below 

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the cataracts on the frontier of the Congo Free State. 
Since the ivory caravans have been diverted from Ambru 
to the C!ongo, the trade of Noki has been more than 
doubled ; and it cannot fail to become a flourishing sea- 
port whenever the projected railway is opened from thia 
place to Stanley Pool. 

On the exposed seaboard of Congoland there are 
neither harbours nor stations beyond a few fishing 
villages, such as Caitfa de Ct^mi {" Snake's Head "), 
Ambrisette, and Muasera, the latter once a \iasj place, 
bnt ruined by an invasion of small-pox some years ago. 
Amhriz, on the north frontier of Angola proper, is the 
only port of call for steamers plying on this coast betweea 
Banana and Loanda. Notwithstanding the loss of its 
ivory business, and despite the exposed nature of ita 
roadstead, Ambriz, lying just within the free trade area, 
has become a thriving seaport, taking laige quantities of 
European wares in exchange for such local produce as 
ground-nuts, caoutchouc, the baobab bast used for making 
paper, and especially coffee from the southern plantations. 
The exports are now valued at over £200,000 yearly; 
but the climate is fatal to Europeans, as shown by the 
attempt lately made by an English speculator to work 
the malachite deposits in the neighbouring districts of 
Bemhi, where all the miners introduced from Cornwall 
were swept away within a twelvemonth. Farther inland 
the fortified station of Eiuxgi {SOo Josi de Encogi) is the 
centre of a peculiar coffee industry, large quantities of 
the berry beii^ collected, not from plantations, but from 
the uncultivated plant which grows wild in the surround- 
ing forests. 

Loanda (SOo Pavio de Loanda), the oldest Portuguese 
settlement south of the equator, has for over 300 years 
been the chief centre of their power and influence on the 

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south-west seaboard, and is still the capital of their 
Angolan possessions. But although the largest place on 
the west coast between Upper Guinea and the Cape, it6 

population scarcely exceeds 15,000; while the insanitary 
state of the town and the absence of much -needed 
harbour works betray here as elsewhere the incapacity of 
Portugal to develop the resources of her colonies. 

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Lofmda was founded ia 1576, some tweoty miles 
above the Coanza estuary, od the long low-lying island 
which forms a northern continuation of the Palmeirinhas 
headland, and which encloses a bay or natural harbour 
open to shipping on the north side, and accessible to 
small vesseb through the Corimba Channel lower down. 
But the settlement was soon transferred to its present 
site on the opposite mainland near the deepest part of 
the bay, where the largest steamers find good anchorage 
in sixty or eighty feet of water within two miles of the 
town. Formerly the harbour was accessible to shipping 
right up to the shore; but during the present century it 
has been largely encroached upon by the silting sands, 
which unless arrested by dredgii^ or other hydraulic 
operations must in course of time close the port alt<^tb6r. 
Loanda was for over 200 years the chief centre of the 
slave trade between Angola and Brazil, and it was nearly- 
ruined by the suppression of that traffic. Since then. 
however, it has recovered some of its former prosperity, 
and at present more than half of the trade of Angola is 
centred in this port, which exchanges rubber, coffee, and 
other colonial produce for textiles, hardware, and all 
kinds of European wares. The imports and exports were 
estimated in 1889 at over half a million sterling; and 
this trade has received a fresh stimulus by the completion 
of the submarine cable to the Cape, thus connecting Loanda 
with the tel^aphic service of the world. Bailway works 
are also in progress up the Coanza valley to the coffee 
plantations in the direction of Ambaca, and regular steam 
communication is maintained with Europe and Brazil. 

In the extremely fertile but pestiferous Coanza basin 
there are several important agricultural and trading 
centres, such as Dando at the head of the fluvial naviga- 
tion, locally known as the " furnace" or " hell " of Angola ; 

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pottTUGUESE West afrtca 155 

Caeullo, the chief place in the Cozengo district, in the 
TaUey of the LucaUa affluent, the moat productive coffee 
region in the colony ; Pungo Ndongo, a historical place 
easb of Dando, lying 4000 feet above the sea, in one of 
the most romantic regions in A&ica ; Pamba, txitter 
knovn as Ambaca, from the name of the district, the 
proposed terminns of the line, 220 miles long, which ia 
to run from Loanda to the interior throagh Uie rich 
coffee, sugar, tobacco, grouDd-Dut, and other plantations 
of the Coanza and ita Lucalla tributary. Ambaca, which 
is the administratiTe centre of this highly productive 
region, was formerly a flourishing place on the great trade 
route running throt^h Malange to the Eassai basin. But 
its enterprising inhabitants, the famous Ambakistas, were 
nearly mined by the cupidity of the corrupt Portuguese 
officials, and Pamba is now little more than an obscure 
Till^e abandoned by its industrious inhabitants, and 
already overgrown with a rank vegetation. Malange, the 
farthest Portuguese station east of Loanda, lies on the 
plateau near the divide between the Coanza and Xwango 
basins. Here converge several important caravan routes 
from the interior, and all traders and travellers pro- 
ceeding from Loanda towards the Eassai basin must take 
the Malange route. 

About 200 miles south of Malange lies the much 
more important station of Selmonte, which is situated 
nearly on the highest point of the plateau on the most 
frequented southern trade route to the interior, standing 
in this respect in the same relation to Benuela that 
Malange does to Loanda. Like Pamba, Belmonte ia 
more familiarly known by the name of its district, £ihA 
The inhabitanta also resemble the Ambakistas in their 
love of trade and their enterprising spirit; but the 
Bihenos (Ba-Bih^) have the double advantage of occupy- 

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ing a more healthy coimtT;, and of being practically 
independent of the oppressive Portuguese adminiBtrators. 
Hence while the Ambakistas have had to migrate in 
search of new homes and new occupations, the Bihenos 
form a flourishing compact communit}', strong enough to 
control the markets both of the intfirior and of Southern 
Ai^la. They are a branch of the A-Bunda nation, 
largely mixed with slaves and captives from all parts of 
the Kassai basin, and BpeaMng the Umbunda language, 
which, thanks to them, has become the chief medium of 
communication from tribe to tribe between Benguela and 
Lnnda. They are described by Capello and Ivens as 
" tall, thin, with heads of ample size, broad foreheads, not 
too low, flat noses, widespread cheeks, pointed chins, and 
arched brows of no great prominence, . . . lively and 
intelligent, very cunning and excessively grasping, and, 
like all the populations of Central A&ica, distinguished 
by an indifference both physical and moral, of which it is 
dithcnlt to convey an idea," ^ From them the Va-Luena 
(Ya-Luvale) and other inland peoples obtain their supplies 
of English cottons, German spirits, firearms and ammnni- 
tioQ, salt, and glass beads, in exchange for ivory, slaves,' 
rubber, beeswax, skins, and other produce. They are 
naturally jealous of any interference with this lucrative 
trade between the coast and the interior, of which they 
hold a monopoly. Hence the obstructions thrown in the 
way of all travellers passing inland, and the opposition 

' Op. eit. voL i. p. 109. 

' " In the region between tlia Lomami and the Ssnkurn the oonditiou 
of tnids hsTe completely »ltar«d since 18S4. Now gkas beads, arms, 
and powder fom the diief articles of bu-Ur, having replaced the eftrlj 
cowrie BheUs. The former are eapplied by the Bihi caraTans in exchange 
with the Basionge (Ba.Songe] for slareo, whioh they then exchange with 
the Baknba for ivojy. The Bakuba buy the women alavaa for their bonee- 
holdfi, but the men for victims at their funeral solemnities" (Lient 
Wiwmann, Pnc R. (ho. Soc 1387, p, 776). 

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shown even to the peaceful mission of Mr. Aroot, who 
complains that " the chiefs aud native traders were my 
greatest hindrance. Thus I was obliged to atart from 
Bih6 in rather an igoominious fashion, with a few women 
and children canying mj loads a day's march at a 
time." ^ 

BelmoDte itself is a mere village, with one European 
dwelling, loug occupied by the official Portuguese resident, 
Senhor Serpa Pinto, one of the few travellers who have 
crossed the continent from sea to sea. Marvellous stories 
are related of the extraordinary fertility of the district, 
where beans and com spring up and ripen in two months, 
and where Gapello aud Ivens were 'seriously informed by 
a native that his freshly-cut staff casually stuck into the 
ground took root and developed into a hi^e wide- 
branching tree while he was entertaining his friends 
with some gossip in front of his house. The American 
missionaries have a station at Belmonte, which, however, 
is subject to agues during the rainy season ; hence their 
headquarters Ue farther west in the more healthy Bail- 
vmdo country, near the Jamba highlands. 

There are scarcely any permanent settlements along 
the trade route between Bih^ and the coast town of 
Benguela, capital of the province of like name. This 
seaport, which dates from the erection of the Portuguese 
fortress of San Felipe in 1617, is pleasantly situated in 
a fertile district on the slopes of the wooded hills exposed 
to the cool sea breezes. The beach, where are grouped 
the residences of the European traders, enjoys the full 
benefit of the cold Antarctic marine current, and is 
consequently fairly healthy, at least in the dry season. 
Benguela may be regarded as the natural outlet for the 
produce of the central plateau between the Congo and 

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Zambesi depreasionB, and its exchanges, at present valued 
at about £250,000 yearly, appear to be increasing. 
The neighbouring Dombe districts (Great and Little 
Dombe) in the Capororo basin are rich in copper oree, 
argentiferous lead, gypsuoi, and especially sulphur, 
enormous quantities of which exist in on almost pure 

Like Bengueltt, the southern province of Mosaamedea 
has for its capital a seaport bearing the same name as 
Qie district itself. This name was first applied towards 
the end of the last century to the neighbouring Angra do 
Negro (the Little Fish Bay of English mariners) in 
honour of a Forti^ese commander, Mossamedes ; it was 
then extended to the settlement, which dates only from 
the year 1840, and finally to the whole province, which 
is scarcely yet fully organised. Notwithstanding its 
recent origin Mossamedes has already become a flourish- 
ing seaport, and is the only Portuguese settlement on the 
west side of the continent which can be called a colony 
ill the strict sense of the term. Thanks to its salubrious 
climate it seems suited for European settlement, and it 
already possesses a larger relative white population 
(Portuguese, Brazilians, and natives of Madeira) than any 
other place on the seaboard between Morocco and Cape 

But even here the mortality is still in excess of the 
birth-rate, and there appears to be little scope for the 
development of an agricultural settlement in a district 
where the arable land is mainly confined to the beds of 
dried-up or intennittent coast streams. But the fisheries 
are very productive, and much " cod-liver oil " is prepared 
from a fish resembling the cod of the northern hemisphere. 
Stock-breeding also has been successfully introduced in 
some of the grassy tracts, where the Kafir breed of riding 

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oxen 18 reared for the markets of the Cape and the 

The Boor ImmlgnuitB 
From Mossamedes a practical road for pack animala 
has been opened across the Chella range to the Upper 
Cunene basin. By this route the Boers settled in that 

r^on have already found their way into the Mossamedea 
coastlands, and tiuvellers are now able to reach the 
Ganguella territory and the Zambesi basin by following 
the same track. But this road has also given access to 
the Portuguese tax-gatherer, with the result that the Ba- 
Nano populations have in many places withdrawn farther 
inland. Thus this fertile and comparatively healthy 
elevated region remains almost uuinhabited, except by 
the wandering Ba-Kankala bushmen ; even tlie few 
Boers who had settled I'ound the stations of Huilla and 
San Jamuirio or Hnmpala have recently returned to 

" During the long treJc or exodus from their southern 

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homes the Boera had to endure great hardships and 
privations as they drove their herds before theln, plodding 
wearily from pasturage to pasturage, sojounung for 
months together in some more favoured localities in 
order to recruit their strength, but again exposing them- 
selves to the inclemency of the weather, and facing the 
perils of forced marches across the waterless wilderness. 
Many perished of exhaustion, and the report even spread 
that all had succumbed ; but towards the close of the 
year 1880 some 400 or 500 survivors at last reached 
the promised land, distant more than 1200 miles &om 
the mother country. But even here, under this fevoured 
climate of Mossamedes, the fates still pursued them ; 
small-pox broke out amongst tiie new arrivals ; nearly all 
the horses which they had brought with them, to the 
great terror of the natives, died of fiitigue ; all the flocks 
of sheep disappeared, together with two-thirds of the 
honied cattle. Despair seized many of the settlers, who 
embarked for the Cape; others, retracing their steps, 
endeavoured to return overland to Transvaal, while 
others, resuming the trek, penetrated from stage to stage 
into the Cunene basin and the region of the inland 
plateaux." ^ 

These Boers, locally known as Ugaras, had already 
intermarried with the Forti^uese, whose suzerainty they 
had rec<^ised while retaining complete self-government 
in all communal afTaira But owii^ to the exactions of 
the Portuguese otticials ihey again withdrew beyond the 
Cunene, where, under the leadership of Mr. Jordan, they 
founded the temporary RepubUc of " Upingtonia." Lower 
down the Cunene basin continues to be almost unin- 
habited, although possessing the advantage of two good 
havens on the neighbouring coast — Bahia Finda and 
' lUcliu, liii. p. G3. 

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Bahia dos Tigres, the Port Alexander and Great Fish 
Bay of English writers. 

Portuguese West Africa labours under two great 
physical disadvantages — a deadly climate in the fertile 
northern provinces, an arid soil in the relatively healthy 
southern provinces. This, combined with gross mal- 
administration, the rapacity of ofBcials, and high tariffs, 
sufficiently accounts for the backward state of the colony, 
which has made but little prepress since the flourishing 
times of the "middle passage." In those days three- 
fourths of the revenue were derived from the sale of 
slaves destined mainly for the plantations of Brazil. 
Since tlie abolition of that traffic the revenue has never 
sufficed to cover the expenditure, so that Angola 
continues to be a burden to the home govemment 
Recently the revival of legitimate tiade has been 
checked by the establishment of the international 
tree trade area, which, owing to the heavy custom-house 
imposts in Angola proper, has tended to divert the ivory 
caravans northwards to the province of Zaire (Congoland) 
and even to the Congo Free State, Orchilla also, 
formerly a staple export, is becoming scarce ; while the 
sources of caoutchouc are being dried up by the reckless 
destruction of the rubber -yielding lianas throughout the 
lowland forests. But there stUl remain the fossil copal 
of the coastlands, the palm oil, gums, bast, timber, and 
drugs of the woodlands, the copper ores, argentiferous 
lead, and sulphur of the mineral districts, and the 
produce of the plantations — sugar, rum, tobacco, cotton, 
and especially the wild and cultivated coffee of the 
Coanza and Lucalla valleys. Over two -thirds of these 


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articles are taken hj Great Britain in exchange for 
textiles and other British wares. Much of the rest of 
the foreign trade is conducted with Germany, France, 
and Holland, so that the Portuguese administration has 
come to be regarded as a coas^uaxd aystem maintained 
in the interest of foreign nations. 

There is no local representation of any kind, and 
the government of the colony is entirely in the hands 
of the Governor- General, resident at Loanda, who is 
himself directly dependent on the home authorities. 
For administrative purposes the countiy is divided into 
four provinces i Zaire (Congoland), Loanda (Angola 
proper), Benguela, and Mossamedes, each subdivided 
into numerous Concelhos or Circles under Portuguese 
officiala Moat of the natives, except in the neighbour- 
hood of the towns, are still in the tribal state, and many 
of their sobas or " kings " are practically autonomous ; 
but in the more settled districts, to each soba is attached 
a Portuguese che/e or political i^nt 

A few public works have recently been taken in 
hand ; about 330 miles of the " Trans-African Bailway " 
had been completed in 1S94; the telegraph system has 
been extended to several inland stations ; good water 
has at last been supplied to the capital ; and a few roads 
have been constructed In the coastland districts. But it 
is obvious that there is no future for Angola as a Portu- 
guese colony. It is mainly unfit for European settle- 
ment,^ and its great natural resources can never be | 
developed by a country which has herself entered on a j 
long period of decadence, and which has no industrial 
products wherewith to effect a " balance of trade " with 
her African possessions. 

' Even European domestic animale succumb to the climate, (Jthonfih 
Angola liea beyond the ranf^e of the tsetse fly. The cat becomes panlyBcd, 
the dog loacs his scent, and horaea and iiomed cattle rapidly die off. 

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Gemun anneiatioiii in South - West Africa — Baundaries, Extent and 
Population of the Prot«otOTata — Geographical Research — Physical 
Features — Characteristica of Soil and CUni&te-' Changed Climatic 
Conditions— NatunJ Besoorce» ; Minerata— Inhabitants ; Bantu and 
Hottentot — The Ova-Hpo — The Boere ; Upingtonia— -The Ova- 
Uerero aod Hill Damania— The Nanus— The Hottentot Race and 
language- Table of the Chief Tribes in German Sonth-West A&ica 
— Papulation according to Races — German Policy ; Prospects of 
the Colony — Seaports and Inland Stations — Administnitiou- Wal- 
visch Bay. 

Osmuut Annexations 

Till recentiy the seaboard extending from the Canene 
to the Orange Eiver was on most maps usually coloured 
red, in accordance with the popular view which regarded 
the whole region from Cape Colony to Portuguese West 
Africa as forming part of British South Africa. Some 
of the coast islets, such as Boast Beef, Flumpudding, 
Pomona, Halifax, Penguin, Mercury and Hollams Bird, 
as well as the district on the mainland round about 
Walviflch* Bay, were even occupied or ofBciallj recog- 

» That is, Whal^fitK, but variously written Walfisch, Walviech, 
Walfiab, etc, in more or less incongruous Dutch spelling. 

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nised as Britiab territory ; Wftlvisch Bay stiU remains a 
dependency of Cape Colony. But in the year 1884, when 
the Gtermons began to build up their colonial empire, all 
the rest of the region in question was suddenly proclaimed 
a part of the imperial possessions under the designation 
of Liideritzland, afterwards changed to German South- 
WeBt A&ica. After the oaual protests and diplomatic 
wranglings the claim was duly rec<:^nised, and the limits 
of the German protectorate determined by two conven- 
tions with Great Britain {December 1884, and July 
1890) and one with Portugal (December 1886).^ 

Bonadarlu— Extent— Popolatlon 

In virtue of these conventions, German South-West 
Africa is enclosed on the north by Portuguese West 
Africa, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the 
BritiBh enclave of Walvisch Bay, on the south by Cape 
Colony, and eastwards by the British Crown Colony 
and protectorates of Bechuanaland. The northern 
frontier towards the Portuguese possessions follows the 

' " Undeterred bj tha fact that the twtuisl tod widel;- known deaire 
of Cape C0I0117 WW to eicpand northnMdt to the Zambesi, and that since 
1878 Walvisch Bay had, vith that object, been occnpied aa a British 
naval station, an enterprising Bremen merchant, Herr Liideriti, con- 
cluded a series or political and commercial treaties with native chiefs. 
whereby a claim was instituted over Angra Pequeoo, and over vast dis- 
tricts in the interior between the Orange River and Cape Frio. On 7th 
August 1SS4, the German flag was hoisted at Angra Pequeno, and on 
13th October 1884, Germany Tormalty notified to the Powers her Protector- 
ate over South- West Af^ca " (Silva White, The DmtlojnnatC qf^/riea, 
1S90, p. 204]. This event is specially interesting in the history of 
European colonisation, for Angra Pequena was the first annexation made 
by Germany beyond Europe, the foundation-stone, so to say, of her 
colonial empire, which has since been developed with such surprising 

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course of the Lower Cunene to the cataracts near 15° R 
longitude, beyond which it is indicat«d by a conventional 
line running due east to the river Eubango, then by the 
eastern course of that river to its sharp southern bend 
at Andara, where it is continued by another conventional 
line eastwards to the Eatima Bapids of the Zambesi, 
and then by the Zambesi itself to the Chobe confluence 
The southern frontier coincides entirely with the course 
of the Orange Eiver, terminating, at 20° R longitude, 
a little west of the Hygap confluence. On the east side 
the frontier line is purely conventional, following the 
20th meridian from the Orange £iver northward)) to 22° 
S. latitude, and then the 21 at meridian to 18° S. 
latitude, a few miles south of the Portuguese frontier. 
Here another conventional line running parallel with 
that frontier eastwards to the Chobe, and then along the 
course of that river to its confluence with the Zambesi, 
leaves a narrow strip of territory, nowhere less than 
20 miles wide, giving Germany free access to the 
Zambesi between the Portuguese and British possessions 
north and south. 

As thus defined, this region forms a rough triangular 
mass, with truncated apex resting on the Orange River, 
and broadening northwards with the north-western trend 
of the continental coast-line. It has a total length of 
about 900 miles, a mean breadth of 400 miles, and an 
uea roughly estimated at 400,000 square miles, with a 
scattered population supposed not to exceed 250,000, 
Id the north it encroaches eastwards on the Zambesi and 
Lake Kgami basins; in the south it meiges in the 
Kalahari Desert, while etlinologically it comprises in 
their order, from north to south, the ill-defined territories 
of Ovampo (Ovambo), Damara, and Great Xamaqua 

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GMcnphleal Bssurch 

The exploration of these lauds may be said to have 
begun with Livingstone's discovery of Lake Ngami in 
1849. Doubtless long before that date the seaboard 
had been surveyed, and a few temporary stations estab- 
lished at Walvisch Bay, Augra Fequena, and one or two 
other points on the coast. But no serious efforts had 
been made to penetrate from any of these stations into 
the interior, till an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
Francis Galton and Charles Andersson to opeu up a 
route from Walvisch Bay to Lake Kgaml Two years 
later Andersson reached the lake, thus connecting his 
itineraries with those of Livingstone, and since then the 
country has been traversed in almost every direction by 
travellers, traders, and especially by Finnish, German, 
and other missionaries, who had already founded stations 
in Bamaraland so far back as 1842. 

Conspicuous among the earlier explorers are Green, 
Hahn and Bath, Pa^rave and Hartley, Todd and Lewis, 
while, since the German occupation, more systematic 
surveys have been made, chiefly by Dr. Hans Sehinz 
(1884-86), Dr. F. M. Stapff (1885-86), Dr. A. Schenck 
(1888), and Baron von Steinacker (1888-89). Sehinz, 
after exploring the southern districts acquired by Herr 
Ltideritz, passed northwards through Ovampoland to the 
Cunene, and thence eastwards to Lake Kgami, returning 
to the coast through Damaraland, and afterwards again 
penetrating east to the Kalahari. To Stapff, gec^rapbical 
science is indebted for a careful geological survey of 
the Kuisip (Khoaib) valley, and other parts of ffamaqua- 
land. These surveys were continued and extended by 
Schenck over the whole region between Walvisch Bay 

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and the Orange Eiver ; while Yon Steinacker explored, 
and foT the first time accurately mapped, the Herero 
countiy (Damaraland) and the eastern districta in the 
direction of the Eubango and Chobe basins. 

Physical FeatTuea 

The normal plateau -formation, interrupted by the 
valley of the Cunene, again acquires a partial develop- 
ment in the r^on stretching from that river southwards 
to the Orange basin. But whereas north of the Cunene 
the tableland maintains a uniform elevation of about 
4000 feet for hundreds of miles eastward, here it assumes 
rather the character of a broad ridge descending seawards, 
either in terraces ov gently inclined slopes, or through a 
series of sandhills 300 or 400 feet high, and falUng 
landwards far more precipitously down to profound 
depressions separating it from the Kubango basin in the 
north and from the Kalahari Desert in the south. This 
ridge, whose main axis runs parallel with the coast at a 
mean distance of from 100 to 120 miles, traverses the 
■lortbem section, under the name of the Kaoko and 
Damara hills, at an average altitude of less than 3000 
feet : but as it approaches the latitude of Walvisch Bay 
it rises to nearly double that height, the whole system 
here culminating in Mount Omatako, 7650 feet above 
sea-leveL Soutli of this point the shield-shaped crest 
again falls to little over 3000 feet, at which mean 
altitude it traverses Kamaqualand southwards to the 
Orange valley. But in this southern section it often 
loses the character of a continuous range, breaking into a 
chain of hills, or even of isolated heights, which in many 
places affect the fantastic form of ramparts, towel's, or 

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pinnacles. Here some of the peaks east of Angra 
Pequena rise to an altitude of nearly 6000 feet, while 
the route leading from the coast eastwards to Bethany 
Station traverses the range at a height of 5300 feet. 

The prevailing formations are gneiss quartz, schists, 
recent chalks, crystalline lime-stones, and especially 
granites, whose disintegration appears to have given rise 




to the sands of the interior, while the coast dunes are 
by some geologiata supposed to be of marine origin. 
In any case, there is abundant proof of extensive up- 
heaval along this seaboard, where salt-water shells of 
the same species as those still inhabiting the neighbour- 
ing sea occiir as high as 70 feet above the present 
ocean-level. The remains of lai^e cetaceans have even 
been found at a height of nearly 100 feet half a mile 

ObaimctariBtics of Soil and OUmate 

It is commonly supposed that the whole of German 
South-West Africa is merely an arid sandy waste, with 
Bome grassy tracts in the northern and central districts, 
but with no natural resources beyond its inaccessible 
mineral wealth. Owing to the prevalence of this view 
little interest was taken in the country, which was left 
severely alone even by the Cape Government, uotwith- 

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standing the fact that the southern populations bad long 
drawn their chief supply of cattle from this very region. 
But the systematic surveys carried out since the German 
occupation have shown that the popular view ie mainly 
applicable only to Great Namaqualand — that is, to the 
Bouthem division between Walvisch Bay and the Orange 
Biver. Many parts of Ovampoland in the extreme 
north are even described by Br. Schinz as well suited 
for agricultural pursuits. The district of tTpingtonia, 
and other tracts occupied either by the Boers or by 
the more settled Ovampo tribes, are partly hilly and 
apparently rich in minerals, partly undulating limestone 
plains (an old lacustrine basin), sufficiently watered and 
of great natural fertility. Perennial springs abound, and 
for half the year, from November to April, the raiofall is 
consideiabla Malarial fevers, however, prevail durii^ 
this austral summer season, though they are of a far leas 
virulent nature than in Angola.^ 

Farther aouth follow Uie grassy plains and slopes 
of Damaraland, which afford excellent pasturage for 
numerous herds of homed cattle. But "Great Nama 
Land," as Dr. Stapff calls the region round about 
Walvisch Bay, is by this explorer divided into three 
distinct physical sections: — 1, The great stony desert 
of Namieb in the north ; 2, the valley of the Kuisip 
(Khosib), converging on Walvisch Bay ; and, 3, the 
sandy dunes stretching thence parallel with the coaet-line 
southwards to the Orange basin. 

Namieb presents the aspect of a vast plain rising 
almost imperceptibly landwards, and east of Walvisch 
Bay, attaining an altitude of 2000 feet at a distance of 
60 miles from the sea. The dreary prospect is unrelieved 

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hj the presence of a single tree or shrub ; but the view 
is broken here and there hy isolated eminences or small 
groups of hills, whose dark rock; walls present a sharp 
contrast to the surrounding yellow-grey plains. Here 
and there occur the so-called vl^, that is, shallow 
depressions in which the rain-water is collected, leaving 
after evaporation gradually accumulating saline and aandy 

Ohanged Climatic OoEdltiona 

South of the Euisip the sandy dunes — probably 
upheaved marine beds moulded to their present shape 
by the prevailing sonth-west winds — form a zone of 
absolute desert, where the tracks running inland from 
the coast have in some places to traverse as many as six 
of these parallel sandhills. Such is the dominant feature 
of this seaboard for hundreds of miles between Walvisch 
Bay and Cape Colony. These conditions appear to be 
the result of the gradual process of desiccation going on 
for ages in the two rainless zones which sweep round the 
northern and southern hemispheres at various distances 
&om the equator. In this r^on, as in the Sahara and 
the Central Asia deserts, abundant indications of the 
change from a moist to a dry climate are afforded by the 
vegetation of the river valleys, and especially of the 
Kuisip, where are still to be seen the dead or decaying 
stumps of the wild fig, ebony and other forest trees ; 
during the periodical freshets also many snags and 
large tree-trunks are carried down with the yellow floods 
from inland districts where no large vegetable growths 
now flourish.^ 

' Dr. F. H. Stapff, Pelermama'i MiUeihingen, July 1S87. It may het« 
be mentioned that about the year 1775 most of the Herero people 

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Another proof of change in the direction of greater 
dryness is seen in the recent firetaceous deposits which 
cover a large part of this r^on, and which in fact are 
distributed all over the southern part of the continent 
These chalks were deposited in relatively shallow brackish 
waters, showii^ that in a former geol<^cal epoch the 
surface of the land was strewn with lacustrine basins of 
all sizes. Scanty remains of such basins are the valleys 
and lakes scattered over the northern parts of the Kala- 
hari Desert. 

At present the rainfall is not sufficient to repair the 
loss suffered by evaporation. Hence Schinz and other 
recent travellers report that even Lake Ngami itself is 
much reduced in size, and apparently slowly drying up. 
It is noteworthy that the rain-bearing clouds precipitate 
their moisture at different periods on the coastlands and 
in the interior. On the seaboard it falls chiefly in the 
form of mist, during the winter season, whereas farther 
inland it occurs only in sunmier, and nearly always in 
connection with fierce thunderstorms. These thunder- 
showers are attributed by Schenck to the condensation of 
the moisture brought with the warm north-east winds 
i^m equatorial AMca by comiug in contact with the 
cool Boutb-west current setting from the coast towards 
the interior. 

But the annual rainfall, averting probably not more 
than three niches for the whole region, is nowhere suffi- 
cient to maintain permanent watercourses on the Atlantic 
slope of the divide. Hence not a single perennial stream 

abandoned their settUmenta in the Eaoko upUnda, and migrated Tarther 
wuth, vheie even at that recent date nator u stated to have been more 
abundant than at present. 

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reaches the sea for the space of about a thousand miles 
horn above tbe Guneiie to the Orai^ Kiver. Even the 
Tsoakhub (Swakop) and the Kuisip, the two largest of 
these streams, both of which reach the coast at Walviscb 
Bay, the former from the north-east, the latter from the 
south-east, are in the nature of wadys — dry sandy beds 
for a great part of the year, roaring torrents during the 
rainy season. The Tsoakhub, which rises to the east of 
the Damara highlands, traverses the plateau through a 
series of deep rocky gorges, and has a total course of 
nearly 250 miles. ^Notwithstanding the great extent of 
its catchment basin, the Kuisip, which intersects the 
Xamieb plain, does not always reach the coast even in 
the rainy season. Between the years 1866 and 1878 it 
is said to have never once sent any of its flood waters 
down to Walvisch Bay. 

Although draining a less extensive area than either of 
these wadys, the Omaruru is a more copious stream, 
retaining its waters for a longer period, and supporting a 
more extensive vegetation. Its coiu«e hes a few miles 
to the north and nearly parallel to that of the Tsoakhuh 
la Xamaqualand even the umaraviias, or intermittent 
streams, disappear. Here almost the only watercourse is 
the Little Orange, which descends from the north-east to 
Angra Fequena. 

On the opposite or inland slope the chief hydrographic 
system is that of the already described Etosha lagoon, 
which belongs to the Cuuene baain. When visited by 
Schinz in 1886, Etosha Pan presented the appearance of 
a veritable lake. Farther east the Umaramba-wa-Mataka 
flows north-east, and, under the name of the Seshongo, 
joins the Ombuengo or Okavaago, whose sluggish current 
ntmifles into several branches in a swampy district 
draining to Lake Ngaml 

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Tlie whole of the south-weet coast is exposed to the 
influence of the cold nmrine ciurent which sets steadily 
from the Antarctic waters north warda Hence the 
temperature is rarely excessive, even in smumer, and is 
all the more endurable because of the extremely dry 
atmosphere. For the same reason there is a general 
absence of malaria, except in the marshy districts of 
Ovampoland, about the Etosha Pan, and thence east- 
wards to Lake NgamL The Boers, who have made 
repeated attempts to establish themselves in this r^on, 
have often been decimated by fever, and compelled to 
abandon their settlements owing to the malarious cUmste. 
Farther south the obstacles to European colonisation 
arise, not from the climate, but from the lack of watei' 
and of land suitable for tiUage. In the whole of 
Kamaqualand, after years of strenuous efforts, the mis- 
sionaries have failed to bring more than ten or twelve 
aci-es under cultivation. 

On the other hand, Damaraland abounds in rich 
grazing grounds, and stock-breeding might certainly prove 
remunerative in this region. Both horned cattle and 
sheep thrive well In the Omaheke district, and horses 
might be raised in some of the upland valleys of the 
Kaoko country. Some of the lowland tribes are known 
as " Cattle Damaras," from the numerous herds which 
constitute their sole wealth. Since 1891 camels have 
been introduced, and are now employed on the routes 
between the coast and the interior. Their powers of 
endurance have been successfully tested on the borders of 
the Kalahari Desert, and they have hitherto resisted the 
many fatal diseases to which horses and even cattle are 
subject in fTamaqualand. 

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All the domestic aniinals now bred on the pasture 
lands of the higher grounds are sprung from stock 
originally introduced by Europeans. They may be said 
to have replaced the indigenous faima, for few wild 
animals are now found except the ubiquitous antelope, 
some small felines, jackals, rodents, snakes, and lizards. 
The most dangerous of these reptiles is the cuspedeiro, or 
"spitter" — a serpent which attains a length of about 2S 
feet. Crocodiles are confined to the Cunene basin, and 
the ostrich has disappeared from all the coastlands. 

Though the surveys are still far from complete, it is 
already known that this region is rich in minerals, especi- 
ally copper, which occurs throughout the plateau, and 
even in the Otavi Hills 280 miles north-east of Walvisch 
Bay, Argentiferous ores are found in the northern 
districts of Namaqualaud, and mining operations have 
already commenced at several points. But these resources 
can scarcely be properly exploited in the total absence of 
communications beyond mere tracts across the sandy plains. 

Inlubltanta — Banta and Hotteutot 

It is at once evident, from the local nomenclature 
alone, that this region is a land of transition between the 
northern Bantu and southern Hotteutot races. In Ovam- 
poland we find geographical terms such as Etosha, Otavi, 
Mataka, ending in open syllables in accordance with the 
harmonious Bantu phonetic system. Farther south the 
consonantal endings and harsh sounds of such names as 
Tsoakhub and Xhosab show that we have already 
entered the domain of the Ehoi-Khoin (" Men of Men "), 
as the Hottentots call themselves. The Ova-Mpo and 
Ova-Herero may in the same way be recognised as Bautu 
peoples from the prefix element ova (see p. 112), while 

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the Dama-ra and Nama-qua are seen to be Hottentot 
nations, or at least subjected to Hottentot influences, 
from the dual and plural endings, ra, qua^ peculiar to 
the Hottentot language. 

Speaking broadly, the northern and aouthem divisions 
(Ovampo and Namaqua Lands) are occupied exclusively 
by Bantu and Hottentot peoples respectively, while the 
central division (Dama-ra or Herero I^and) constitutes 
the debatable region where the two races have for 
generations been stru^lmg for the ascendency. Greo- 
graphically about three-fourths of the whole region is 
comprised within the Hottentot domain, which extends 
from the Orange Eiver uninterruptedly northwards to 
Walvisch Bay, and penetratea beyond that point far into 
the Damara uplanda But ethnologically this proportion 
is reversed, for the great bulk of tht population is centred 
in the northern (Bantu) districts. 

The Ora-Upo 

The northern Bantu populations are divided into a 
considerable number of tribal groups, all of which are 
under separate hereditary chiefs or " kings," except one, 
the Oranda, who have abolished the monarchy, and 
adopted a republican or communal form of government. 
They take their collective name from the Ova - Mpo 
group, which was the first met by Galton and Andersson 

' Qjia or leha is the mucnline plut&l, aa in Nuna.qua, Gri-qua, Rhora- 
qus, etc. ; m U the feminine dual, m that Dama-n resll]^ lueans " the 
two Dam* vomen." It %vae ont of a misapprehensiou on the part of the 
tint oxploten of tbe country. To their question as to its name the native 
^ide aniirered Duna.ts, supposing they referred to two D>ma women 
who happened to be passing at the time. The form should of course be 
Dama-qua, like Ntma-qoa, and these again, being plural forms, ahonld, 
strictly speskins, hs Englished Dunos, Namaa, not Damaqnas, Namaquas. 

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in 1852, at which time their king, Xangoro, had hia 
FesideDce at Ondonga. 

Physically the Ova-Mpo are a fine race, tall, robust, 
well proportioned, with regular features and bright 
expreasion, bespeakiug a cousiderable degree of intelli- 
gence. They are industrious agriculturists, but also 
uotorioua cattle-lifters, and given to inter-tribal warfare. 
With a view to quell the disturbances, and establish 
some kind of orderly administration, the Cape Govern- 
ment sent a mission under Mr. W, Coates Palgrave to 
the Ova-Mpo and Damara nations in the year 1876. 
Mr. Palgrave was well received, and much valuable 
information on the relations of these people was em- 
bodied in bis report on the results of the mission, pub- 
lished at Cape Town in 1877. 

Amongst the Ova-Mpo also dwell a few scattered 
communities of Busbmen, the Kla-Cuancalas of the early 
Portuguese settlers. They have been reduced to a state 
of servitude by the Bantus, who employ them as carriei-s 
of ivory and iron and copper ores. The natives under- 
stand the art of smelting these ores, from which they 
manufacture excellent metal ware. 

Tha Boers — Uplngtonia 

After their withdrawal from Mossamedes, the Boers, 
under their leader, Mr. Jordan, purchased a tract of 
country in the Ondango district about a copious spring, 
the Groot - Fontein, east of Lake Etosha. Here was 
founded in 1844 their short-lived republic of " Uping- 
tonia," so named in honour of the well-known statesman, 
Mr, Upington, of Cape Colony. It stretched from Lake 
Etosha eastwards in the direction of the Ngami basin, 
and was said to have an area of 20,000 square miles, 

VOL 11 Jf 

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parcelled out in allotments of 6000 acres. But although 
the laud vas fertile and well watered, the climate was 

malarious, and after the murder of Mr. Jordan, iu June 
1886, the republic collapsed, the Boer settlers accepting 
the German protectorate. 

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The Ov»-Hemo and Hill 

Damaraland, which comprises the £aoko highlands, 
aud which extends from the Ovampo territory to 
Walvisch Bay, is a region of great ethnical confusion. 
The population ia bioadly divided into highlanders and 
lowlaoders, the fonner commonly known as " Hill 
Damaras," the latter as " Cattle Damaras," or " Damaras 
of the Plains." This term " Damara," however, which is 
of Hottentot origin, is rejected by most of the tribes, 
who are certainly of Bantu stock, and who call them- 
selves Ova-Herero, meaning in their Bantu language the 
"Merry People." Even the highlanders are regarded 
by Galton and others as of Bantu stock, though assimi- 
lated in speech and some other respects to the Hotten- 
tots, and on that account generally supposed to be a 
branch of that race. Thus Herero and Damara may be 
token as practically synonymouB terms, though it might 
be convenient to restrict the fonner to the true Bantus 
of the plains, and reserve the latter for the Hottentot- 
speaking tribes of l^e uplands. 

Traditionally the Ova-Herero reached their present 
homes about two hundred years ago from the region 
north of the Cunene, being apparently descended from 
the Ma-Tamas, who figure on the old maps as the 
dominant people ttf the " 0reat Matamsn " kingdom in 
the south and east of Mossamedes.' They passed 
thence southwards between the Ova-Mpo and the coast 
to the Eaoko district, where another dispersion took 
place, some under the name of Ova-Mbandem migrating 

1 Thtu on tbe m*p of Stcka, Attached to FUippo Pig»retta's Belatiimi 
id Stoma di Oanjfa, Bom« 1691, UftUma u pUoed west o( the faboloua 
an^nie of MooomotapK, and «oath of the equall]' febulons " Lago 
Aquclatia " (Aqnilniida) east of the present proTiDce at HouuuedM. 

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eastwards in the direction of Lake Ngami, some settling 
permanently in Kaokoland, while the majority pushed 
Bouthwards nearly to Walvisch Bay. Here they came 
into collision with the Hau-Khoin, or "True Hottentots" 
of the hills, and the warfare thus begun between the 
two races has been carried on almost incessantly ever 

About the middle of the present century the Ova- 
Herero gained a signal victory over the Namaqua by the 
aid of the Swedish traveller, Andersson, who had acci- 
dentally become involved in the firay. But the Namae, 
being furnished with firearms from 
the Cape, soon recovered from this 
disaster, and in the subsequent 
Btru^le appear to have more than 
held their own. In October 1890 
their chief Witbooi defeated their 
hereditary foea in a pitched battle, 
in which the Herero chief, Epias, 
was slain. Hitherto the German 
authorities have abstained from taking 
any part in these conflicts, their policy 
being to foment the rivalries of the 
hostile tribes, and thus prepare the 
way for European colonisation. 

The Ova-Herero, who are even a 

finer people than the kindred Ova- 

'"^Hj!^r^!ilN^' ^P"' ""^ essentially a pastoral nation 

divided into numerous tribes or castes 

{eanda), whose headmen acknowledge the authority of 

the paramount chief of Damaralantt They have long 

beeu in close contact with the whites, and many have 

at least outwardly conformed to the Christian religion 

preached by the Finnish and other missionaries settled 

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amongst them. But m&ny pagan practices still 
3iir\-ive, and certain forest trees are the object of 
' a kind of worship, being regarded by them as the 
forefothers of mankind. A peculiarity of the race, 
shared in even by tlieir cattle, is their dislike of salt, 
which appears never to be collected by them from the 
salt-pans, nor ever used as a condiment 

The tme aborigines of this region are certainly the 
£hoi-Khoin (Hottentots), who, jointly with the allied 
Sans (Bushmen), formerly occupied the whole of South 
Africa, probably as far north as the Zambesi. But their 
domain has been gradually encroached upon by the 
Bautus advancing from the north, and by the European 
settlers in the estreme south, until it is now reduced to 
a comparatively narrow enclave in the south-west comer 
of the continent, roughly limited northwards and east- 
wards by 20° south latitude and 23° east longituda 
North of the Orange River they form two distinct 
groups, the pure and half-caste Khoi-Khoin of Great 
Xamaqnaland, and the more or less mixed Han-Ehoin or 
Haa-Damop (" Tme Khoin," or " True Damas ") of the 
Damara uplands north of Walvisch Bay. 

These Ova-Zorotu (" Hillmen "), as they are called by 
their Herero neighbours, are a feeble folk of low stature 
and weak frames, apparently forming a transition 
between the true Bushmen, with whom they are often 
confoimded, and the true Hottentots of Xamaqualand. 
Most of them are redaced to a state of bondage by the 
local stock-breeders, while others are grouped in small 
communities round about the missionary stations. They 
have ceased to take any part in the national struggle 
between the Herero and Namas, and they are now 
chiefly distinguished by their remarkable musical talent 

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The Nunu 

The Namaqua proper, formerly said to number 
several hundred thousand, are now reduced to little 
over 20,000, including 3000 settled in Little Namaqua- 
land south of the Orange Eiver. In German territory 
they are scattered in small pastoral groups as far north 
as Walvisch Bay, and from the coast inland to the veige 
of the Kalahari Desert. In this wide domain they 
form three main divisions : (1) the Namas proper with 
about twelve tribal subdivisions, the true aborigines of 
Kamaqualand; (2) the Orhtms} who migrated north- 
wards from the Cape about the b^^iuning of this 
century, and who form five tribal groups ; (3) the 
Baataards, Dutch -Hottentot half-breeds, also from the 
Cape, with no tribal divisions, hut distributed in five 
settlements between Walvisch Say and the Xalahari 

The Hottentot Race and Language 

The Namas proper, who are full-blood Khoi-Khoin, 
may be taken as the most typical branch of the 
Hottentot^ race, not only in Namaqualand, but in the 
whole of South Africa They consequently afford the 

' AoeordiDg to Andersaon, Orlam is a comiption of the Datcb (yerlandy 
that is, " OvBrUnJ," in referonee to their urival by the overland ront« 
from the Cape under their faiuous leader, "A&ikander." The term 
Afrikander, originally applied in a eontamptuoni Eema to the Dntoh 
Hottentot mongrels, has now acquired a more elevated natioiial meatiing, 
indicating the descendants of theDutch-Hugaenotand sren of the Engluh 
aettlen ; in fact, all natiTe-bom colonials an Afrikanders. 

' No Mtisfactoiy explanation haa been giren of this word, which 
already occurs in the earlieat records, and vhich seemi to be of onoma- 
topceic origin, suggested probably to the tiist European Mttlers by the 
jabbering or nnintelligible chatter of these natives. 

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best opportunities for the study of this race, which still 
remains one of the most difficult problems of African 
ethnology. Although possessing some traits, such as 
black woolly hair, broad flat nose and thick everted lips, 
in common with the N^ro, other peculiarities, both 
physical and mental, require them to be separated from 
that race. Such are especially a yellowish-brown com- 
plexion, extreme dolichocepbaly, somewhat oblique brown 
eyes, and excessively prominent cheek-bones, which, 
combined with a pointed chin, gives to the face a decided 
triangular shape. To these must be added some other 
highly characteristic racial features, such as very lat^ 
lobeless ears, steatopygia, and the tabtier, where it is to be 
remarked that such features, though very prevalent, are 
not universal amongst the Hottentots, while thej are 
constant smoi^t all Bushman women. The two 
languages also have in common those peculiar atterancea 
known as " clicks," which no European can pronounce, 
and which seem to hold a middle position between 
articulate and inarticulate speech. Here again the 
" clicks," restricted to four in Hottentot, are almost 
unlimited in Bushman,* so that the conversation of a 
group of these natives resembles the cackling of geese to 
the European ear. On these and other grounds — low 
stature, analogous usages, weapons, traditions and the 
like — it may, perhaps, be inferred that the Bushmen are 
the true aboriginal element in South Africa, and that the 
Hottentots are fundamentally Bushmen, modified by 
croesings with the Negro and Negroid peoples advancing 
irom the north, and partly exterminating, partly absorb- 
ing the primitive populationa 

Apart from the " clicks," the Hottentot language 

' The; occur in no otbsr known Ittnguags except the Znln-Eafir, vhieh, 
however, posaeuca three onlj, evidently borrowed from Hottentot 

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presents some other remarkable characters, which are as 
great a puzzle to philologists as the race itself is to the 
anthropologist. Notwithstanding the debased condition of 
the people themselves, their speech is so highly developed, 
both in its rich phonetic system, as represented by a 
very delicately graduated series of vowels and diphthongs, 
and in its varied gitimmatical structure, that Lepsius 
sought for itB afBnities in the Egyptian, at the other 
extremity of the continent. But this relationship, which 
would place it on a level with the Hamitic group of 
languf^^, has not been established, and Hottentot 
i-emains without any known congeners either in Africa 
or elsewhere. Like the Indo-Chinese family, it possesses 
tones by which different meanings are imparted to the 
same word ; like the Aryan tongues, it has a true 
objective (accusative) case clearly indicated by the 
endings in the singular, dual and plural ; lastly, like the 
very highest orders of speech (Aryan, Semitic, and 
Hamitic), and unlike any other known linguistic group, 
it has evolved true grammatical gender, marked by 
distinct endings for the masculine, feminine and neuter 
of all three numbers. No satisfactory theory has yet 
been suggested to account for auch phenomenal perfection 
in the structure of a language spoken by one of the most 
degraded ethnical groups still surviving in any part of 
the world. 

As an essentially pastoral people, the Nama Hottentots 
are distinguished on the one hand from the Susbmen, 
who live exclusively by the chase, on the other from 
the Negro people, and the great majority of the Bantus, 
who are mainly, though not exclusively, (^riculturists. 
The national garb is the well-known kaross, or sheepskin, 
worn with the woolly side out in summer and reversed 
in winter. It is supplemented by the olihuh^ or apron 

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reaching below the knees, and usually embellished with 
glass beads. A conic bonnet of zebra skin was at one 
lime common, while the body is still smeared with a 
mixture of grease and a reddish powder, producing an 
almost intolerable odour. 

The Nama huts are frail structures of matting, sup- 
ported by a light framework of branches, and Iwiuul 
together by cordage made of tendons or mimosa bark. 
They are weighted with stones gainst high winds, and 
protected from animals by a thorny fence. These huts 

are carried from one camping ground to another by those 
clans which still lead a nomad existence, while others 
are permanently grouped round the missionary stations. 
All the Orlams, and most of the other tribes, have 
already been converted, mostly by Protestant missionaries. 
But under the outward form of Christianity many old 
superstitions Bur\'ive, and the Heilzi-EUnb, or great spirit, 
is still alternately rewarded with offerings or overwhelmed 
with maledictions, according as he shows himself pro- 
pitious or hostile to the community. Like many other 
nomads, they welcome the stranger with a show of 
hospitality, but once beyond their district he is regarded 

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as lawful prey. Polygamy, although accepted in theory, 
is rare, and even the widower is said seldom to marry 
again. The tribal government, as with most pastoral 
peoples, is of a somewhat patriarchal character ; but the 
hereditary chie&, now usually bearing such Christian 
names as Barnabas, Simon, David, Andrew, etc., are kept 
under control by a council of elders, by whom all pains 
and penalties are awarded. 

Table of the Ohiof Tribes in Oennaa 8ontIt-WMt Aftiea 


Atu£i Okafmu (Okslina)', OT>-EwMig»m» ; On-UbaTandii (O- 
MbUodu) ; Groat and Little O-Mbaqja ; O-Rnnda-EoDntwe ; O-Eaiuthi 
(O-Kwoladi) ; OvaEwambi (O-Ewunbi) ; Ora-NgaDJ^n (Oangera) ; Ova- 
MpD (0-Ndonga) ; Ha-CiuDcalla. 

Ota-Hebbbo Obottfs (Davaka Lowlaitds] 
EamahoFBTD ; Thsrawa (Zeram) ; Eaviogava ; Cunbatliembe (Eamba- 
tembi) ; Eamaretti (Kunareti) ; Eau^jy* (Eand^^i) ; Omngmida ; Ova- 
Mbtnderu ; Rukuri ; Ora-T^mba. 

JfoU. — All bvt On iatl thrte aft namtdfiom tittir htatb^tn. 
These are the Cattle, or Lowlaad, Damans of Engliab vriUrs ; the 
Eamagha Damaras of the Hottentots. 

Hau-Khoia, i.e. "Tme Hottentots," \ 

or } (Daman Dplande). 

Hau-Damop, i.s. "True DamHrai." ) 
SfoU. — These are the Hill Damans of Engluh writers ; the On-Zorotn 
of the Hereroa. They are not " true Hottentots," but ntber Hottentot- 
speaking BantuB (Hereroa) with a strain of Hottentot blood. 

Naha Groups (NAHAQCALiin)} 

I.— Pure Namaa (full-blood Hottentots); Geikon ("Bed Hen"); 
Topniar ; Ehoro-oa ; Ehogei ; Ogei ; Ehan-Goa ; Eatagei-Ehoi ; Gamina 
(BondleiwMTts) ; Haboba (Velsohoen-drager) ; Gunungu ("Lowlandara"), 

II. — Orlama (Hottentots from Cape Colony) ; EishaAi ; Enwiai ; Ama ; 
Ebana ; Gobahi (Oei-Kbaua). 

III.— Baetaaids; Dutch -Hottentot half-breeds from the Cape. No 
tribal divisions. 

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Ora-Hpo 100,000 

On-Heraro 70,000 

Han-Ehoin 20,000 

Nsmu proper 10,000 

OtIuu 4,000 

Bttstaarda 1,000 

Buhmen 2,000 

Whites 1,200 

TobJ 208,200 

Gemian FoKey — ^PrMpecta of the Oolonr 

Even before the German occupation, both the Namaa 
and Hereros appear to have been steadily decreasing, and 
this tendency has been stimulated by the action of their 
present rulers. It was reported in Berlin, in December 
1890, that the ofDcers of the German force stationed in 
Damaraland had bonght up the stores of the insolvent 
German Colonial Company, and are at present carrying 
on a flourishing trade with the natives, " bartering," 
amongst other things, " alcoholic liquors and ammunition." 

As soon as the indigenous element are sufficiently 
thinned down by these and similar processes, the inten- 
tion is to introduce white settlers wherever the conditions 
are favourable for European colonisation. Imperial aid 
has already been obtained for this purpose, and one of 
tlie items in the Foreign Office estimates for 1893-94 
is a vote of £13,600 for the German Colonies in Soath- 
west A&ica, including £5000 "towards establishing 
German farmers in those regions." 

No settlements of this sort can be formed in great 
Namaqualand, that is, anywhere south of Walvisch Bay, 
although this is the very region where treaty rights were 
first secured by Herr Liideritz, and which for a time 

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was known as Liideritzlaod. So far back as 1819 
Moffiit bad described it aa a conntiy yielding mucb sand 
and stones, witb a scattered population baked like toast 
in a broiling sun. Later, Andersson, who had traveraed 
it in all directions, declared that, not even excepting the 
Sahara, there was probably on the surface of the globe 
no region of equal extent so thinly peopled, so barren, so 
unproductive. " It is in the strictest sense of ^e word 
a cursed land." The Imperial Ck)mmi8sioner himself. Dr. 
Nachtigal, was obhged to confirm these descriptions, 
while the mission sent out in 1885 to study the resources 
of Liideritzland concluded that tiiere was nothii^ to 
justify the hopes that had been entertained regarding 
Herr Llideritz's "brilliant colonial scheme."' In 1894 
the imports were :£45,000 ; exporte, £6500; revenue, 
£52,000, mostly from Imperial funds. 

Some agricultural settlements might be established in 
Ovampoland, but for the malarious climate and the com- 
petition of the settled Ova-Mpo populations, who are too 
numerous and too intelligent to be got rid of by the 
" civilising agencies " introduced by German ofBcials and 
speculators. Consequently there is no future for any 
part of the German protectorate except Bamaraland, 
which might afford support to a limited number of 
European stock-breedera But even here there are many 
serious drawbacks. Standing feuds continue to prevail 
amongst the hostile Bantu and Hottentot populations ; 
cattle-lifting raids are a normal condition of these feuds ; 
the coastlands are mostly sandy and unproductive, while 
there is no access to the fine grazing grounds of the 
plateau except through the British enclave of Walvisch 

■ Peiermann't MiUeiiungex, 168S, viii. p. 238. 

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Seaports and Inland Stations 

In Germao territory the only harbours are Ogden on 
the Damara coast, about 180 miles south of Cape Frio, 
formed by a line of coial reefs which enclose a tolerably 
safe sheet of water, but of difficult access and surrounded 
by an arid waste ; Sandwich Raven {Porto do Ilkeo), just 
south of Walvisch Bay, well sheltered from all winds, 
but very small and in danger of being choked by the 
silting sands ; lastly, Angra Pequena, on the Namaqua 
coast, somewhat more than midway between "Walvisch 
Bay and the Orange Biver. Despite its name, meaning 
in Poi-tuguese " Little Bay," Angra Pequena is a spacious 
island-etudded inlet penetrating five miles inland, with 
good anchorage in seven or eight fathoms of water, pro- 
tected from all except the north winds. But the great 
hopes regarding the future prosperity of this port have 
not been realised. It lies in a barren district absolutely 
destitute of fresh water beyond the turbid stream occa- 
sionally sent down by the Little Orange Kiver during 
the rainy season. Hence no trade has been developed 
except in a little fish, minerals, and cattle, and the Ger- 
man factory established here in 1887 has already been 
abandoned. The ne^hbouring islets of Ichaboe and 
Halifax are frequented by myriads of aquatic birds, and 
yield considerable quantities of guano, which in some years 
is shipped to the value of £20,000. 

In the interior of the German possessions there are 
DO towns of any kind nor even any permanent centres 
of population, beyond a few missionary stations scattered 
abont the whole r^on and some trading-places in the 
northern provinces. Such are Omai-unt, the chief market 
of the Hereros, some miles north of Walvisch Bay ; 

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Otyimiingve, on the Tsoakhub ; Okdhanja ajid Otyikaftgo 
{New JSarmm), oa the upper course of the ssjue river ; 
Beboboth, in the Kuisip basin. All these places are dis- 
posed round about Walvisch Bay, which is the only 
possible outlet for their trade. In Kamaqualand the 
only settlements are the missionary stations of Bethany, 
on the plateau due east of Ai^ra Fequana, Nisb^s Bath 
(Warmiad), on a little afSuent of the Orange BiTer, and 
the new agricultural station of StohmfeU, on the north 
bank of the Orange below the Hundred Falls. 


In Grerman South-Weat Africa the Imperial authority 
scarcely extends beyond the coastlande, which are under 
the jurisdiction of the " Deutsche-Kolonial Greaellschaft 
iUr Siidweet Afrika." The protectorate forms the two 
administrative regions of Deutsch-Kamaland in the south 
and Deutsch-Damaraland in the north, the whole being 
under the noDUDal authority of an Imperial Com- 
missioner. In 1892 a concession was granted to an 
Anglo 'German Company to work the mines in the 
northern part of the territory. 

WalTlBdi Bay 

The British enclave of Walvisch Bay lies about 
exactly midway between the Cunene and Orange estuaries. 
It has a total area of some 700 square miles, thoi^h the 
actual limits have not yet been determined, being reserved, 
with the question of a disputed German right-of-way 
through the south-eastern comer, for future settlement. 
The importance of this question lies in the fact that the 

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contested district gives access from the German statioa 
of Sandwich Haven to the interior, and also contains the 
only supply of fresh water to be had within a radius of 
100 miles. 

The geographical and political importance of Walvisch 
Bay can scarcely be overrated. It gives direct access to 
the two great watercourses Tsoakhub and Kuisip, which 
here converge from the north-east and south-east ; it is 
thus practically the only natural outlet for a region some 
400,000 square miles in extent, stretching from the 
seaboard inland to Zambesia, and from Angola south- 
wards to Cape Colony. The whole of this region is at 
the mercy of the poUtical masters of Walvisch Bay, 
which in the hands of an alien Power might serve as a 
convenient base of operations directed against the British 
possessions between the Zambesi and Orange Eivers. 

At present this vitally important strategical point is 
an administrative dependency of the Cape, and it is 
politically held by England in trust for her future South 
African empire, the consolidation of which has already 
b^un. Hence it is not surprising that both the Imperial 
and Colonial Governments are at one as regards the 
policy of holding this commodious naval station and 
declining to treat with Germany for its surrender on any 
terms. If Germany cannot retain profiUible possession 
of her hastily, perhaps rashly, acquired South- West African 
protectorate without Walvisch Bay, she must abandon it, 
for Great Britain cannot certainly afford to abandon 
Walvisch Bay. 

The harbour, easily approached by a channel four 
fathoms deep, affords good anchoi-age in depths of four to 
five fathoms, and is completely sheltered from all winds 
except those blowing from the north-west, which are rare 
on this seaboard. It tekes its name from the whales 

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which formerly abounded in the neighbouring waters, 
but which are now rarely seen. The oatrich and elephant, 
at one time numerous on the surrounding grasBj uplands, 
have also disappeared, so that the ivory and feathers 
formerly shipped at this port have now given place to 
hides and cattle exported chiefly to the Cape. Since the 
German occupation of Damaraland, Walvisch Bay has 
been declared a free port for all exchanges with Europe 
and the colonies. It has thus retained the fore^n trade 
which might else have been diverted to the neighbouring 
German station of Sandwich Haven. 

The Walvisch Bay territory is inhabited by the Top- 
naar tribe, who are a branch of the Name Hotlentote. 

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Extent, BonuJnrifls, Coast-line— Dependencies, Areas, PopQlatioDi — HU- 
torical Survey ; tha Portuguese Fioneera — The Dutch in South Africa 
—The English in South Africa— The Kafir Wan ; Kafir GeoealogiN 
— Geographical Research — Phyaical Features — The Karroos — Biver 
Systems— The Onnge Baan— Climate— Flora— Fauna—The Ifative 
Populations— The Cape Hottentots— The Baotus- The Ua-Satoa— 
The Kafirs- The Bushmen— Chief Tribal Divisions- Towns and 
Stations — Eailway DeTslopment — Griqualand West and its Diamond 
Fields— Resources: 'Hllage, Pasturage, Industries, Trade— Education, 
Finance, Religion, Communications— Administration-Political Fore- 
cast; Confederation. 

Extent — BonndaileB — Ooast-lise 

Ever aince the permanent occupation of the southern 
extremitj' of the Continent by Great Britain at the 
beginning of the present century, the expression Cape 
Colony has ahnost continuously undergone a modification 
of meaning nearly altraya in the direction of enlarge- 

At first restricted to the ordinal Dutch settlements 
on the seaboard, limited east by the Great Fish Biver, it 
was gradually extended northwards to the Orange, then 
eastwards successively to the Kei, the Umtata, and the 

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Umzimkutu riTers, until, either by peacefal annexatioa 
or Gooquest, the whole region hae been absorbed, which 
is contemiinous in the north-west with Gennan South- 
West Africa, in the north-east with the British colony of 
Natal and the Orange Free State, in the north with 
the Bechuanaland Protectorate, and at one point with the 
south-west comer of Transvaal, 

The northern frontier coincides with the course of the 
Orange to the 20th meridian, where a conventional line is 
drawn northwards and eastwards round to the Yaal, so as 
to enclose the trans-Orange districts of Bechuanaland and 
Griqualand West Then it is deflected along the Free 
State border sonthwards to the Orange just above Hope 
Town, whence it follows that river to the Basuto plateau, 
where it again turns north to the Caledon, which forms 
the boundary to its source at the Natal frontier. Here 
the frontier hue is marked by the crest of the main 
Drakenberg range to the source of the TJmzimkulu, 
whence to the Indian Ocean the boundary is contermin- 
ous with that of Natal. 

Between the Orange and TJmzimkulu estuaries there 
is a total coast-line of over 1200 miles, washed in the 
west by the Atlantic, in the south by the Indian Ocean, 
and broken hy several bold headlands, such as, going 
eastwards. Cape Castle, Cape of Good Hope, Danger 
Point, Cape Agulhas, southernmost land of the Con- 
tinent, Cape St, Francis and Cape Eecife. These bead- 
lands endoae a number of open inlets or exposed 
roadsteads, such as St. Helena Bay, Table Bay, False 
Bay, Mossel Bay, Plettenbergs Bay, and Algoa Bay, 
besides one really good natural haven, Saldanha Bay, 
just south of St. Helena Bay on the Atlantic. Like 
most of the African seaboard, the coast is also absolutely 
destitute of any islands, with the solitary exception of 

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the small Kobben Island in Table Bay, a little north of 
Cape Town, interesting to zoologists for its peculiar 

Dependencies — Areas — Popnl&tiona 

Within the above-described frontiers are included, 
not only Cape Colony proper, which is mainly limited 
eastwards by the Kei river, and which has long enjoyed 
parliamentary representation with a responsible ministry, 
but also certain outlying dependencies almost exclusively 
inhabited by native populations, which still enjoy a 
measure of self-government, but without representation 
in the Cape Parliament. These dependencies, which 
have continually fluctuated in extent, and even in name, 
during the progress of conquest or annexation since the 
middle of the present century, comprise, besides the 
Crown Colony of Basutoland on the Free State frontier, 
the whole seaboard between the Cape' and Natal. 
From their geographical position beyond the Kei, they 
are officially known as the " Transkeian Territories," 
while from the dominant race the whole region takes 
the name of Kaffraria or Kalirland. 

Including these satellites and the recently incorpor- 
ated districts of Griqualand West and Bechuanaluid ^ 
beyond the Orange Kiver, Cape Colony constitutes a com- 
pact imperial dominion nearly 600 miles long from ocean 
to ocean, and 450 miles broad between the Orange River 

' In accordsnce vith a convenient and historic uae of the word, the 
tenn "Cape," that ia "Cape of Good Hope," will here be taken as 
aynonyniDus with Cape Colon;, whoee official title ii " Colon j of the 
Cape of Good Hope." 

' T>ie colony of Bechoinaland recently incorporated with the Cnp« it 
described in chap. Tiii. together with the Bechuanaland Protectorate. 

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and the south coast, with a total area of about 2SO,000 

sqoare miles, and a heterogeneous population of nearly 
2,000,000 as under: — 

Ana In FopDlitlon 

sq. milts. OSSI). 

Cape Colon; proper with OriqnalaDd West . 263,400 1,053,000 
Timaskei proptr, with Plngolutd, Idntyw* 

Reseire, and GcalekaUnd .... 2,500 161,000 
Tembuland proper with BomTanaluid and 

Emigrant Tembnland 4,000 180,000 

Oriqualand East, with Port St. John'* teni- 

toiy, NDinaTwIuid, and the GatbsrK ■ 7,C>00 162,000 

Pondoknd 3,600 200,000 

Basatoland, Crown Colony .... 10,300 220,000 

Total . . 291,300 1,959,000 

Historical Bxavej — The Portognese Pioaeers 

It is noteworthy that the Portuguese, by whom the 
whole of the South African seaboard was first surveyed, 
seldom attempted to found any permanent settlements 
south of Angola on the west and Sofala on the east 
coast After discovering the Congo estuary in 1482, 
they penetrated boldly into the austral seas, advancing 
30 rapidly that in 1486 Bartholomew Diaz had already 
reached and doubled the conspicuous headland at the 
south-western extremity of the Continent. Owing to 
the fierce winds which here retarded his further progress 
eastwards to Algoa Bay, he named this headland Caio dos 
Tormentos (" Stormy Cape ") ; but hia sovereign, John II., 
who already divined the vast importance of the discovery 
for the development of Portuguese power and commerce 
in the eastern seas, changed this for the more auspicious 
designation of Caho de Boa Esperavxa (" Cape of Good 
Hope "), which it has since retained. 

No further advance was made till the year 1497, 

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when the Cape was again doubled by Vasco de Gtama, 
who coasted Uie sontbem shores of the Continent, and 
opened the direct route to the East Indies. America 
had been discovered five years pre\'iou8ly, and twenty- 
four years later the circumnavigation of the globe was 
completed by the Magellan expedition. These memor- 
able events ushered in the modem era of European 
expansion, which was destined to embrace the whole 
world, but which was longest resisted in the African 
Continent The arrival of the Portuguese in the eastern 
waters was rapidly followed by the overthrow of Arab 
ascendency in the Indian Ocean, and by the occnpation 
of innumerable trading stations in the Persian Gnlf, 
India, and Malaysia ; nearly the whole of Central and 
South America was in the same way overrun and 
occupied by the Conquistadores within a few decades of 
the discovery. But for centuries no progress was made 
in Africa beyond the establishment of a few factories 
and slave markets round the seaboard. Even in the 
extreme south, with a climate and environment analogous 
to those of the Mediterranean regions themselves, no 
settlements of any kind were made for nearly 150 years 
after Vasco de Gama's voyage to the East 

During this intermediate period, however, the Cape 
continued to be a port of call or victualling station for 
the Portuguese and the other seafaring nations on their 
long voyages to the eastern seas. The whole seaboard 
was also roughly surveyed by the Portuguese, as is 
sufficiently evident from Livio Sanuto's Oeograjia and 
accompan}'ing charts published In 1588, and Pigafetta's 
Map of Africa fl591), where the nomenclature is exclu- 
sively Portuguese from the Congo estuary on the west 
to the " Bocas de Cuamas " (Zambesi delta) on the east 
coast. Much of this terminology still remains;, whence 

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the oconrrence of auch names as Cabo Frio, Angra 
Pequeoa, St Helena and Saldanha Bays, False (Falao) 
Bay, Cape Agulhaa, Algoa and Delagoa Bays, Natal 
(Terra do Natal), Cape Delgado, etc, on a seaboard 
meet of which waa never occupied by a single Portuguese 

The Ihitch in South AfH«a 

Before the close of the sixteenth century the Dutch, 
following in the track of Yasco de Gaum, had found 
their way to the East. But although the account of 
their first voyage of 1595, published at Amsterdam in 
1609, already contains a notice of the "Hottentot" 
aborigines, they made no attempt to o<icupy any territory 
at that time. It was significant for the future political 
destinies of this region that the first actual occupation 
of the Cape was made in 1620 by two passing ships of 
the English East India Company in the name of 
England. But this formal act of possession was not 
ratified by the British Government, and the first per- 
manent settlement was effected by the Dutch in 1652. 
Four years previously a Dutch vessel bad been ship- 
wrecked on the coast of Table Bay, and some of the crew 
while waiting to be rescued had occupied their time in 
exploring the district. Induced by their report, the 
Dutch East India Company sent out a few settlers under 
Jan Anthon van Biebeek, who built a small fort and 
laid down the very lines along which the future capital 
of South Africa was developed at th-i north foot of Table 
Mountain, on the south side of Table Bay. 

The Dutch remained for over 140 years in undis- 
turbed possession of this vitally important station on the 
ocean highway between Europe aaid the East Till 

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about the year 1700 the settlement was confined to a 
small district enclosed by a curved Hne drawn from the 
mouth of the OUphant Eiver southwards to False Bay. 
Bat during the eighteenth century the territory was 
gradually extended eastwards to the Gamtoos River, at 
that time forming the boundary between the Hottentot 
and Eafir races, and thence, in 1786, to the Great Fieh 

The first Boers,* or peasant fanners, mainly Dutch, 
with a few Germans, had begun to arrive as early as 
1654, and after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
(1685) they were joined by a considerable number of 
French Huguenots, as well as other Protestants (WaJ- 
denses) from the Piedmontese Alpine valleys. Owing 
to their great intelligence, energy, and agricultural skill, 
these immigrants took a leading part in the development 
of the colony, and to them is especially due the success- 
ful introduction of viniculture. Having brought their 
families with them, they increased more rapidly than the 
Dutch, many of whom were oEBcials and soldiers who 
had intermarried with the native women and given rise 
to the still existing mongrel element commonly known 
as " Baataards." Nevertheless, the French and other 
non - Dutch settlers were gradually absorbed in the 
dominant race after the year 1724, when all languages 
except Dutch were officially banished from the school 
and the pulpit Thousands of the present Boers, how- 
ever, are still proud of their Huguenot descent, and 
numerous family and geographical names remain to attest 
the former widespread influence of the French settlers, 

' Boer, pronounced bUr, ia the uune word as the Oermsu Bauer sad 
English boor, in ita ondegraded origiaal meauuig of a free peasant farmer ; 
from a Teutonic root 6u, as Been iu the Anglo-Saxon lnum = to till, culti- 
vate, dwell, etc. 

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Almost from the first the attitude of the Boers 
towards the natives was characteristic of the policy per- 
stBtently adhered to by them throughout the whole of 
their colonial history. They b^an by purchasing their 
lands from the " Quaiquee," i.e. Khoi-Ehoin (Hottentots), 
who were in exclusive possession of the whole region 
east to the Gamtoos, and north to and beyond the 
Orange River. Then, as they grew more powerful, the 
squatteis dispoasessed the original owners, passing at last 
to the extreme measure of retaining them as slaves to 
till the land. But the Hottentots, being essentially a 
pastoral people, proved indifferent agriculturists, and 
were gradually replaced by Negroes or Bantus, mainly 
from the east coast, hence to this day known in the 
colony by the general name of " Mozambiques." This 
fcweign slave trade began within ten years of the founda- 
tion of the settlement, and at first was carried on so 
extensively that for a time the blacks outnumbered the 
free peasantry. Later the importation of N^ro labour 
fell off, so that at the time of the emancipation (1833) 
not more than 25,000 were found scattered over the 
agricultural districte. Most of these have since been 
absorbed in the mongrel class, the constituent elements 
of which are therefore Whites, Hottentots, and Blacks, 
not Whites and Hottentots alone, as is commonly sup- 

These social relations, combined with other causes, 
tended to promote another movement, which proved to 
he of great importance in the future evolution of South 
African politics. The settlement bad originally been 
foonded merely as a " factory " or fortified trading 
station, with no view to the acquisition of land beyond 
what might be required to raise supplies for the garrison 
and officials, and for victualling vessels plying between 

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Holland and the Company's eastam posseesiona. But 
when the prosperous plantations round about the station 
became over - stocked and over -peopled by substantial 
bui^hers fretting under the heavy taxes and arbitrary 
measures of the colonial governors, the desire to escape 
from their jurisdiction irresistibly drove the settlers to 
move landwards in search of " fresh fields and pastures 
new." Despite all the efforts of the officials to keep 
them concentrated in the small coast district roucd 
about the Gape,' the movement continued to spread 
until these pioneers of South African colonisation at last 
reached Granf Beynet in the north-east, and the Great 
Fish River beyond the frontier of the Kafir domain, some 
500 miles from Table Bay. 

Thus also was acquired that restless spirit, by which, 
under the stimulus of various political and Bocial causes, 
the forward movement has been continued down to the 
present time, until the primitive Boer element has been 
thinly diffused throughout the greater part of South 
Africa from the Cape northwards to the Cunene, and 
north-eastwards to the Limpopo. This element has thus 

' So aniioUB were the kathoritiM to pr«vent the tettlsn from leaving 
the lands amigned to them, that edicts were freqaentlj iasaed forbidding 
them to " trek " nnder pain of death and confiscation of their propertj. 
Tbe^ were in fact regarded oa rebels, and the polio; piireued toward* 
then vras mainl; dictated hy the fear of complicationB with the nativei 
oaoMd hj the trekkere encioaohiiig on their tenitoriea. The small gairi- 
son maintained at Cape Caatle wis at no time strong enough to protect 
the settlement from a combined attack bj the inhuid tribes. The redue- 
tion of these tribes and the creation of a colony in the strict sonse of the 
tann had nersr oocnrred to the Dutch East India Company, which con- 
tinned to regard the Cape merely as a port of call and omiTeDieQt 
victualling station on the nnite to the Eastern Archipeligo. Kenoe dom 
to the British occDpation it was still onciall; known as "The Cape," 
and so it oontinaes to be known to this daj, no oomptthonsit-e 
territorial expression having ever been applied to a dominion which at 
present covers an area of over 200,000 square miles. 

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gained in expansion what it has lost in concentration ; 
but the expansion itself has become its main source of 
weakness, rendering it less capable of resisting the 
absorbing tendencies of the more energetic and progressive 
British race. 

Another result was a change of social condition. As 
the trekkers penetrated &om the arable coastlands to 
the drier inland plateaux, they found the soil every- 
where less suitable for tillage, and they thus necessarily 
passed from the ^ricultural to the pastoral state. This 
again became a bar to the development of large centres 
of population, so that in the Transvaal, for instance, the 
Boer live-stock breeders are already outnumbered by 
the British settlers, attracted by the discovery of exten- 
sive gold - fields in that region. The influx of these 
settlers has also tended to raise the value of the land, 
in consequence of which the Boers have been tempted 
to part with large tracts to purchasers wiUing to pay 
tbem remunerative prices. Thus the very land tends to 
change hands, while the younger generations are com- 
pelled to learn the English language in order to compete 
on equal terms with their rivals in the struggle for 
existence. In this way the uncultivated Dutch dialect 
sinks more and more to the position of a rude provin- 
cial patois, the disappearance of which can only be a 
question of time. But its extinction means absorption 
in the dominant race, so that the whole current of 
events since the beginning of the century has tended to 
mei^ racial and linguistic differences in a homogeneous 
English-speaking South African nationahty.* 

< Where two languages are current, litetature is ths beat teat ot their 
reUtire position, and Soatti African literature la essentisUy English. 
Thua la 1S75 English newspapers and other periodicals were already six 
a than Dutch, and since then the propartian ha* 

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The EncUsh In 8onth AfMca 

With the growth of the British Empire ,in the fiir 
East the attention of English statesmen had 'been more 
and more directed towards the most convenient station 
for provisioning purposes on the ocean h^hway between 
London and Calcutta. A first attempt made Ln 1780 
to seize the Cape was frustrated by a French fleet under 
Sutfren. But a more favourable opportunity presented 
itself in 1795, when the French revolutionists having 
occupied Holland, the settlers hoisted the flag of inde- 
pendence, and looked to England for protection. Hie 
colony was accordingly occupied by a British fleet on 
behalf of the Prince of Orange, at that time a refugee in 
London. After its restoration to Holland (the " Bata- 
vian Republic ") at the Peace of Amiens in 1802, it was 
again occupied in 1806, after the renewal of the Napo- 
leonic wars, and since that time it has formed an int^ral 
part of the British Empire. 

Under the English administration the progress of the 
colony has been continuous, if not always rapid. Its 
natural development was retarded at first by contentiona 
with the burghers, chiefly in connection with the ques- 
tions of slavery and taxation, leading at one time to open 
revolt (1816), and giving a fresh impulse to the trek 
movement. At the time of the British occupation, the 
total population was about 75,000, composed in nearly 
equal parts of burghers,' pure and mixed Hottentot 

«veii become greater. In the Cape ell edacated Boers Bpeak EnglUh, »oA 
their somawhat rnde Dutch speech u thus yearly acquiring the charact«r 
of a mere patoii. 

I In South Afrtca there is practically little difference between the terms 
burghtr and boer. Id its nsrroirer sense, the former is restricted to those 
enjoying full rights of citizenship, vith the privilege oF bearing anas in 
defence of their country. 

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serfs, and Negro slaves. But the biirghers r^arded them- 
selves literally as " the chosen people," with a divine, 
consequently an indefeasible, right to the ownership of 
" the cursed children of Ham." Here their religions 
prepossessions and material interests were in complete 
harmony, and they accordingly offered the most strenuous 
resistance to the movement for the emancipation of the 
slaves in the British possessions, which was at that time 
the watchword of English philanthropy. Nevertheless, 
they might have accepted the situation when slavery was 
abolished in 1833, had the l^al compensation, three- 
fifths of the market value of their human chattel, been 
promptly paid. But the remissness of the Grovemment 
in this and other matters created such widespread dis- 
content that they prepared to break up their homes and 
remove with their families, slaves, and herds beyond the 
jurisdiction of the British authorities. Thus began the 
so-called "Great Trek"' about the year 1834, when 
thousands of pastoral Boers plunged into the wilds of 
South Central Africa, crossing the Orange, the Vaal, and 
•even the great Drakenbei^ Border Range, and after 
;8anguinary coUisions with the warlike Zulu nation, 
founding the temporary state of Natalia and the republics 
■of the Orange Free State and Transvaal 

Meantime systematic British emigration, at first pro- 
moted by State aid, had begun in 1820, when 4000 
: selected English farmers landed at Port Elizabeth, on 
Algoa Bay, and founded fiourishiug agricultural settle- 
nnents in the Graham's Town district, on the eastern 
frontier of the colony. Others soon followed, so that as 

' Tnk bu nothing to do with the English track, aa in the slang ex- 
pression " to make tracks." The Dutch tnkktn a the English drag, 
dram, and especially to draw a cart or waggon ; hence to triTel by waggon, 
to migrate in search of new settlements. The movement was always 
made bj means or huge waggons drawn by long teams of oxen. 

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the Boers moved northwards from their scanty settle- 
ments in the Gamtoos and Great Fish Elver valleys, the 
vacated lands were occupied by British settlers. Thus 
it happened that far a time the colony was divided into an 
eastern or British, and a western or Dutch division. 
But a process of fusion has long been going on, and while 
Cape Town, in the west, has already become almost an Eng- 
lish city, in some of the eastern districts the majority of 
voters are of Boer descent. And here it should be 
observed that, despite the prevalent popular opinion to 
the contrary, there is no real antagonism between the 
English and Dutch burghers. Both are fundamentally 
of the same hardy Germanic stock ; the higher political 
aspirations and social interests of both are practically 
identical ; and as a matter of fact the opposition of the 
Boers always has been directed, not against their English 
fellow - citizens, but f^ainst the too often arbitrary 
measures of the British administration. They bad suf- 
fered so much under their own rulers in pre-British 
times, that they had learnt to detest all government, and 
they were naturally somewhat slow to perceive that an 
organised alien administration, mainly just if at- times 
vacillating, was preferable, with all its shortcomings, to 
the absence of all control.^ 

The B^aflr Wars — Eaflr OeEeatogiea 
Even before the arrival of the first English settlers, 
the British Government had come into collision with the 

' At s receot meeting of the ImpcrUl Federation League, Sir Qordon 
S[>rigg paid ■ just tribute to the iistursl intelligeDce and palitica! capacity 
of the South African Boers, whom he Ipoko of as men of " wonderful 
political aptitude," not certainly possessing much " acquaintance with 
books," but b; no means " ignorant," and often even better spealcera in 
the Cape Parliameut than the English members,— Timet, Janntuy IS, 

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fierce Eafir (Ama-Xosa) tribes on the eaetem frontier of 
the colony. During a period of over half a century 
(1811-1877) history records as uiany as six so-called 
"Kafir wars," usually brought on either by official errors 
or by cattle-lifting raids and other depredations on the 
part of the aggressive native populations, and invariably 
ending in their discomfiture, followed by the inevitable 
confiscation of fresh territory, and resulting in the virtual 
extension of the eastern frontier from the Great Fish 
River to the borders of Natal. 

Two of these wars, those of 1811 and 1818, bad 
already taken place before the occupation of the eastern 
province by Ei^Iish squatters, and the second was mainly 
due to a serious blunder, which lay at the root of most 
of the subsequent troubles, but the nature of which it is 
impossible to understand without some reference to the 
tribal relations, and even to the genealogies of the Kafir ^ 
nation. Like the Highland clans (Macdonalds, Mac- 
phersons, MacCallum Mores, etc.), all the Kafir tribes are 
assumed to be blood-relations, and consequently take 
their several tribal designations, not from the land but 
from their chiefs, the reputed founders of their respective 

' The Arabic tcrmEufir, j^i^, iue»mij([ "infidel," or "unbeliever," ig 
of conne imkaowii to the Dsttvee themeclTea. It has no ethnical value 
at KOj kind, being indiicriminatel; applied by the MohammedanB to all 
non-Hoalem peoplos with whom thej come in contact. Hence there are 
Siab-pMh Eofire (" Blaclc-clad infidela") in KaGriatan (" Land of the In- 
fidcU") in Centnl Aaia, while all the Pagan populations on the east coast 
of Africa were collectivelj called KaSra [CaS'i'es, Cafres, Ealfrea, etc.) by 
the Uoois (Araba) when the Fortugueae first reached those regions. De 
BaiToa himaelf OKa the word in this aenee, and apeaks, for iustaQce, of 
*' oa Cafres " employed " nestaa minas do ilauicn," in those (gold) mines 
of Uanica. Dec. I. Book i. oh. ], p. 37S. la a. more restricttKl sense 
the term ia now applied bj Engliah writers exclusively to the native 
popaUtions of KaGrUud (Eaffi'ana), ttiat ia, the whole seaboard Iwtween 
Natal aud Cape Colony. 



groups. Thus the Ama-Xoeaa, for instance, are a people 
claiming common descent from a chief, Xosa, supposed 
to have flourished at some former period, whose name is 
preserved in the national traditions. 

But all the Kafirs south of Zululand, except the Ama- 
Tembus, Ama-Mpondos, and Ama-Fingus, do actually 
trace their descent in two collateral lines &om this very 
mythical hero ; consequently all are Ama-Xosas, and thi^ 
term becomes nearly coextensive with Kafir, as used by 
English writera Then the paramount authority belongs, 
according to national usage, to the chiefs of the elder 
branch and their lineal desceodanta, in this instance 
Gcaleka, Xlanta, Hinza, Erell To these are subordi- 
nate those of the younger branch, Khakhabe, Omlao, 
Xgqika (Gaika), Macomo, Tyali, Sandili, and the various 
septs are, for the time being, Gcaleka's, Kreli's, Ngqika's, 
Sandili's, etc., though the reigning chiefs name may at 
times be overshadowed by the traditional greatness of 
some previous chief, such as Gcaleka, Ngqika, etc 
Here it will be convenient for purposes of reference to 
give the complete geneal<^ical table of all the Ama-Xosa 
tribes, as preserved in their oral records : — 

.dbv Google 

ZuiJe (ISOO t) reputed fouoder of tbe Datiou.* 


XOSA (16301) 






1 Ama-MponUos 



P*lo(<J*. 17800 


10th in descent 














NoQiKA (oi. 1828) 

AmaJI bains 



















From this table it is evident that Lord Charles 
Somerset, govenior of tbe colony, made a great mistake 
when in 1817 he recognised Xgqika of the younger 
(Khakhabe) branch as paramount lord of the Anm-Xosas, 
the true head chief being Hinza, second in descent from 
Gcalekft of the elder branch. The blunder led to the 

' A. H. Eeane, Enq/c.£ril., Dewed., art. " EftflrarU. " The apparently 
ndaudant coiuonanta in some of these name^ are orthographic eipedi- 
■nta to Mprvae the three click sounds of the Zutn-Eafir langu^e. Thna 
tbe e in Gcoleka, the q in Ngqika, and the x of Xosa represent the 
dental, palatal, and lateral clicks res;iectivelj, and are uttered by thniet- 
iug forward and then suddenly uichdrawing tlie tongue from the front 
teeth, the palate, aod tbe side teeth. Note also that r expresses the 
guttural i:A ; hence Ranbi-Ehakhabi. There U no r soaud in Zulu- 
Kafir, where, aa in Chinese, it is replaced by I. 


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war of 1818-19, which after much bloodshed termiDated 
with the outlawry of Hiiiza and of his ally Kdhlombe, 
and the annexation of the district between Koonap £at 
and the Great Fish River. 

After Kgqika's death in 1828, and during the 
minority of his son Sandili, his half-brothers Macomo and 
Tyali claimed the paramount lordship. But the con- 
sequent tribal feuds and vacillating action of the central 
government brought about the terrible war of 1834-35, 
in which Colonel (afterwards Sir Hany) Smith greatly 
distinguished himself, and which was followed by the 
annexation of all the country as far as the Kei Elver. 
Then came the long series of hostilities known as the 
" War of the Axe " (1846-1848), in which the power of 
Sandili and of his Tembn allies was greatly reduced, and 
the district between the Keiskamma and the Kei 
definitely annexed under the name of " British Kaffiraria," 
in contradistinction to the Kafirlaiid of the still inde- 
pendent tribes. But when the whole region was finally 
reduced this expression fell into disuse, having no further 
political significance, just as we no longer speak of 
" British Burma," since the annexation of the whole of 
the Barman empire in 1885. 

An attempt made in 1850 to depose and capture 
Sandili gave occasion to the most formidable of all the 
Kafir wars, in which both Gaikas and Gcalekas took part, 
and which spread even to the Hottentot tribes of the 
Kat BJver and other districts. It was conducted on the 
British side first by Sir Harry Smith, and afterwards by 
General Cathcait, the latter bringing it to a successful 
issue by the defeat of the paramount Gcaleka chief, Kreli, 

1853, But hostilities broke out again in 1856 and 
in 1863, and it was on the former occasion that occurred 
the memorable episode which for ever broke the power 

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of the Gcaleka nation. Despairing of further resistance 
by natural means, they allowed themselves to be beguiled 
bf the false prophet Mhlakaza,' who announced the 
speedy resurrection of all their legendary heroes and their 
own rejuvanescence, on the condition of showing their 
faith by the voluntarj' sacrifice of all their efl'ects, their 
weapons alone excepted. Then followed the wholesale 
destruction of their cattle, their standing crops and 
general stores, which were also to be restored in greater 
abundance than ever. But while waiting for these 
revivals, fully one-third of the whole nation perished of 
want, and the rest were reduced to a state of absolute 
destitution. The frontier of Cape Colony proper was 
permanently advanced to the Kei River, and some 2000 
German immigrants were settled on the depopulated 
lands of the broken Kafir tribes. 

Nevertheless fresh troubles occurred in 1877, when 
the Gcalekas, joined by the tiaikas, attacked their 
hereditary foes, the low-caste Ania-Fingoes, who since 
1835 had been under British protection. These dis- 
turbances having been quelled by the intervention of the 
imperial troops, all further serious resistance was at an 
end, and orderly government was extended to the semi- 
independent nations of Kafirland proper by mutual 
agreement, orders in council, proclamations, or other 

The Ama-Xosa confederacy was finally broken up by 
the deposition of the paramount chief, Kreli, in 1877, 
when the territory between the Kei and the Bashi Rivers 
was constituted a distinct administrative province under 
the name of the " Tranakei District" About the same 
time was effected the pacification of the whole of Tembu- 
land between the Bashi and Umtata Rivera, and the 

' Ut. H4cdoiiald {Light in Africa, p. ITS) iaIU bim tMUayeni. 

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acceptance of British magistrates by the Ama-Tembu 
(Tambookie) and Bomvana nations. Then foUowed in 
rapid succession the recognition of British supremacy by 
the Ama-Mpondo (Pondo) nation between the Umtata 
and the Natal frontier, and the transition of the numerous 
septs from independence to a state of mild vassalage, a 
process still going on ; the appointment of magistrates 
amongst the Ama-Xesib^ and other Kafir peoples of East 
or New Griqualand, inland from the Mpondo territory ; 
the occupation of " Nomansland " (now included in 
Griqualand East) by a remnant of the Butch-Hottentot 
Griquas, under their leader Adam K!ok,^ and its annex- 
ation to the Cape in 1879; the extension of British 
protection to Basutoland, between Griqualand East and 
the Orange Free 'State, in 1871, the protectorate being 
changed to a Crown Colony in 1884; the occupation of 
Port St. John's territory about the Lower St. John (Um- 
Zimvubu) Eiver on the Pondo coast in 1877, and the 
extension of direct British administration to this district 
in 1887, and to the whole of Pondoland in 1894; 
lastly, the annexation of Griqualand West beyond the 
Orange Eiver in 1871, and the incorporation of the Crown 
Colony of Bechuanaland in 1895. 

OeogtapMcal Research 

Although daring and skilful navigators, the Dutch 
were at no time distinguished as geographical explorers 
in the strict sense of the term. Such illustrious names 
as Barentz and Tasman are associated exclusively with 

' Hence the eiprestion Adam Eok's Land, eometimes applied to the 
eutem part of Griqualand Ewt tovfttdi the Natal frontier. These 
Griquaa had originally passed in 1852 into GriqnaliDd West in two btnda,' 
led respectirelf hy their chiefs, ^Vate^boe^ and Adam Eak. Waterboer 
ceded all his territorial rights to the Britiah Government in IS71. 

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maritime expeditions, and even their own possesaions in 
the eastern seas, such as the large islands of Java, 
Sumatra, and Borneo, remained almost unknown lands 
till the British occupation during the Ifapoleonic wars. 
So also in South Africa, no important joameys were 
made to the interior before the change of flag at the close 
of the last century. Our knowledge of this region 
towards the end of the seventeenth century is summed 
np in Dapper's ^,/Hca (1685), and in Valentyn's more 
ample descriptions published in 1726,^ In this work 
mention is made of Van der Stel's five months' excursion 
to the Kamaqua country (Little Namaqualand), to which 
he was attracted by the reports of extensive copper 
mines, reports which have since been fully verified. 
During the eighteenth century our knowledge of the 
coastlands, their natural history and Hottentot inhabit- 
ants, was enlarged by the visits of Kolbe (1705-13), 
LaCaille (1751, 1752), Sparmanu and Thunberg (1772- 
76), Paterson (1777). Levaillant (1780-85).« 

The explorations carried on during the British period 
may be said to have begun with Sir John Barrow 
(1797-78), followed in 1801-2 by Truter and Somer- 
viUe, the first who crossed the mountains bounding the 
Great Karoo on the north. These were followed in 
1803-6, that is, during the temporary restoration of 
Dutch rule, by the German naturalist, H. Lichtenstein, 
to whom we are indebted for the earliest account of the 
great Bechuana nation. With the restoration of the 
British sway the work of research was actively resumed 

' Olid en Nieuw Ooat-Inditn, vol. v. jwrt ii. 

* The sabsUnce of &U these excursions is giren id Walckenser'B larg« 
but unfinished Hittory of Vayaga, vols. xv. and ivi. Vols. ivii. to iiL 
contain detailed accounts of the fur more numetous «nd important expedi- 
tions undertaken during the first decades of the nineteenth centiuj, after 
the British occapation. 

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by Burchell (1811-12), Campbell (1812-20), G. Thomp- 
son (1821-24), Ch. Bunbury (1846). Then follows the 
strictly modem era ushered in by Moffat and Living- 
stone, and practically concluded by Andrew A. Anderton, 
whose Twenty-five Years in an J/rican Waggon (1887) 
embodies a vast amount of information regarding the 
physical geography, natural history, and ethnology of 
Cape Colony proper and its recent annexation, Griqua- 
land West 

Physical Features 

Tlie terrace formation generally characteristic of the 
continental periphery is nowhere more clearly developed 
than in the extreme southern r^on limited northwards 
by the Orange Eiver. Here the terraces are all disposed 
nearly parallel with the south coast, and are flanked on 
the north side by mountain ranges continually increasing 
in altitude landwards. The first, and consequently the 
lowest of these ranges, stretching from False Bay in the 
direction of Algoa Bay, is interrupted at intervals by 
several coast streams, the various sections thus formed 
being known in their order from west to east as the 
Zouderand Swellendam, lange Berge, Attaques, Outeni- 
qua, Lange Kloof, and Xaradouw ridges. They run at 
a heifzht of 3000 to 5000 feet, and at a distance of 
from 12 to 50 miles from tlie sea, towards which they 
throw off several spurs terminating in sharp headlands, 
such as Cape Agulhas (20° E., 34° 51' 15" S.), southern- 
most point of the Continent. 

This first chain, whose seaward slopes are mostly 
clad with venlure, forms a buttress supporting a first 
inland plateau, which, from its generally arid aspect, 
takes the Hottentot name of Karroo, that is, dry or 

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barren.' It iB distinguished as the " Little Karroo " 
from a second but much lai^r formation of like character, 
which in the same way abuts against a second and more 
elevated escarpment running at an altitude of 5000 to 
7000 feet nearly parallel with the first, and known in 
the west as the Witte, or White, in the east as the 
Groot Swarte, or Great Black Mountains. This range 
terminates north-west of Algoa Bay in the Cockscomb, 
or Groot Winterhoek, 6000 feet above the aea. 

The second plateau, or Great Karroo, atandii^ at a 
mean height of 2500 to 3000 feet, is similarly skirted 
on the north side, and at a mean distance of over 120 
railes from the coast, by the third and loftiest monntain 
system, which forms the main water-parting between the 
streams flowing south to the sea and north to the Orange 
£iver. Its several sections, going from west to etist, 
take the names of the Komsberg, Ro^eveld, Nienweveld, 
Sneeuwberg, Zuurberg, and Stormberg,^ ranging from 
6000 to over 8000 feet, and culminating in the Com- 
pass Peak (8500 feet), highest point of the Sneeuwberg 
(Snowy Range), and loftiest summit in the whole of 
Cape Colony proper. 

At the Compass the main range throws off a south- 
eastern branch, which, under the names of the Tandtjies 
and Groot Winterbei^ (7800 feet), traverses the eastern 
provinces, terminating on the coast at the mouth of the 
Kei River. 

The only traces of relatively recent volcanic action 
occur in the Stormbei^, where are still seen old cmters 
extinct since the triassic period. Here also are found 

' From JtnruM — hard. 

* In the IocrI usBge vtid (tlie Norae J^eld ami EngliBli fill, aa in 
Dnyton's "moiuj felis") indicates the more rounded crests, irhite htrg U 
applied to the more ragged heigbts. 

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extensive coalfields, which stretch along the northern 
slopes of the range northwards in the direction of the 
Orange Free State. 

In the extreme west the Great Kamaqua uplands are 
continued beyond the Orange estuary by a series of 
single or double ridges, some diverging eastwards to the 
central table - land, others running in nearly parallel 
chains southwards to the western extremity of the 
southern coast ranges. The various sections of this 
somewhat confused and interrupted mountain system 
are known as the Kamies, Olifants, Cedar, Bokkeveld, 
and Drakensteenberg, and form collectively the seaward 
escarpments of the inland plains and karroos. Here the 
culminating .points are the Winterhoek (6900 feetj in 
the Olifant range, and the Sneeuw Kop (6600) in the 
Cedar Mountains, The whole system has a mean 
altitude of scarcely more than 3500 feet, so that on the 
landward side they rise but little above the dreary 
gneiss plateau of Great Bushmanland, which itself 
stands at a mean elevation of over 2000 feet above 

At the south-weatern comer of tbe Continent, where 
all the main orc^raphic systems converge, the two pro- 
montories of Cape Point (the Cape of Good Hope) and 
Hangklip form the southern extremities of an ancient 
and greatly denuded coast range, which advances west- 
wards between St Helena and False Bay beyond the 
normal coaet-lina This range, of which only some frag- 
ments now remain, terminates northwards in the lovr 
headland of Cape St. Martin, below which a few scattered 
heights enclose the fine harbour of Saldanha Bay. 
Farther south the system culminates in an amphitheatre 
of bold sandstone crests disposed round about Table Bay. 
Here the conspicuous truncated mass of Table Mountain 

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*,§!.■ ■] 


U;.t.z=dbv Google 


rises from its granite base abruptly above the Bonth side 
of the bay to a height of 3500 feet, but slopes gradually 
southwards to the terminal point of the Cape, which 
eucloses False Bay on the west Eastwards the semi- 
circle of hills terminates in the so-called Devil's Peak, 
and westwards in the famous " Lion Mountain," whose 
superb head faces thi austral seas, while the back falls 
northwards to the " Lion's Kunip," near Green Point, at 
the south-west extremity of Table Bay, 

Considerable uniformity characterises the geological 
structure of these mountain ranges, nearly all of which 
have a granite base underlying enormous masses of 
quartzose sandstones. Where the granite crops out it 
generally assumes roimded contours, whereas the sand- 
stones affect the fiat formation of which Table Mountain 
is a typical instance. In some places these sandstones 
cover the primitive rocks to a thickness of 1500 or even 
2000 feet, and are of such regular outline as to present 
the aspect of artificially constructed rocky walls. With 
the granite are often associated primitive schists, whose 
disint^ration seems to have supplied the chief con- 
stituent in the thin bed of argillaceous clays covering 
the Karroos. 

The Karroos and Northern Plains 

Although the term Karroo is restricted in ge<^niphical 
nomenclature to the two plateaux between the parallel 
outer ranges, the same arid formation prevails throughout 
the vast tableland stretching at a mean elevation of fully 
3000 feet from the great divide northwards to the 
Orange Eiver. The central region north of the Nieuwe- 
veld is traversed east and west by the low cliain of the 
Earree hills, and still farther north by the more elevated 

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Hartzc^ Rand, which trends north-eastwards across the 
Orange iuto Griqualand West. These ridges consist 
mainly of very old igneous rocks, traps, and dolerites, 
which have been here and there weathered into pinnacles, 
colonnades, and other fantastic forms. 

In all the Karroos, and generally throughout the 
northern plains, the surface consists chiefly of ferruginous 
reddish sands and clays, which during the long droughts 
acquire the hardness and somewhat the appearance of 
firebricks. But this surface soil rests on a blue slaty 
rock, which retains the rain-water, and thus keeps alive 
the numerous bulbous and other alkali plants, which in 
the wet season again burst into blossom, converting the 
arid undulating plains into flowery meads. 

Like so many other parts of South Africa, the whole 
region was formerly far more abundantly watered tlian 
at present. This is evident from the remains of vast 
multitudes of huge saurians and other reptiles, which 
during the later triassic period frequented the extensive 
swampy tracts at that time strewn over the now arid 
tableland between the Orange River and the southern 
ranges. Many of these extinct amphibians, which present 
forms not occurring elsewhere, appear to have been of herb- 
ivorous habits, and their presence consequently implies 
an exuberant vegetation, where little is now seen except 
some thorny scrub, lilies, mesembryanthemums, amaryllis, 
and similar alkali growths. Over alt the Karroos are 
still dotted numerous vleys (pans or shallow basins), 
where the rain-water collects, leaving, after evaporation, 
a thick incrustation of saline efflorescences. Tliese 
shallows, alternately saltpans and lagoons, are all that 
now remain of the vast lacustrine basins which proljably 
at one time covered the greater part of all the Karroo 
formations, and which were drained eitlier to tlie 

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southern ocean by the streams flowing through the 
deep kloofs or gorges in the outer circles of escarp- 
ments, or else to the Orange Eiver by those trending 
northwards from the main water-parting. 

Blver STBtema 

In its broad features the hydrography of Cape Colony 
ia characterised by great simplicity. The inner escarp- 
ments culminating in the Sneeuwberg dispose the whole 
region in two great fluvial systems, a northern draining 
through the Orange River to the Atlantic, and a southern 
draining through several independent coast streams 
' mainly to the Indian and austral seas. The only 
exceptions to this disposition are the Doom, Olifants, 
Berg, and a few other intermittent rivers or wadys 
which also reach the Atlantic in separate channels. 

The streams rising on the southern watershed of the 
great divide have to traverse both Karroos, and to force 
a passage through the two intervening barriers of the 
Witte-Zwarte Bergen and the coast range, on their rapid 
course seawards. Owing to the obstacles thns en- 
countered, and also to the arid nature of the regions 
traversed, not one of them is navigable even for small 
craft, except only the Breede in the extreme west, and 
for a short dist-ance the St. John in the east. 

The Breede, that is, " Broad," Eiver descends from 
the heights east of Cape Town in a south-easterly direc- 
tion to the south coast at Port Beaufort ; it is accessible 
for a few miles to ships of 150 tons burden. Eastwards 
follow the Ganritz, formed hy the union of the Groote 
from the south-west and Olifants • from the north-east ; 
' There are screral rivers of this name, rocalling the "elephants" met 
by the early trekken in <Iiatricta frum which they have long disappeared. 

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the Gamtoos (Gamtoa), noted for the romantic gorges 
through which it forces its way to the coast at St 
Francis Bay. The Kareka, its farthest headstream, rises, 
not on the southern, but on the northern slope of the 
great divide behind the Compass Betg. 

Beyond the Gamtoos follow the historical streams of 
the original Kafir domain — Snaday flowing from the 
foot of the Compaas to Algoa Bay ; the Great Fish, 
which, after a remarkably bIduoos course, reaches tlie 
coast, where it begins to take a north-easterly trend ; 
the Eei, that is, " Great," though sometimes redundantly 
called the " Great Kei," long the frontier river towards 
the independent Kafirs, and, like the Gamtoos, famous 
for its foaming cataracts and romantic scenery ; the 
equally romantic St. John (Um-Zimvulu),^ blocked by a 
bar, but at high water accessible to small vessels for 
twelve miles to the first falls above the " Gate," where 
the current is hemmed iu between steep wooded banks ; 
lastly, the Um-Zimkulu on the Xatal frontier. One of 
the wildest and deepest river gorges in South Africa 
oceurs in the valley of the Umga in Griqualand East, 
where the stream rushes for twenty miles between steep 
rocky walls rising 2000 feet above the swirling waters. 
Here the wind at times sweeps like a hurricane down the 
narrow kloof, with a sound " as if ten thousand dis- 
cordant instruments were being twanged by the hand of 
a giant" ' 

Tb« OTUi«e River 
In the extent of its catchment basin, if not in volume, 
the Orange (Nu Gariep, or Garib ^) ranks first amongst 

■ Um in Zulu-Kafir = " river," aa in Um-Tarana, Um-Zimkulu, Um- 
Voloei, etc., foUowing od thia seaboard. 

' Eer. J. Macdonald, Light in Africa, p. 132. 

* Oariep appean to be 4 Dutch corruption of Oarib, meaning in 

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the secondary African streams, such as the Senegal, 
Ogoway, Coanza, Limpopo, and Juba. Its farthest head- 
Btreams, Caledon and Vaal, have their sourcea on the 
western slope of the Drakenberg, within about 100 iniles 
of the Indian Ocean, while it« great lateral arms, Hygap 
and Great Hartebeeste, spread their numerous ramifica- 
tions northwards to the Damaraland uplands in 22°, 
southwards to the Nieuweveld water parting in 32° S. 
Its basin thus stretches east and west across 16° of 
longitude, and from north to south across 10° of latitude, 
with a total length of nearly 1300 miles, and a drainage 
area of not less than 360,000 square miles, or about 
three times the extent of the British Islea 

Under the name of Senku, its furthest headstream 
lises at the foot of the Champagne Castle (10,500 feet) 
in the section of the Drakenberg separatiug Basutoland 
from NataL After receiving the Semens from the 
Giant's Castle (9700 feet) in the same range, and the 
Senkuyane (" Little Senku ") and Maletsunyane lower 
down, the main stream is joined on the Free State 
frontier by the Cornet Spruit, and a few miles farther on 
hy the Caledon (Mc^okare), both on its right hank, and 
by the Zeekoes (Zuku) on its left At Bamah Spring, a 
little above Hope Town, the Orange, hitherto a frontier 
river towards the Free State, enters the Colony, and is 
soon after joined by the Vaal (Hai Garih, or " Yellow 
Water "), wliich by some is regarded as its truer upper 
course. The Vaal, wliich throughout most of its course 
forms the boundary between the two Boer republics, 
receives the Hart (Koloug) on its right bank from the 
Transvaal, and the Modder on its left from the Free 

Hottentot "great water," or " great river " {OrooU JtMer), luit iraa first 
named bj the early settlers. Its preaeut name was given to it id 1777 hj 
Captain GordoD in hoDoiu of the House of Orange. 

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State, and a few miles below its confiuence the Orange 
ia joined from the south by the Ongar, an almost water- 
less watercourse nearly 200 miles long, A like description 
applies to all the other aiHuents of the main stream, such 
as the Hartebeeste from the south and the Hygap from 
the north, whose vast basins are mostly dry, corresponding 
at the southern extremity of the Continent to such 
northern wadys as tlie Baraka, Takazza, and Braa, 
flushed only during the rainy season. The consequence 
ia that throughout the remainder of its course of over 
500 miles the Orange receives no perennial contributions, 
but loses a great part of its volume by evaporation in 
this dreary arid wilderness of the Kalahari Desert and 
Great Namaqualand on the north and Great Bushman- 
land on the south. Hence, before reaching its estuary 
at Alexander Bay, the current is nearly exhausted except 
during the freshets, so that this vast watercourse is 
absolutely unnavigable, in the dry season through lack 
of water, in the rainy through its impetuous tioods. In 
any case the dangerous bar at its mouth, where the surf 
breaks with fury, prevents the approach of shipping, 
while twenty or twenty-five miles higher up the stream is 
completely obstructed by rapids. 

StiU farther up, between the Hartebeeste and Hygap 
confluences, occur the famous " Hundred Falls," as they 
were recently named by Farini, though already known as 
the Great Anghrabies (" Great Falls ") and also as the 
George IV. Falls. Within a distance of 16 miles, the 
Orange hei-e descends a total height of 400 feet through 
a continuous series of falls and rapids, above which its 
rocky walls affect the outlines of lofty towers or obelisks. 
" On every side fresh cascades spring up as if by magic 
from the rocks. At Nii^ara there are two gigantic 
cataracts falling side by side at one bound into the head 

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of a gorge aeveu miles in length. Here there is n 
Bucceseiou of cascades and falls — probably a hundred in 

number — extending along the whole length of a gorge 
no less than 16 miles long, into which they plunge one 
after the other, sometimes at a single bound, sometimes 
in a series of leaps. During the dry weather many of 

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these cataracts are of great volume, but at the wet 
seasons, when they are magnified a hundredfold, their 
mass must be immense. At Niagara the gotge is no- 
where deeper than 200 feet ; here the chasm is half as 
deep again." ^ 


Although it is customary to speak only of two seasons, 
summer' and winter, in extra-tropical South Africa, the 
year may be divided here, as in the corresponding zone 
of the Qorthem hemisphere, into four tolerably well- 
defined periods ; spring from September to December, 
summer from December to March, autumn thence to 
June, and winter from June to September. The moisture- 
bearing clouds brought by the strong south-east winds, 
which prevail from September to April, are intercepted 
by the outer escarpments, where they are condensed and 
conseijuently discharge nearly all their contents before 
reaching the inland plateaux. Corresponding to these 
summer south-easters are the winter north-westers on 
the Atlantic seaboard, where the moisture is similarly 
arrested by the western coast ranges. Thus it happens 
that, except on the southern and south-eastern coastlands, 
there is everywhere a deficient rainfall, and the great 
drawback of the climate is its excessive dryness. The 
evil is intensified by the general absence of snowy and 
forest-clad uplands, where the supplies drawn from the 
occasional downpours might be husbanded. Notwith- 
staudii^ Mr. Hutchin's views regarding cycles of wet 
and dry seasons,' these supplies themselves are extremely 

■ O. A. Fuim, Thratigh the Xalahari Detert, p. 417. 

' Oyda of Drought and Qood Statma ia South Jfrica, by D. E. 
Hntchlni, CotaernXot of Forests, Enfgiia ; LondoD ISSS. This writer'* 
•tsteoiMit that "the oUmate of AfHctt vKriea in cjclw," such as th« 
VOL. n Q 

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irregular, and in the interior the whole year sometdmes 
passes without any refreshing rains. Such protracted 
droughts, which can neither be foreseen nor provided 
against by any general system of artificial storage, often 
cause widespread disaster and the destruction of thousands 
of cattle, especially in the districts aptly termed Dorst- 
veld (" Thirst Lands ") by the Boers. 

On the other hand, this absence of excessive humidity, 
combined with the general elevation of t^e land traversed 
in the south by parallel lofty ranges fully exposed to the 
cool southern winds and marine currents,' tends to render 
the climate one of the healthiest in the world. Even in 
the hottest summers the glass seldom rises above 90° F. 
in the shade, while in winter it stands usually some ten 
degrees above freezing point' Nevertheless snow 

"atorm cjclea " of nine or ten years, and the "cyclical mitigation" of 
twelve or thirteen years, is not supported by any trustworthy evidence. 
In the reconls of Karroo rainfall lie himself admits yean of "irregular 
Diitifiation," and years of heavy rainfall not redncible to any oyde. 

' With these currents, which set steadily from tte Antemtio regions, 
numerouH floes and even hnge icebergs often drift northwards in the 
direction of the Cape. But they are normally deflected to the west coast 
by the warm current from the Indian Ocean, sweeping round the Uoxam- 
biiine Channel and penetrating as lar west as Cape Agulhaa, hence locally 
known as the " Agulbas Current." 

' This statement, however, does not apply to the far interior, where at 
times northern winds, hot as blast furnaces, sweep over the land, withering 
np the scanty vegetation and raising the temperature to 100° and even 
105° F. in the shade. But the normal conditions of heat and moisture 
•re expressed in the subjoined table : — 

Cape Town . 40 feet (12° F. 91° ; 40° F. 27 inches. 
Simon's Town £' 

Port Elioibeth . 2^ 

Graham's Town . 180 

GraafRevnet . 2SS 

As a rule the climate becomes more and more continental, that is, subject 

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B2° F 


40° F. 

63° , 


48° „ 

e2°.8 , 


42° „ 



34° „ 



33° „ 


occasionally falls in certain parts of the Great £arroo, 
and especially on the plains overshadowed by the 
Sneeuwberg and Nieuweveld. Such a , climate in a 
r«^on lying entirely beyond the torrid zone {28''-34° 
south), and also mainly free &om malaria, is perfectly 
suited for the European constitution, as in fact has been 
practically demonstrated by an experience of over two 
hundred years. The present descendants of the early 
Dutch and French settlers nowhere betray any aymptoma 
of physical decay, but, on the contrary, are, in some 
respects, a more vigorous people than their European 
kindred. They are completely acclimatised, or rather 
they never needed to go throi^h any process of climatisa- 
tion, any more than did the early British settlers in the 
corresponding latitudes of Australasia. la some districts 
the birth-rate is three times higher than the mortality, 
an excess imapproached in any r^on of the north 
temperate zone. Hence the southern seaboard has 
always been regarded as a kind of health resort, not 
only by officials enervated by long residence in the 
Indies, but even by European invalids themselves, who 
find the pure atmosphere of Cape Town, Graham's Town, 
and other districts highly beneficial in the case of chest 
diseases and other ailments. It is noteworthy that the 
Cape has never been visited either by cholera or yellow 

The district about Cape Town, remarkable in bo 
many other respects, also presents some atmospheric 
phenomena of a striking character, which appear to be 

to greater eitremeB of best and cold, the farther it is reinoved inland IVom 
the eqaaluing influeocee of the mariae breezea and currents. But at 
Somerrllle, in the Transkei district, 3500 feet abOTe the ees, Mr. 
Uacdonald registered 108° -2 in the shade in snminer, and 7 degrees of 
froet in winter. Aococding to thia obserrer, the average eitremca are 86 
to 90 and 60 to 70, scoordinK to aspect, elevation and other local conditions. 

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due to the greater dryness of the lower atirial strata. 
In the summer months the moist south-eastets, striking 
against Table , Moantaio, rise above its south - eastern 
slopes, and the moisture becoming condensed in the cold 
upper regions, spreiads out in a dense whitish cloud over 
the plateau. This " table-cloth," as it is locally called, 
does not terminate abruptly at the brink of the precipice, 
hut rolls over down towards the city spread out at its 
foot. Magnificent cascades of sunlit mist descend some 
200 or 300 yards, floating on the breeze like folds of 
delicate drapery, and gradually dissolvii^ in the lower 
atmospheric regions. Here all the moisture brought by 
the trade -winds becomes absorbed, and, except on the 
cloud-capped summit of the mountain, the whole land 
remains bathed in sunshine under the bright azure sky. 
In winter, when the north-west wind prevails, the phe- 
nomenon is, reversed, and then the billowy mists roll 
down from the plateau on the opposite side towards 
Simon's Town.' 

Flora and Vegetable Frodocts 

Despite the climatic conditions, so unfavourable to 
vegetation, except in privileged districts, the whole life of 
the colony depends upon agricultural and pastoral pur- 
suits, which, with mining, must long continue its almost 
exclusive industries. But, as might be expected, pastur- 
age prevails largely over tillage, which, however, is not 
confined, as is supposed, to the slopes of the hills, where 
water can be best utilised for irrigation purposes. 
Lower down, the extensive level or rolling grounds, which 
are not absolutely desert, are mainly utilised as grazing 
lands for homed cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and mules. 
■ Eeane's Seclm, xiiL p. 98. 

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CAPB coLomr 229 

These animals thrive even in districts where herbage has 
been replaced by brushwood, reedj, saline or soui- 
growths, to which they have become accustomed, just as 
they have learnt to drink mnddy, yellowish, and even 
fetid waters. Sut even on the plains patches of culti- 
vated land are often found interspersed amongst the 
grazing grounds. 

Live stock, and especially sheep, yielding the finest 
wools, Sourish best in the central provinces, where some 
of the lai^r runs contain from 15,000 to 20,000 sheep. 
Since 1840 the broad Eat-tailed and almoet wooUess 
native breed haa been largely replaced hy the best 
English and other European stock. Even the Angora 
goat has been successfully introduced in several districts, 
and with wool-growing is now also combined ostrich 
farming, which, during the last twenty years, has made 
considerable progress. The plumes, however, of the 
domesticated ostrich are inferior in quality to those of 
the wild bird. 

Wherever water is available the apparently indifTerent 
sandy and aigillaceoua soil is surprisingly productive 
onder the powerful South AMcan sun. Everything 
seems to spring up almost spontaneously ; wheat, millet, 
barley and maize yield excellent retoms, most European 
fruits grow to a great size, the potato thrives everywhere, 
even as far north as Zambesia, and as many as three 
crops of vegetables are successively raised during the 

All the towns and villages within a radius of fifty or 
sixty miles round about Cape Town are connected by 
avenues of magnificent trees such as the oak, poplai-, 
alder and the Australian blue gum (Eucalyptus gloimlus). 
Here also are cultivated the famous vines of French 
origin, which were originally introduced by the Dutch 

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East India CompaDy, and which yield prodigiotis 
returns incomparably greater than tie vineyarde of any 
other country in the world.' The chief wine-growing 
districts are those of Oonstantla on the eastern slopes of 
the hills between Table and Simon's Bays, and the inland 
districts of Worcester and Oudtshoom. 

The indigenous flora is especially remarkable for an 
extraordinary variety of heaths, heathers, ferns, bulbs, 
flowerii^ shrubs and thorny, pulpy plants, such as the 
aloes and acacias which cover vast tracts of arid soil, 
and which constitute the so - called " bush," In this 
respect the extremity of the Continent forms an inde- 
pendent botanical world developed during the long ages 
that it was separated from the rest of the mainland by 
the lacustrine basins formerly flooding the extensive 
inland plateaux. The number of independent species is 
said to exceed 1 2,000, or at least twice as many as occur 
in the whole of Europe, while nearly 450 distinct genera 
have already been enumerated. Highly characteristic 
are the heaths, of which over 400 varieties have been 
found, and which during the flowering season clothe the 
mountain slopes with one mass of purple or pink 
blossom. But these and the other endemic forms, such 
as geraniums, iris, bulbs and rhenoster (rhinoceros wood), 
are chiefly confined to the western and southern districts, 
being replaced farther east by forms more peculiar to the 
wanner and more humid zone of the Indian Ocean. 
Here also the forest growths, of small size and few in 
number in the extreme west, become larger and more 

' Elsewhere the average production ranges from 150 to 400 gallons per 
acre, bnt at the Cape it rises to 800 ani! 1000, and in some distriota aven 
to 1500 gallons. Bnt, with few exceptions, the qoalitj is mdiffereot 
and appears even to liave deteriorated since the beginniog of the 
century. The Cape vines have been attacked both by oidium and (ISSG) 

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Taried, while the thorny scrub, such as the domboom 
C thom-tree "), the " wait-a-bit " {Acacia detenens), and 
the numerous monocotyledonous forma characteristic of 
the Karroos, disappear altogether. 

In respect of their vegetation the inland plains 
beyond the mountains may be regarded as a southern 
extension of the Kalahari Desert — vast expanses of arid 
steppes varied here and there with patches of tall, 
tnfty grasses, thorny acacias and other stunted scrubby 


Few regions of the globe abounded more in animal 
life than the southern extremity of the Continent before 
the arrival of the first European settlers. Even for 
some time after that event the immediate vicinity of 
Cape Castle continued to be infested by the elephant, 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, lion, and leopard, or " tiger " as 
it ia locally called.^ But at present the elephant, which 
gives its name to so many " Olifants " rivers within 
comparatively short distances from the Cape, may be 
said to have disappeared altogether from the colony 
proper.* The last rhinoceros was killed near Port Eliza- 
beth in 1853 ; about the same time the hippopotamus 
disappeared from the Great Fish River, but is still fre- 

' This confusion between the striped uid spotted Felid% is ivideBprcsd, 
tnd the term " tiger " is popularly applied to the leoptthjs and pauthen 
of Africa attd even to the jaguars of America, though the true tiger hag 
throughout the bUtorio period been entirely confined to Asia. 

> No doubt the elephant, oe well aa the buflalo, still frequents the 
denae Enysna forests on the south ooaat between the Gsuritz and Ganitoo* 
riven and also some of the Sneeuweberg distriota ; but its survival in 
these la«t retreats is due to the protection of the game laws, and may be 
Mmpared to the mirrival of the aurochs in the Lithuanian forests, and of 
the Caledonian wild cattle on the Hamilton estate iii Scotland. 



quently seen both in the Lower Orange' and in most of 
the coast straams of EaSraria. The panther also is still 
common enongh, and even the lion is occasionally met 
in Queenstown, Albert, and perhaps some other eastern 
divisions. But the South African beast cannot compaie 
in size or majesty with those of Nubia and the Atlas 
h^blands ; here also his nightly roar is seldom beard, as 
he appears to have discovered that, under the altered 
conditions of the chase, it serves less to paralyse his 
prey than to attract skilful sportsmen now armed with 
the deadly rifla 

South Africa may be said to be the true home of the 
antelope family, which is here represented by nearly 
thirty distinct varieties. But the hartebeest, the kudu, 
the graceful kama (dorcas), and most other members of 
this group have gradually withdrawn from all the settled 
districts in company with the giraffe, gnu, buSalo, hytena, 
jackal, baboon, zebra, and quagga. The qua^a is said 
to be absolutely extinct, and few of the other forma are 
now met anywhere south of the Orange Elver, except 
the baboon, the leopard, hyaena, jackal, and wild d(^ 
which still continue to prowl round about the farmsteads 
in many districts. 

The reptile order is represented by a great diversity 
of forms, many of which, such as the puff-adder, garter 
snake, and cobra, are venomous. In this respect the 
little Bobben (" Seal ") Island, three miles north of Cape 
Town, is remarkable for the possession of some forms 
quite distinct from those of the mainland. 

A fonnidable enemy of the snake family is the secre- 
tary bird {Serpeniarius reptUivorus), which preys upon 

1 It is noteworthy that although the remains of the hippopotuniu 
oocnr in the alluvia of the Caledon Riv«r, thU animal hu qbtsf bera 
•een alive in the Btreams of the Upper Orange baain. 

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all kinds of reptiles, striking them senseless with a 
sudden blow of its powerful spurred wing, then seizing 
them in beak and claws and dropping them from a great 
height on the stony ground to break their vertebrse. 
In the crop of one of these birds Levaillant found three 

snakes as long as his arm, eleven large lizards, and other 
" small deer." Owing to its peculiar habits the secretary 
is regarded as a public benefactor, admitted to the farm- 
yard and even protected by game laws. 

Another remarkable bird is the Social or Republican 
Grosbeak (Phikeiertts sodus), about the size of a bullfinch, 

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which lives tc^ether in large societies, building on some 
thorny mimosa a common residence, divided, like the 
great houses of the Kew Mexican Pueblo Indians, into 
family apartments. "The neste are composed of a fine 
species of grass closely woven t<^ether, and so arranged 

that from 800 to 1000 are supposed to be sometimes 
supported on a single tree and covered with a large roof. 
Eound the edge there are numerous entrances, each of 
which is continuous with a sort of passage, and on each 
side of this are nests placed about two inches apart It 
is probable that, as the colony increases in number, they 

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continue adding to the common nest, until at length the 
weight becomea so great that the tree gives way under 
it, and the birds are then compelled to seek other situa- 
tions in which to found fresh colonies." ^ 

The ostrich, whose range coincides with the northern 
and southern steppe lands of the Continent, exists both 
in the wild and domestic state in the Colony, where, 
according to Aodereon, there are two distinct species, 
both differing from the Saharan variety. Ostrich farm- 
ing, which began about 1864, continued to make rapid 
progress during the next twenty years, when its develop- 
ment was arrested by disease and a depreciation of the 
plumes in the European markets. But the industry has 
a^in revived, and in 1890 there were over 160,000 
birds on the farms, about the same number as in 1882, 
just before the first check was experienced. It is re- 
markable that similar essays at domestication made in 
Algeria, California, and Australia have mostly proved 
failures, so that the Cape enjoys almost a monopoly of 
the trade in farm-grown feathers. To retain this mono- 
poly prohibitive dues of £100 and £5 are respectively 
imposed on every full-grown bird and egg exported from 
the colony. 

The insect world is extremely varied, and the butter- 
fly family is specially remarkable both for its gorgeous 
colours and extraordinary mimetic forms. So close is 
the resemblance to the flowers on which they alight, 
that it is often impossible to tell one from the other 
even at a few yards' distance. Even the larva " gathers 
round itself hits of very slender grass stems about an 
inch in length." These are glued together so firmly that 
one cannot be separated from the bundle without destroy- 
ing the whole, and so closely does this envelope resemble 
' W. S. Dally, JVaf, Hut. pp. 588, 539. 

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a thick bit of withered atem from the same grass, that 
one can hardly Bee any difference between them, even 
when closely examined. . . . The very pith is imitated 
by a thin fold of tough fibrous substance with which the 
ends are closed." ^ The widespread mantis tribe always 
adapts itself to the varying hues of the environment, and 
there are spiders which feign death and look exactly like 
the shrivelled brown berries of the bush on which they 
live. Lizards and scorpions put on the very markJnga 
of the surrounding soil, and this imitative faculty extends 
even to snakes, antelopes, and other large animals. 

The South African rivers, so useless for navigation 
and mostly even for irrigation purposes, are also ex- 
tremely poor in animal life. But the absence of fresh- 
water fish is lai^ely compensated by a varied and 
abundant marine fauna ; all the bays and inlets round 
the seaboard are well stocked, and amongst the charac- 
teristic forms are several species of electric and poisonous 


There can be no doubt that the whole of the Orange 
basin, together with all the land extending thence south- 
wards t^ the ocean, was originally in exclusive possession 
ji the Bushmen and the allied Hottentot race. Bat 
long before the arrival of the Europeans their domain 
had already been lai^ely encroached upon by the con- 
quering Bantu peoples advancing from the north, or 
pushing forward along the eastern seaboard Thus it 
happens that throughout the South African historic 
period, 400 years computed from the first appearance of 
the Portuguese on both coasts, the southern regions have 
been divided in two nearly equal parts between the 

' R«v. J. Macdooald, p. 24S. 

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primitive yellow and the intruding black populations. 
A line drawn from Algoa Bay in the direction of Lake 
iVgami will roughly indicate the respective limits of the 
conterminous ethnical territories. All the land stretch- 
ing &om this . line east to the Indian Ocean mainly 
belongs, or rather belonged before the European settle- 
ment, to the two great Bantu families of the Bechuanas 
in the centre, and the Zulu-Kafirs in the east All the 
land stretching from the same line west to the Atlantic 
belongs, with a similar reservation, to the San and Ehoi- 
Khoiu divisions of the Bushman-Hottentot family. Of 
course here and there dislocations and overlappings have 
taken place, as when the mongrel Griqua Hottentots 
passed under Adam Kok into Nomansland in the very 
heart of the Bantu domaia, and when the Ba-Mangwato 
Bechuanas penetrating westwards nearly joined hands 
with the kindred Ova-Mpo, thus excluding the primitive 
San element and aU bat completing the Bantu zone 
right across the Continent from the Zambesi delta on th^ 
Indian Ocean to Oape Frio on the Atlantic But on the 
whole the ethnical parting-line appears to have under- 
gone little modification during the last four centuries, 
except so far as it has been deflected to the right or to 
the left, or else completely effaced by the rapid expan- 
sion (rf the European element in later times. And here 
it is to be noticed that the vigorous and aggressive 
Bantus have resisted contact with the intruding white 
race far more successfully than have the indolent and 
passive Khoi-Khoins, The latter have everywhere been 
broken into fragments, dispersed or altogether eUminated 
thronghout most of the colony proper, whereas the 
Zulu-Kafirs are still found in compact masses in Eastern 
Kafiraria, parts of Natal and Zululand. Even the less 
warlike Bechuana branch has held its ground in Basato- 

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laDd, for the Ba-Suto are merely an outlying eastern 
division of the Bechuana family, separated from their 
vestem kindred by the intruding Boer trekkers of the 
Orange Free State. Hence, ao far as regards the natives, 
there is no longer a Hottentot, but only a Bantu ques- 
tion in South Africa, for the Hottentots, at least of the 
colony proper, are doomed to speedy extinction. 

Th« O&pe Hottentots 

The very names of the numerous Hottentot tribes 
that occupied the Cape at the time of the Dutch settle- 
ment — names such as Gauri-qua, Shirigri-qua, Sussi-qua, 
and taany others, survive only in musty official records, 
and all tribal organisation may be said to have ceased 
within the limits of the colony in 1810, when the last 
Hottentot chief was deposed and replaced by a European 
magistrate. At present the only distinct groups outside 
Great Namaqualand are the £ora-qua (Koranas) of the 
Middle and Upper Orange, Vaal and Modder Rivera, 
and the mongrel Griqua of West and East Griqualand.* 
In all the settled districts the natives are dispersed 
amongst the general population, with whom they have 
partly amalgamated, and whose language, costume, usages, 
and religion they have everywhere adopted. In fact, 
they have ceased to be interesting as a race, and little 
would be known of their distinctive characteristics but 
that they were carefully studied by Kolben, Levaillant, 
and some other observers daring the last century, that 

' Besidei these, there iLre tlie so-called G on a -qua , that is, "Borderen," 
a term applied generallj to the Hottentot- Kafir half-breeds, thinly 
scattered over the eastern provinces. But in the nhole colony th« 
Hottentots pure and mixed cannot greatly exceed 180,000, and of theae 
the mongreU and half-castes of all sorts certainly form the i 

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■ 239 

is, before they had beea brongbt entirely under European 

These early writere nevei- fail to contrast the slu^sh 
mental AoMiu of the Hottentots with the more active 
temperament of their Bantu neighbours. Thus the 
Kafirs are " more open and lively than the Hottentots, 
without anything approaching to their taciturnity " 
(Levaillant, p. 379) ; and elsewhere "the humour of the 
Hottentots ia a little phlegmatic, and their temperament 
cold" (p. 271). To Campbell also they appeared to be 
" a dull, gloomy and indifferent people " (p. 382), while 
for Kolben " they are without doubt both in body and 
mind the laziest people under the sun. A monstrous 
reluctance to thought and action runs through all their 
tribes, and their whole earthly happiness seems to lie in 
indolence and lethargy." ' Nevertheless, under the 
stimulus of strong motives they were capable of extreme 
excitement, only they hated the motive which ob%ed 
them even to think, and would neither work nor reason 
except under some kind of compulsion. Then they 
could both work and reason to some purpose, so that, 
according, to Eolben, we should not say, "as stupid as a 
Hottentot, but as lazy as one." * 

These half-civilised " Tots," as they are locally called, 
occupy socially a position somewhat analc^ous to the 
lowest European proletarian classes. They are still 
grouped tc^ther in their as, or kraals,^ that is, cluBters 

' Cape of Good Hope, ch. iv. 7. 

* Copt of Qoad Hope, ch. xiz. IntrodDctioD. 

■ This word hraal, applied by the Boers generally to *U native villages. 
Is of iincerUiri origin, either from the Datcli Koraal = can'i, vhich tboy 
Mn supposed to resemble, or more probably a cormption of the Portuguese 
eurral, an enclosure, and especially a cattle pen. It would, thererore, 
seem to be the same word as the English corral, vhieh is of Spanish 
origin, from corra = a circle, and even s gatheriug of people. 

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of frail huta, which aimply afford a little shelter from 
the weather, but are useless for any other purpose, 
being seldom little more than four feet high. For the 
oational Karosa (see p. 184) a leather api-OD is often 
substituted, and the usual diet are fruits, v^etables, 
milk, butter, game, and dried or powdered meat Ljke 
the Namas, they are inveterate smokers, using the very 
HtrODgest tobacco, or else ddkha (hemp), and even 
swallowing the smoka All are now outwardly ChristiauB, 
chiefly Moravians and Wesleyans ; but the primitive 
religion appears to have been mainly associated with 
ancestry worship. Even the Tsu-Goab, adopted by the 
missionaries as the nearest equivalent for a supreme 
being, was probably nothii^ more than the name of some 
mythical hero preserved by tradition. Thanks to the 
custom of raising heaps of stones over the graves of 
famous chiefe, their migrations may be traced far beyond 
the present limits of the Hottentot domain. Such cdrns 
are found scattered over many of the northern and 
eastern districts, which from time immemorial have been 
exclusively occupied by peoples of Bantu stock. 

The Cspe Bantus 

Although politically Cape Colony now extends east- 
ward to the Natal frontier, the Kei River still roughly 
marks the ethnological parting-line between the white 
and Bantu populations. "With the exception of some 
Germans in Pondoland, a few English settlers about the 
lower St. John's River, and half-caste Griqna Hottentots 
in Nomansland, nearly the whole of the region lying 
between the Free State and the coast, and stretching 
from the Kei to Natal, is still mainly occupied by tribal 

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gi'oups beloDging either to the Bechuana, or to the Zulu- 
Kafir division of the Southern Bantus. 


The Bechuanas are entirely restricted to the Crown 
Colony of Basutoland, where they are represented by the 
Ba-Suto people, who have long been subjected to Euro- 
pean and Christian influences. So true is this that the 
primitive tribal oiganisation has practically ceased, the 
Ba-Tau, Ba-Puti, Ma-Eolokwe and other tribes being 
now melted in a single agricultural and pastoral Ba-Suto 
nationality professing a Calvinistic form of Protestantism. 
This transformation has been effected mainly by a 
devoted band of French Protestant missionaries, who 
since 1833 have maintained flourishing stations at Bethel, 
Carmel, Berea, Thaaba-Bossigo, and other places, and who 
have translated the whole of the Bible into the Se-Suto 
language.' Physically the Ba-Snto approach the Kafir 
type, but have softer features, perhaps thinner lips and 
shorter stature, and, though brave, are certainly of a less 
warlike character. 

Ins^ificant as they are as a political factor, the 
Ba-Suto people are well worthy the attention of those 
to whom have been entrusted the future destinies of the 
South AMcan populations. More, perhaps, than any 
other ethnical group, they serve to emphasise the distinc- 
tion, that has been insisted upon in this work, between 

' Like sU Banta idioou, this languaiee, which dilTera little from the 
wMtern Se^Chuuta, preaenta some dialectic variatiaiiB in its prefix par- 
ticles (see p. 112). Thus X< = ttie laod, iSd = the language, etc., hence 
£«- A(fo = BuDtoland 1 St-Siito = tba Basuto language, etc The railica] 
Suto meana "paunch," and appears to have been originally applied b; 
the Zulii'Eaftrs collectively to all the Bantu popnUtions of the iuterior, 
who an mote oorpalent than the hardy coast tribes. 

VOL. 11 R 

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the Btatiooaty Negro and the prt^resaive Bantu race. 
The contact with Europeans, &tAl to the vitality of so 
many of the lower races, even when, like the Maori, 
endowed with a fair share of physical energy and intelli- 
gence, has acted favourably on the Ba-Suto, who have 
not merely outwardly adopted but thoroughly assimilated 
Western cultura Under the guidance of their religions 
teachera, they have within two generations accomplished 
what no pure 'iSegro community has ever succeeded in 
doing even under the most favourable condicione. They 
have transformed the ni^ed upland valleys of the 
Orange head-waters into h^hly productive pastoral and 
agricultural lands, whence Cape Colony itself in good 
seasons draws supplies of cereals, fruits, ve^tables, and 
other produce to the value of over £200,000. They 
have built themselves substantial brick and stone teiie- 
mente, constructed good highways throughout the country, 
improved their breeds of live stock, and yet found means 
to support a system of national instruction more efficient 
than that of many European statea The greater part of 
the superfluous revenues is freely devoted to educational 
purposes, so that thousands already speak English or 
Dutch without neglecting their mother-tongue, in which 
they publish numerous religious and educational works 
and even periodicals. Nor is their attention engrossed 
by material cares, for they have learnt to interest them- 
selves in abstract questions of philosophy and dogma, and 
the missionary already finds that a spirit of soepticistn baa 
been awakened amongst these " Waldenses " of the South 
African alpine valleys. What the Ba-Suto have done, their 
Western kinsmen are equally capable of accomplishing, 
so that there is no reason to despair of seeing a great part 
of the Bechuanaland plateau occupied before many genera- 
tions by civilised and flourishing Bantu communities. 

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The Kafirs 

Of all the Bantu oations none present such a marked 
individuality, whether as regards their physical and 
mental qualities, political sagacity, warlike nature, and 
historic development, as the Zulu-Kafir branch, who 
have been in possession of the south-eastern seaboard 
from time immemorial At the time of the discovery 
they probably held all the coastlands from about the 
Gamtoos to the Limpopo, which rivers may be taken as 
the respective southern and northern limits of their 
primitive domain. Here they constitute a single eth- 
nical group, essentially one in physique, speech, usages, 
and traditions, but falling geographically and politically 
into a northern Zulu and southern Kafir division. Each 
of these is again divided into numerous tribal groups, 
the representative members of which are the Ama-Zulu 
in the north, and in the south the Ama-Xosa, Ama- 
Tembu and Ama - Mpondo. Intermediate between the 
two were the Ama-Lala, still represented by the Ama- 
Ncolosi of iN'atal, and outside both stand certain low-caste 
tribes not comprised in the national genealogies (see p. 
209) and collectively known as Ama-Fingu (Fengu).' 

These Fingus are regarded by Zulus and Xosas alike 
as slaves or outcasts, possessing no right to the privi- 
l^es of true-bom Kafirs. They are, or were, met every- 
where, not only in the present Fingoland between the 
Kei and Bashee rivers, but also in Katal, Zululand, and 
even in the highlands of the interior. Yet they can 
scarcely be said to have any recognised territory of their 
own, and but for the intervention of the British authori- 

' That is, "poor," "mendicant," "vagabond," etc., froin/<iijraa> = to 
K«k serrice ; cf. Kongo ruuru = to b^. 

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ties they would still continue to be oppressed and 
enslaved by the dominant tribes. 

Those who were driven out of Zululand early in the 
present century fell into the hands of the Gcalekas, from 
whom they were delivered in 1835 by Sir Benjamin 
D'TTrban, and by him located in the Fort Peddie district 
between the Great Fish and Keiskamma rivers. Any 
tribes which become broken and mixed, or which might 
be made cnptives of war, would probably be regarded as 
Ama - Fingu by the other Kafirs. Hence the multi- 
plicity of groups, such as the Ama-Bele, Ama-Sembot- 
weni, Ama-Zizi, Ama-Sekunene, etc., all of whom are 
collectively called Ama - Fingu. Their position before 
the British intervention appears to have been somewhat 
analogous to that of the Laconian Helots, or the low- 
caste tribes of India. 

The numerous and politically important rami6cations 
of the true Kafirs can be best studied iu the genealogical 
table given at p. 209. The origin of the race baa giv-en 
rise to much controversy. It is obvious that they are 
not the aborigines of their present domain, where they 
have displaced and perhaps partly absorbed the indi- 
genous Hottentot- Bush man tribes. On the other hand, 
they are closely allied in physique and speech to their 
western neighbours, the widespread Bechuana nation, 
and their presence in the south - east comer of the 
Continent is, no doubt, to be explained by the general 
onward movement of all the Bajitu peoples, gradually 
crowding out the primitive Hottentot - Bushman raca 
The specific differences in speech and appearance, hy 
which they are distinguished from the other branches of 
the Bantu family, may in the same way be explained by 
contact with the aborigines, and the altered conditions of 
their new environment. Thus the farther they have 

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penetrated southwards, the more they have become 
differentiated from the typical Negro, from whom 
attempts have even been made to separate them alto- 

Certainly the Negro element is conspicuous enough 

in the black woolly hair and generally dark complexion 
of the Kafirs, thou<rh tinged here and there with a dash 
of Hottentot yollow, in their doiichocephalic or long 
head, broad nose, thick lips, and peculiar odour. In 
height they are amongst the tallest of all the Negroid 

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peoples, averting about five feet ten inches, and in this 
respect ranking next to the Patagonians and FolTnesians. 
They are dim, well proportioned, and muscular ; but 
Fritsch's measuremente show that they are for from 
attaining the standard of almost ideal beauty with which 
early observers credited them. The women, leading the 
life of drudges, are generally inferior to the men, except 
amongst tbe Zulus and especially the Tembus. Hence 
s Xosa bride may be had for ten or twelve head of 
cattle, while a Tembu fetches as many as forty or even 
double that number. 

The symmetrical figures of tbe more warlike tribes 
are usually draped in leopard or ox -skins, of late years 
often replaced by European blankets, with feather head- 
gear, coral and metal ornaments, bead armlets and 
necklaces. like their distant kindred the Hadendoa 
Hamites, they bestow much time and ingenuity on the 
dresmog of the hair, which often assumes the most 
bntastic forms. Amongst the Pondomiai tribes — for 
each group has its own peculiar fashion — a framework 
is formed by a small grass rii^ on the crown, and into 
this tbe hair is rubbed with fat and secured with ox 
sinews. Every day it is freshly dressed and greased, 
tbe circlet rising with the growth of the hair to a height 
of several inches above tbe head Then the whole 
superstructure, becoming overpopulated with parasites, 
is suddenly removed and the work begun a&esh. 

Their weapons are the ox-hide shield, four to six feet 
long, the club (knob-kerrie), and two kinds of assegai, one 
for tbrowii^, the other for stabbing. The huts, all of 
conic shape and grouped in kraals, are mostly of a 
temporary character, for the Kafirs are still semi- 
nomadic, easily breaking up their homes in search of 
fresh pastures. But although cattle form their chief 

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wealth, and stock-breeding and hunting their main pur- 
suite, many are also occupied with husbandly, cultivating 
" mealies " (maize), millet, melons, yarns, and other 
vegetables. These, with milk, form the staple of food, 
meat being seldom eaten except on solemn feasts and 
before war ; hence the order to slaughter cattle is equiva- 
lent to a summons to arms. 

Mentally, the Kafirs are greatly superior to the 
N^Toes, displaying considerable tact and intelligence in 
all their political and social relations. They are remark- 
ably brave, loyal to their chiefs, warlike and hospitable, 
but certainly deceitful and treacherous ; duplicity, cun- 
ning, and falsehood being in fact regarded as accomplish- 
ments, and instilled into their minds from early youth, 
as a part of their military education. The national 
religion recognises no supreme Being, and is mainly 
based on a belief in the omnipresence of the spirits of 
their ancestors constantly interfering in their afi^rs, and 
requiring to be propitiated by offerings, but never by 
human sacrifices. " Every man worships his own ances- 
tors, and offers sacrifices to avert their wrath. The clan 
worships the spirits of the ancestors of it^ chiefs, and the 
tribe worships the spirits of the ancestors of the para- 
mount chief." ' There are no priests or idols, and but 

' R«v. J. Uscdonald, op. eit. p. IGl. This writer throm much light on 
the otwcnre subject of the spirit world as underetood b; the Kafir people. 
Souls are possessed neither hj animals nor by inanimate objects, thoagh' 
BouU ma; reside in them. On the other hand, all human beings poaseas 
sonls, which, however, are not entirely confined t« the body. Thej may 
occupy the roof of a man's hut, and if he changes bis abode lus Baal flita 
also. The ptople often use the word Zitunsda (from in(««i» = shadows) 
to express their ideas of human spirits and the unseen world generally, 
and this is " the nearest description that coo be obtained." A man Li 
constantly attended by the shadows of his ancestors as well as bis own, 
but the spirit of one who dies without speaking to his children shortly 
before death visits his descuudanta only for evil purposes, and to thwart 

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little trace of fetishism ; but the prevalent belief ia 
witchcraft has developed the " witch-doctor," or medicine 
man, who often becomes an instrument of cruel oppres- 
sion and injustice in the hands of the chie& Circum- 
dsion and polygamy are universal, and the standard of 
morality is extremely low, so low amongst some of 
the under- tribes that one wonders how society is kept 

The Kafirs have developed a distinct and apparently 
very old political system, which may be described as a 
patriarchal monarchy limited by a powerful aristocracy. 
Although the tribal state still prevails, the organisation 
has thus acquired almost a feudal character. The nation 
is grouped in tribes, all supposed to be blood -relations, 
and all under an hereditary inkoae or chief, who admin- 
isters his territory through officers chosen by himself, 
and who is supreme legislator with absolute jurisdiction 
and power of life and death. Against his decisions, if 
deemed unjust, the nobles or foremost members of the 
tribe protest in conncil, and their decisions form the 
traditional code of common law. " This common law is 
well adapted to people in a rude stete of society. It 
holds every one accused of crime guilty unless he can 
prove himself innocent ; it makes the head of the family 
responsible for the conduct of all its branches ; the vil- 
lage collectively for all resident in it, and the clau for 
each of its villages. For the administration of the law 

them the wlzardB have to oiTer c«stl; BscriGces. Great importance U also 
attsati«d to dreams or vinoDB which are attribntad to spirit inflnence 
lJ<nimal q/ Ox AnIArop. iTOtitute, x\x. 3 ; xx. 2). All this, taken in 
connectioD with Mr. im Thorn's account of Cloudland, as understood by 
the BritiBh Guiana Indians, tends to show that the atartiug-poiat of all 
natural rali^ona are dreams, leading directlj to a distinction between 
bodj and son], then to an after-life for the bouI, and so od to ancestor 
worship, propitiation of evil spirits, priesthood and sacrifice. 

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there are courts of various grades, from any of which an 
appeal may be taken to the mipreme council, presided 
over by the paramoont chief, who is not only the ruler 
and military despot, but also the lather of the people." ^ 

For some years zealous Scotch and other missionaries 
have been at work amongst the Ka£r people, and self- 
supporting stations have been founded at Mbulu, Love- 
dale, Blythswood, Somerville, Gatbei^, and other places 
in Kaf&aria. Their efforts have been as successful, 
especially amongst the Fingus, as those of the French 
missionaries in Basutoland. In 1882 these natives 
contributed to the Lovedale mission no less thaQ £2000. 
At a public meeting at Blythswood the same people 
" resolved that every man liable to be taxed should con- 
tribute 58. towards the building. This sum they again 
repeated twice told, so that in all each man, Christian 
and heathen, paid a sum of ISs. for the erection of a 
public missionary institution, making a total of over 
£4000."* They have also cut long water-races, bring- 
ing much land under cultivation, and raising crops of 
wheat, oats, potatoes, and other produce. Numerous 
village schools have been erected, and Soga, one of these 
neophytes, has produced a Kafir translation of the 
PiSgrim's Progress, which is said to be "a marvel of 
accuracy and lucidity of expression." * 

The Bnshmen 

These aborigines, hunted down like wild beasts both 
by the Kafirs and the early Dutch settlers, have almost 
disappeared ftom Cape Colony proper. A few scattered 
groups still roam the steppes along the south bank of 

1 Rev. 3. Macdoaald, op. cU. p. 194. ■ lb. p. 223. > Jl. p. 47. 

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the Orange, and some even survive dispersed amongst 
the Kafir nations. A small groap still inhabit a cave 
near the deep goi^ of the Umga in Griqualand East, 
where they have the reputation of beii^ great magicians 
and rain-makers. Elsewhere they have left memorials 
of tbeir former presence in the coloured drawings of men 
and animals covering the rocky walla of their cave 
dwellings in many parts of Eadraria. In one of these 
caves near Blythswood, " the colours, when grime and 
dirt were washed away, proved to be as fresh as when 
left by the hand of the savage artist. The drawings are 
of men — both in the attitude of warriors, dancers, and 
as stalkers of game — oxen, various species of antelope, 
elephants, hippopotami, and ostriches, and they are 
painted in white, terra-cotta, brown of various shades, 
and a pigment verging upon black. Whence they 
obtained their colours, or with what ingredients they 
mixed them, no one knows. The art, rude as it was, 
has been lost, and many eminent men have puzzled over 
the secret in vain." ' 

Ohief Tribal Uvliioiia in the Oap« and Dependencies 

HoTTiNTon — 

Namaqua .... Little NftmaqusUnd. 

Eoniia (Eonqua) . . Upper Orange, Vul, and Hodder 

Griqna (hilf-caate Dutch Uot- 

tcutota) .... Oriqualand West and Eut. 
GoDuiiM (halT-CMte N«gTO 

Hottantota) . Eoat frontier toward Eafirlisd. 

BiuuToe — 

Ba^TH 'I 

Ba-Pnt) I - ■ - Baautotand. 

Ua-Eolokwe J 

> RST. J. Haedonald, p. 61. 

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Ama-Xosa granp (see p. 209) . West Eafirland. 
Ama-TembD (TambuhiM) - Tembulind. 

{ Kon^e, Eongirela, "i 
Ams-Mpondo-I Eobala, Ewera, j-Fondoluid. 

I Njati, Bala, Yali J 
Ama-Baka "i 

Ama-Hpoadonisi I- East GriquaUnd. 
Aina-Zeiibe ) 

Bele, AbasembotweDi, ■" 
Zizi, Hlubi, Kate, 
Ama-Tioga- Seknnene, Totyeni, J- Finguland W. of Tembulftnd. 
Ehelidweni, Ntnntzela, [ 
.ShiratvB, Ntozake j 


Towns — Stations 

Cape Town, capital of the Colony, and, next to Zan- 
zibar, largest city in Africa south of the equator, lies ott 
the south side of Table Bay, where it is enclosed on the 
west by the " Lion," on the south by the " Table," and 
on the east by the " Devil's Peak." Thus it faces dne 
north, and not towards the austral seas, as is popularly 
supposed. To seafarers arriving from Europe a superb 
panoramic view is presented by the city creeping up the 
slopes of the encircling heights on the lines laid down 
by its Dutch founders in 1652. Westwards lie the 
business quarter, docks and shipping, protected by the 
Lion Mountain from the fierce western gales, and by 
extensive harbour works from the heavy seas rolling in 
from the Southern Ocean. On the east aide the Castle 
occupies the site of the original Dutch fort, which, like 
most of the old Dutch structures, has been long replaced 
by buildings in the English style. Beyond the Castle 
follows a modern fort, and still iarther east, near the 
Salt River estuary, the observatory intimately aaeociated 
with the names of La OaiUe, Herschel, and Maclear, and 

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at present directed by Dr. David Gill, one of the fore- 
most of living astronomers.^ The environs are every- 
where dotted over by pleasant villa residences, or laid 
out in parks and gardens, which penetrate far into the 
surrounding upland glens. 

Although the great majority of the inhabitants, at 
present (1891) numbering 51,000,* are either English or 
English-speaking Dutch, the stranger is struck by the 
motley character of the people thronging the main 
thoroughfares and market-places. Amongst these are 
Mohammedan Malays, descendants of those introduced 
by the Dutch from the Eastern Archipel^o ; " Mozam- 
biques " (Negroes), also descendants of those originally 
imported as slaves ; Arabs and Turks connected with 
the Angora trade ; Kafirs, Hottentots, and every shade 
of transition between the black, yellow, and white 

Cape Town, whose foreign trade is exceeded by that 
of Fort Elizabeth, exports considerable quantities of wool 
and of the wines grown on the eastern slopes of the 
neighbouring Table Mountain. The railway, about thirty 
miles long, connecting Table Bay with False Bay, 
traverses the whole of this highly-cultivated and richly- 
wooded district, passing in successiou by the thriving 
settlements of Bandesbosch, Claremont, and Wijvherg. 
Ktdk Bay, being the southern terminus on the coast, lies 
a short distance above the Government naval station of 
Simon's Town, on the inlet of Simon's Bay some miles 

, ■ Tbis obserratoiy, which, oving to ita poaidon at the southen) 

eitremity of the Continent, ia one of the moat important aatroDomic 
stations in the world, may be said to date from the year 1685, when the 
French erected a temporary station ou this spot Their work was eon- 
tinned by La Caille (17S1), who here determined the lunar parallax, and 
since 1772 hy EnRlish astronomers. 

' With the suburbs (Caps district, or peninsula), 84,000. 

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Qorch of Cape Point. The liae has now been extended 
from Kalk Bay to this place. 

Such iB the unique configuration of the Cape Town 
district that the contrast between the capital, open 
towards Tahle Bay, and these almost auburhan settle- 
ments nestling under the shelter of Table Mountain, is 
moat surprising. All travellers, after venting their rage 
against the merciless south-easterly trade winds of Cape 


retreats as Wijnbei^, surrounded by lovely groves and 
glades which merge higher up the western slopes in the 
luxuriant vineyards of ConstarUia. 

Saldanha Bay, on the west coast due north of Cape 
Town, is by far the finest natural haven in the Colony, 
of easy access, spacious, very deep, and almost completely 
landlocked. It was long the chief naval station of the 
Dutch ; but since their time it has for some inexplicable 
reason been completely deserted. No vessel ever pene- 
trates into its silent waters ; its picturesque shores are 
occupied only by a few isolated farmsteads and fishing 

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hamlets, and the nearest town is Malraealmry, over tliirty 
miles to the south-east 

Nor are there any other centres of populatioD on the 
whole of this coast except Oliphant, at the mouth of the 
Oliphant Eiver, and Port NoUotk, a few miles below the 
Orange estuary. Port Kolloth is the outlet for the ores 
of the Little Namaqua copper mines of Ookiep, near the 
Vogel-Klip peak (3400 feet), with which it is connected 
by a horse railway 92 miles long. The mines, with 
many thousand acres of unproductive land, belong to 
an English Company, which has been working them 
since 1863; the yearly output ranges from 10,000 to 
20,000 tons, yielding about three-tenths of pure metal. 
Shafte recently sunk to a depth of over 500 feet 
tapped deposits even thicker than those nearer the 
surface, so that the Ookiep mines have so far fully 
realised the expectations of those who many years ago 
declared that they would prove " inexhaustible." The 
geological system is the same as that of the Oreat 
Kamaqua uplands north of the Orange Biver, where rich 
copper lodes are also known to exist 

The great trunk line of railway running from Cape 
Town mainly in a north-easterly direction to Kim- 
berley, and in the year 1890 extended northwards to 
Vryburg, forms a kind of parting-line between two 
absolutely distinct regions — the arid and almost unin- 
habited north-western steppe lands, and the relatively 
well-watered, fertile, and thickly settled south-eastern 
provinces. North of this line there are no large towns, 
even the capitals of divisions, such as Calvinia, Piqvetherg, 
and Clanwilliam, being merely rural villages. These 
western " chief towus " are followed north-eastward by 
Sutherland, Fraserirwrg, Victoria West, Cantarvon, and 
Bopetown, the last on the left bank of the Orange a little 

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below the point where it is crossed b; the railway. 
Before the opening of the line, Hopetown was an 
important station on the h^hway going northwards, and 
it still retains much of its prosperity, thanks to the 
general development of the country and the local trade 
created by the Griqualand West diamond fields. Its 
position is also secured by the bridge which here crosses 
the Orange, a noble structure no less than 1400 feet 
long. Hopetown is 600 miles distant from the Atlantic, 
and from this point to its estuary the Orange has not a 
single permanent settlement beyond a few isolated farm- 
steads, some missionary stations, Bushman camping- 
grounds, and on the German side the little colony of 

Even on the main railway itself, although there are 
several thriving stations, there are no great centres of 
population. None have a population of 7000 except 
Paarl (the " Pearl "), which stands at the point where the 
line is defiected northwards by the steep Drakensteen 
escarpments of the outer range. Paarl, which, like the 
neighbouring SteUenbosch, is one of the early Dutch 
settlements, ia a favourite summer resort, surrounded by 
orange groves, gardens, woodlands, and the most extensive 
vineyards in the Colony. Beyond it follow Worcester 
(2000 feet above the sea), within 75 miles of the highest 
point (3600 feet) reached by the railway ; Qroot Foniein, 
already within the Great Karroo; Beaufort Wed (3000 
feet), near the source of the Gauritz ; De Aar, at the 
junction of the line from Port Elizabeth ; and Orange 
River, on the left bank of the Orange, ten miles above 

In the region south of the trunk line are concentrated 
the great bulk of the white settlers, who here find a 
climate, soil, and general environment more like those of 
VOL. ri s 

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their European homes than perhaps any other port of the 
Continent. It is noteworthy that during his visit to 
the Graham's Town district in 1875, the Eev. James 
Macdonald found a goodly number of the settlers of 
1820 still living, men who well remembered the early 
days, when Albany was a wilderness and lions prowled 
ahout where are now the paved sti-eete of Graham's 
Town. This cradle of the British pioneers in Austral 
Africa he speaks of as "a well-built, well-paved, and 
well-lighted town, made the ideal of rural beauty by the 
rows of magnificent trees growing on the edge of the 
footpaths. Every thoroughfare is an avenue of oaks or 
blackwoods, and every garden is filled with choicest 
fruit trees. The situation is, besides, most romantic, 
being in a deep hollow surrounded by green and grassy 
hills, and these separated by deep narrow gorges, over- 
hung by thickly wooded banks and frowning preci- 
pices." ' 

Graham's Town, which dates from 1812, is the 
centre of administration for the eastern provinces, and 
even aspires to the honour of being chosen as the capital 
of the future South African Confederatioa It stands 
1750 feet above sea-level, in a healthy district, where, 
however, owing to the sour quality of the herbage 
(" Zuurveld "), stock-breeding and wool-growing have in 
recent years been lately replaced by ostrich -farming. 
The population, chiefly English, is steadily increasing,* 
and the place is now connected by rail both with Port 
Ulizabeth in the south-west, and with the new outlet of 
Port Alfred, the nearest point on the coast at the mouth 
of the little Elver Kowie. 

Port Elizabeth, the largest place in the Colony next 
to Cape Town, has already outstripped the capital in the 

» Op. dU p. 9. ' Over 10,400 in 1891. 

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extent of its foreign exchanges,' its chief exports being 
diamoads, wool, ostrich feathers, and hides. The great 
commercial prosperity of Port Elizabeth is due to its 
central position, nearly midway between Cape Town and 
Durban, about 800 miles round the coast from both, and 
little over half that distance by rail from Kimberley. This 
seaport, which lies under the sheltering headland of 
Cape Recife on the west side of Algoa Bay, may thus 
be r^arded as the most convenient natural outlet for the 
whole of Austral Africa. But, although dating from the 
memorable year 1820, turning-point in the history of 
British South A&ican colonisation, it has hitherto done next 
to nothing to improve its splendid natural position ; and 
the harbour, or rather open roadstead, is so exposed to the 
fierce south-easterly gales, that it is visited by but few 
sailing vessels, nearly the whole of its foreign trade being 
conducted by powerful ocean-going steamers. Landing 
from these Bteamers in rough weather is a trying ordeal, 
not unattended by a certain risk. In other respects 
" Fort Elizabeth is an active and thriving town, showing 
a wonderful amount of life in the sixty-third year of its 
age (1883). The buildings are exceedingly handsome, 
and an especial feature is the new feather, ivory, and 
general produce market, which is a spacious as well as a 
fine building. The place is healthy, but exposed to 
violent and piercing winds." * 

Thia " Liverpool of Africa," as it has been called, 
whose population (nearly all British) has increased from 
13,000 in 1875 to over 23,000 in 1891, is the sea- 
ward terminus of two important railways, one running 

' Population, 1B91, over 23,000; exports, including diunonda, 
£2,000,000 ; imports, £2,800,000 ; Mports of Cape Town, £1,100,000 i 
imports, £2,000,000. 

' W. M, KeiT, Tht Far Interior, i. p. B. 

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north-east to Alicedalt with a branch to Graham's Town, 
then north through Somenet, Cradock, and Midddlmrg to 
ColeAerg for Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free 
State; another hranch above Middelburg rans north- 
westwarda through Hanover to ita junction with the 
main trunk line at De Aar. The other line lies more to 
the weat, running through UUenhage, Mue Cliff, Mount 
Staoart and Oailands to Qraaf Beyntt, where ita further 
extension northwards is arrested by the semicircular 
barrier of the Sneeuwbergen. Most of the places here 
mentioned are little more than thriving market-towns 
and centres of agricultural industry ; but a certain historic 
interest attaches to Graaf Beynet as indicating the 
fiirthest point towards the north-east reached by the 
early Boer trekkers over a hundred yeara ago. It lies 
in a fertile district about the head-waters of the Sunday 
river, just beyond the Great Earroo, whence its title of 
" Gem of the Desert." 

Between Cape Town and this district the onward 
march of the first Dutch squatters is marked by such old 
settlements as Swellendam, Olifant, Oadtskora, Janaen- 
ville, and, in the extreme south, the already-mentioned 
Uitenhage. This place has now become completely 
English, and throughout the whole of the western divi- 
sion many British stations have been founded interspersed 
amid the older Dutch settlements. Such are, going 
west, WUhrwmore, Unioiulale, Melville, George, Aliwal 
South, Eiversdale, and Port Beaufort ; the last mentioned, 
standing at the mouth of the navigable Breede river, 
enjoys the distinction of being the only fluvial port in 
the whole Colony. 

In the eastern division beyond Graham's Town, to- 
wards the Kafir frontier, there are no Dut«h and very 
few English settlements, the chief being Bedford, Seymov,T, 

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Alice, Fori Piddie, and, in the extreme east, £a«i London, 
King William's Town, Cathcarl, Qtuen's Town, Molteno, 
and Alivxtl North on the Orange Eiver at the Free State 
frontier. The six last mentioned are all stations on 
another railway, the respective seaward and landward 
termini of which are East Londoa and Aliwal North. 
In the same district such names as Berlin, Potsdam, 
Brav/Tuehweig, and FravJcfart indicate the sites of the 
various settlements formed by the Anglo-German lagion 
wbea it was disbanded after the Crimean War. Here 
the administrative centre is King William's Town, or 
simply King, which has become a flourishing trading 
place and chief depot for the traffic with KaSraria. East 
London, the only outlet for the whole r^on, can only by 
courtesy be called r " seaport " ; despite the extensive 
harbour works carried out in recent years, it still remains 
an exposed roadstead inaccessible for days together, and 
locally said to be visited chiefly by vessels heavily 
insured at Lloyd's, 

Ballway Develiwmuit 

The railway from East London, which crosses the 
Stormberg at a pass 5750 feet high, traverses the 
Molteno coalfields, whence all the colonial railways 
draw their supplies of fuel. At Bethulie the Orange 
River is crossed by a bridge 860 feet long, where a 
connection is effected with the Orange Free State 
system. The more westerly line from Port Elizabeth 
has also been continued from Colesberg across the 
Orange to Bloemfontein, capital of the Free State, and 
on to Pre}oria, capital of the South African Bepublic 
From this trunk line a branch is to run eastwards to 

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Hairiamith, where a junctioo will be effected with a 
branch runniDg from Ladjrsmith on the Natal line 
across the Drakenberg. The same Natal line has also 
been advanced from its former terminus at Newcastle 
northwarda through the Transvaal to Johanneebuig, 
while the Lourenzo Marques line has at last pene- 
trated horn Delagoa Bay acroes Komati Foort to Pre- 
toria. Thus effect has already been given to the 
recommeudatioQ made at the Conference of 1888, at 
Cape Town, to develop the South African railways in 
the direction of fusion in a common continental system. 
The various railway schemes now contemplated by the 
Colonial Government include the extension of the main 
trunk line from Mafeking, reached in 1895, to Pala- 
pye for Matabili and Mashona Lands and the Zambesi, 
with a possible extension to Bnluwayo and Salisbury, 
and a junction with the line which is now running 
down the Pungwe valley to the Indian Ocean above 
Beira. The general scheme would then be completed in 
its main outlines by branches from Mafeking or Vryburg 
throHgh Transvaal to the Delagoa Bay line, from Kim- 
berley through the Free State, and ultimately through 
Basutoland to the St. John's Eiver Railway. 

Oriqitaluid West and Its Diamond Fields 

Griqualand West, a part of Cape Colony proper 
lying beyond the Orange, takes its name from the 
mongrel Hottentot Griquae (see p. 237) who migrated 
thither under their chiefs, Waterboer and Adam Kok, 
about the middle of the century. Later, Adam Kok, 
with some of his followers, passed eastwards to the dis- 
trict since known as Griqualand East, which now also 

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foTTDS an integral part of the Colony. Waterboer was 
thua left Bole master of a desolate upland plateau 4000 
feet above sea-level, producing little but scrub and coarse 
herbage, and at that time probably not worth a shilling 
an acre. Since then mauy " claims " a few square yards 
in extent have often changed hands at higher prices 
than freehold property in the City of London. But 
these claims occur in by far the richest diamantiferous 
district yet discovered on the face of the globe. 

Diamouds, however, were first foimd, not in Griqua- 
land West, but in the Hopetown district on the south 
side of the Orange. A sparkling " pebble " here picked 
up early in 1867 by the child of a Dutch farmer, or 
obtained from a Bushman, was pronounced by Dr. 
Atheratone of Graham's Town to be a genuine diamond, 
and next year figured at the Paris Exhibition as " the 
first African diamond." It was eventually sold for £500, 
and was followed in 1869 by a much larger stone 
obtained in the same locality from a Griqua or Kafir 
medicine man, which, when cut down from eighty-three to 
over forty-six carats, was named the " Star of South Africa " 
and sold to the Earl of Dudley for £11,200. No more 
diamonds were found in this district; but a diligent 
search down the Orange and beyond the Vaal confluence, 
and then up the Vaal, the Vet, and the Modder, led to 
several valuable finds scattered sporadically over a vast 
area, as far north asBloemhofnear Pi-etoria, in Transvaal, 
in the Orange fifty miles below the Vaal confluence, at 
Jagersfontein nearly 100 miles south of the Vaal, and 
even at Mamusa seventy-five miles beyond Jagersfontein. 
But the only valuable river diggings yet discovered are 
those of Pniel Kopje and Klipdrift (now Barkly), facing 
each other on the left and rig)it banks of the Vaal 
respectively. The diamonds of this district, which are 

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mostly associated with garnets, agates, and other chalce- 
donic stones, are said to be of purer water than any 
others, and these Vet di^ngs still yield over £40,000 
a year, the total production down to 1893 being con- 
siderably over £2,000,000. 

But the true placer or dry diggings, where the crystals 
occur in situ, and have consequently to be mined with 
costly appliances, lie clustered together about twenty- 
four miles south-east of Fniel, in a district less than 
twelve miles in circumference dose to the Free State 
frontier. Here have been opened the four great " pipes," 
as they are called, of Bultfontein, Du Toil's Fan, De 
Beers, and Kimberley, the last, which gives its name to 
the neighbouring town, being the richest diamond mine in 
the world. The pipes, originally rising above the surface 
in the form of rounded kopjes (hills or knolls) 60 or SO 
and even 100 feet high, are natural "chimneys," most 
probably extinct craters, at first supposed to taper down- 
wards, but now found to broaden out to depths of over 
2000 feet They penetrate in descending order through 
tufaceous limestone, white schists, erupted diorites, augite 
porphyry, basalts, sandstones, clays, carboniferous schists, 
triassic and metamorpliic rocks, down to the primitive 
granite and gneiss. 

But the diamonds are found, not in these formations, 
but in the yellow and lower down blue eruptive matter 
which fills the pipes, and which, from the inclined 
position of the originally horizontal enclosing shales, is 
supposed to have been forced upwards by the pressure 
of the underground gases. In the blue rock, which still 
contains much dangerous firedamp, the crystals are dis- 
tributed apparently in a certain regular order known to 
experienced minera Their origin is unknown, but the 
pure caibon of which they consist may possibly have 

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been supplied b^ the carboniferous schists found at great 
depths in the eucirclitig walls of the pipes, 

" It may be generally coucluded that the diamonds 
were originally developed in an igneous matrix belonging 
probably to that large aeries of eruptive rocks which 
have burst forth through the Karroo strata at so many 
points in South Africa^ In the dry diggings these 
diamonds are probably not far removed from their 
original position ; but by denudation of the diamant- 
iferouB rocks the gems have been carried far and wide 
over the country. In the river diggings they have been 
transported to their present position by the action of 
running water, whilst in some of the superficial deposits 
elsewhere they have been distributed by means of moving 
ice." ' 

A peculiarity of the Cape diamond fields, as compared 
with' those of Brazil and India, is the high proportion 
of large stones that they have yielded. Besides those 
already mentioned, several have been found weighii^ 
upwards of 100 carats in the rough state. The famous 
"Stewart," found in an outside claim in 1872, weighed 
288 carats, being exceeded in size by only three others 
in the whole world. 

At first the stones were, so to say, quarried in open 
workings ; but during the operations numerous landslips 
and disastrous fires ' and explosions occurred, disturbing 
the natural distribution and otherwise greatly increasing 
the cost of excavation. At present there are no open 
workings, all operations' being carried on by means of 
shafts and underground galleries as in ordinary coal 
mines. With the increasing supply came the necessity 
of controlling the output to prevent a glut of the market 

' E. \y. Strceter, Prteioua Slatut and Oemi, p. 82. 
• The De B*era mine was nearly destroyed by tiw iu July 1888. 

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Individual claims were gradually bought up by the 
laiger capitalists, sometimes at euormous prices, and thus 
the irbole of the diamond interests became fused in one 
amalgamated corporation. 

Owing to the great depth of the pipes the mines may 
be regarded as practically inexhaustible. Some idea of 
their ricbnees may be formed from the fact that in 
several years (1889, 1890, 1891) the output exceeded 
£4,000,000, while firom 1867 to 1893 the total yield 
fell little short of £66,500,000. With the development 
of the industry, the necessity was soon felt of estab- 
lishing orderly administration in the district. ' Waterboer 
having been induced to cede all his rights of sovereignty 
to the Cape Government, the whole tenitory was an- 
nexed in 1871, and incorporated in the Colony in 1877. 
The disputed fi-ontiers towards Transvaal in the north- 
eaat and the Free State in the east weie settled by 
agreements based on various more or less accurate 
anrveys.' Westwards also the borders were extended 
beyond the Vaal, enclosing a considerable slice of the 
present British Bechuanaland. As thus enlarged, 
Griqualand West, as it was officially designated, com- 
prises an area of about 18,000 square miles, with purely 
conventional frontiers everywhere except on the south 
side, where they follow the course of the Orange River. 

Kimberley, centre of the diamond industry, has a 
somewhat fluctuating population of about 20,000, includ- 
ing the neighbouring quarter of Beaconsfield. It stands 
at an elevation of over 4000 feet above the sea in a hot 

' It wu the Bward mode bj Lieuteuaat - Governor Keate ol Natst, 
•ettling tbe TranBTaal frontier, that lad to the resignation of Fretorius 
and the election of {Resident Burgess in 1871. The negotiations with the 
Free State wera ptotracted till 1877, when the Bloenifontein Government 
surrendered ila claims to the disputed territory foi an indemnity of 

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but healthy district suitable for European settlement 
The great drawback was a lack of water, which is now 
supplied from the Vaal, Distant 620 miles by rail 
from Cape Town and 430 from Port Elizabeth, Kimber- 
ley is rapidly becoming a great stronghold of British 
power and influence throughout South Central Africa. 
This influence is already felt by the neighbouring Ba- 
Tlaro, Ba - TIapi and other Bechuana tribes, who are 
yearly adapting themselves more and more to the 
conditions of Weatem culture. Here was held the first 
" South African and International Exhibition " in the 
year 1892. 

ResonrceB — Tillage — Paatorage — IndUBtries — Trade 

Apart from the Griqualand West diamond fields, 
Cape Colony proper does not appear to possess much 
mineral wealth. There are the already described Little 
Kamaqualand copper mines (p. 256), and the extensive 
coal measures of the Stormberg uplands The copper 
mines yield ores for exportation to England to the yearly 
value of about £600,000, and the coalfields, worked only 
for local consumption, undoubtedly contain a vast store 
of fuel for future use. 

But the surface of the land must always constitute 
the chief resource of the Colony, Owing to the generally 
deficient i-ainfall pastoral pursuits necessarily prevail 
over tilUge. At the same time the enormous dispro- 
portion that at present exists between the extent of land 
under tillage and pasture will be greatly modified by 
improved methods of artificial irrigatioa Of the 
92,000,000 acres distributed amongst 20^000 holdings 
less than 1,000,000 were under cultivation in 1890, 

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the chief crops being wheat (4,000,000 bushels) and 
maize (3,000,000). Considerable quantities of oats, 
niillet, barley, rye, potatoes, and tobacco are also raised ; 
but the cereals still fall short of the local demand. 
Nearly 20,000 acres are occupied by the most produc- 
tive vineyards in the world, yielding an average of 
6.000,000 gallons of wine besides 1,250,000 of 

But more land is yearly brought under cultivation, 
especially where advantage can be taken of the natural 
slope to capture and store the surface waters in artificial 
reservoirs. Some of these basins are of vast size, con- 
taining &om 100 to 200 and even 250 million gallons, 
and by their means extensive tracts in the EarrooB have 
been reclaimed. Elsewhere the streams are utilised and 
distributed by canals over the surrounding lands, while 
the underground waters are reached by deep wells, 
pumps, and other appliances. Thus " lai^ trees, 
orchards, and tall succulent herbage now flourish in 
districts where formerly Qotbing was to be seen but bare 
arid lands, reUeved here and there with patches of 
thorny scrub. But these oases in the wilderness are 
occasionally exposed to the ravages of the all-devouring 
locusts, clouds of which at intervals of fifteen or twenty 
years alight on the verdant slopes and bottom lands, in 
a few hours consuming every blade of grass." ' 

Pasturage and stock-breeding of all kinds have been 
greatly developed, especially in the eastern provinces, 
since the cessation of the Eafir wars. Cattle of the old 
long-homed Dutch variety are largely bred as draught 
animals and even as mounts ; the native fat-tailed sheep 
are intended chiefly for the shambles, while the Angora 
and English breeds yield large quantities of wool for 

' Reclus. xiii p. 141. 

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exportation. The Bubjoined table shows the increase in 
live stock during the last eighteen years : — 



Cattle . . . 

1,110,000 . 


Sheep . . . 

11,000,000 . 



3,000,000 . 


Horaej, Mules, Asses 

290,000 . 



100,000 . 


Of late years attention has also been paid to the indus- 
tries, and protective duties have even been introduced 
for the purpose of encouraging the local manufactures. 
For textiles, hardware, chemicals, paper, china, and 
earthenware, the Colony is still mainly dependent on the 
mother country ; but more or less successful essays have 
already been made at distilling, brewing, tanning, even 
spinning and weaving, carriage - building and soap - 

The foreign trade, mainly with Great Britain and 
carried on almost exclusively under the British flag, is 
also rapidly increasing, the total imports and exports 
having advanced from £12,000,000 in 1884 to 
£24,695,000 in 1893. 

Edncatitm — Finance — Bsllgion— OommnnicaUons 

Education, not being compulsory, is still in a some- 
what backward state. The University, founded in 1873, 
is, like the London University, a purely examining body, 
with direct control over the five colleges, which are aided 
by public grants, and which prepare young men for the 
liberal professions. There are also numerous primary 
schools aided by small grants, and divided into three 
classes according to the nationality of the pupils. Those 

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intended for the instruction of the half-castes and 
aborigines are in charge of the religious bodies and 
oiisBioDariee, although since 187o there has been no 
State Church, By the Act of Separation vested interests 
were respected, but the ecclesiastical hudget (chiefly 
pensions) had already faUea to little over £8000 in 
1890. With the exception of about 13,000 Moham- 
medans (chiefly Malays) and 10,000 Boman Catholics, 
the whole population of Cape Colony proper professes 
some form of Protestantism. The majority are members 
of the Beformed Dutch Church (193,000), the next in 
order of numerical importance being the Wesleyans 
(84,000), the Episcopalians (64,000), Independents 
(42,000), and Presbyterians (30,000). In the Trans- 
keian dependencies the great bulk of the natives are 
still pagans, though Christianity is slowly spreading 
from several missionary centres. 

The finances of the Colony are in a healthy condition ; 
the revenue, derived mainly from taxation, services, and 
colonial estate, generally exceeds the expenditure ; > and 
although there is a debt of £22,000,000, the great bulk 
of the money has been invested in useful public works, 
over £14,000,000 on railways alone, including the 
Kimberley line. The railways, which are Government 
property, yield an average profit of about five per cent 
on the capital invested. Over 2250 miles were open for 
tratfic in 1893, and the system is being extended beyond 
the frontier in the direction of Zambesia. At the same 
date 5482 miles of telegraph with over 13,000 miles of 
wire had been completed. 

Two lines of mail steamers, the Union and Messrs. 
Donald Currie's, ply regularly between Cape Town and 
England, the run of 6000 miles being usually made 
' BeveDiu (1893), £8,i*8,O00; Eipanditure, ;eG,7S4,000. 

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under twenty daya Already as much as £1,560,000 * 
have been spent on the eKtensive harbour works at Cape 
Town, which is rapidly becoming one of the great coaling 
stations of the world. 

Since the close of the Eafir and Zulu wars the land 
forces have been gradually reduced to a corps of mounted 
rifles of 780 men, and about 4000 horse and foot 
volunteers. With the defensive forces may be included 
a well-trained and well-armed body of about 800 police. 
There is also a kind of landwehr, or territorial militia, all 
burghers being liable under the old Dutch law to be 
called oat in cases of emergency. 


Since 1853 the Colony has been in the enjoyment of 
representative institutions, enlai^ed and variously modi- 
fied in 1866, and completed in 1872 by an Act providing 
for " the introduction of the system of executive admin- 
istration, commonly called Hesponsible Government." 
The executive is vested in a (Jovemor and an Executive 
Council appointed by the Crown, while the legislative 
power rests with a Legislative Council of twenty-two 
members elected for seven years, presided over by the 
Chief Justice, and a House of Assembly of seventy-aix 
members returned by the towns aud country districts for 
a period of five years. Both Houses are elected by the 
same voters, who are qualified by occupation of house 
property valued at £25 or receipt of a salary of £50, or 
wages of £25 with board aud lodging. All members of 
Parliament receive one guinea a day for their services, 
and an additional fifteen shilhngs a day for a period not 
' The irhole of thia sum hu been raised bj a, harbour rata withoat the 
kid oF an; loan*. 

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exceeding ninety days if residing over 15 miles from the 
capital. The Ministry comprises five members : the 
Treasurer, who is also Prime Minister (" Premier "), with 
a salary of £1750 ; the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney- 
General, the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public 
Works, and the Secretary of Native Affairs, each with a 
salary of £1500. English remains the official language, 
but since 1882 members of ParUament may address the 
House in English or Dutch at option. 

Adminlatration of tlie Depoadenciea 

The Dependencies, that is, the various Transkeian 
territories of Kaflraria except Griqualand East, are un- 
represented in the Cape Parliament. They are admin- 
istered by magistrates on a plan of which that of 
Tembuland may be taken as the type. Here the 
administrative and judicial system consists simply of 
a Chief Magistrate and Kesident Magistrates, the former 
revising the sentences of the latter, and jointly with two 
of them trying capital cases. The laws of the territory 
are embodied in the Tembuland " Begulations " enacted 
by proclamation of the Governor, and based on the Cape 
laws adapted to the local requirements. 

From this system must be excluded the Crown Colony 
of Basutoland, which since 1884 is governed by a 
Eeaident Commissioner under the direction of the High 
Commissioner for South Africa. This official, whose 
functions have liitherto always been exercised by the 
Governor of Cape Colony, possesses the legislative 
authority, which he exercises by proclamation. The 
country is divided into six districts (Maseru, Leribe, 
Comet Spruit, Berea, Mafekiug, and Quthing), and these 
again into wards under hereditary chiefs allied to the 

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family of the paramount chief, Moshesh. In Basutoland 
there is no public debt, and the revenue normally exceeds 
the expenditure,' The jurisdiction of the Cape Govern- 
ment was extended to Fondoland in 1894, when five 
magistratea were appointed to administer justice in that 

Political Forecaet— Oonfederation 
Since the cessation of the native wars, and the growth 
of a more friendly feeling between the various sections of 
the white population, the attention of Colonial statesmen 
has been directed towards a possible political fusion of 
the various South African States and Colonies on the 
basis of their common national interests. Intinmtely 
connected with this movement are the various proposals 
already made for the adoption of a uniform tarlGT, and the 
extension of the Colonial railway system northwards to 
and beyond the Boer States. It is felt that such projects, 
which appear to be generally accepted iu principle, con- 
tain nearly all the elements needed for the foundation of 
a general international superstructure, which should 
obviously be based on a customs union, and the develop- 
ment of free and rapid communication between the 
interested States. Thus alone could be eETaced the 
political barriers, often mere conventional lines, by which 
these States are at present grouped in separate autonomous 

But the question of actual federation can scarcely 
be regarded as yet ripe for serious discussion. Mean- 
time the problems awaiting solution in the near future 
may be considered almost more of au anthropological 
than of a political nature. In a region generally 
presenting the same physical conditions, with a remark- 
> £43,670 and £11,800 iu 1S94 respectively. 

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ably uniform climate, hot and dry rather than hot and 
moist as in intertropical Africa, and almost everywhere 
far more suitable for pasture than till^e, it should 
not be difficult to recoucile the local, commercial and 
landed interests. Some trouble of this sort has been 
anticipated from the railway now (1895) in prt^esa up 
the Fungwe valley to Manica and Mashona Lands, 
as being likely to divert the future traffic of Zambesia 
from the Cape to Mozambique. Beira, the port of the 
Pungwe on the Indian Ocean, is distant only 380 
miles from Mount Ham[Klen, in the heart of Mashona- 
land, whereas Cape Town lies nearly 1700 miles from 
that place. Hence the foreign trafSc created by the 
colonisation already begun of the northern Eldoiado, 
would necessarily follow the Pungwe route te the 
detriment of the Cape people, who voted the funds 
for the Bechuanaland railway, on the very ground that 
it led to the rich mining and agi-icultnral region of 
Afashona and Manica Lands. Thus it is ai^ed that 
the very prosperity of this region might involve the 
debasement of Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. 

Doubtless here may lurk the elements of a momentary 
conflict of interests between the cis- and trans-Orange 
regions. But it will be ob\'ious enough to the wise 
statesmen who are at present moulding the future 
destinies of Austral Africa, that under no circumstances 
can any direct harm come to the Cape from the future 
development of Zambesia. The growth of a flourishing 
British colony north of tlie Limpopo must in the long- 
ran necessarily react beneficially on the whole of the 
southern section of the Continent. The geographical 
position of the southern ports is too advantageous 
to dread the rivalry of any convenient outlets of trade 
on the eastern seaboard, and as the country progresses 

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there will naturally be room for alL Heoce the Bechu- 
analand railway must be regarded as prospectively s 
good iuvestmetit, and this great continental line will 
doubtless ultimately be continued to the Tati mines in 
Matabililand, and thence through the Mashonaland gold- 
fields to the Zambesi. When also the eastern branches 
through the Orange State to Natal and Durban, through 
Transvaal to Del^oa Bay, and down the Pungwe to the 
coast above Sofala are completed, the consolidation of the 
" South African Confederacy " will have been virtually 

Far more serious than these material conflicts are the 
difficulties arisii^ from the heterogeneous character of 
the South African populations. In the United States 
there is at present but one serious racial question, that 
of the Negro in the " black zone " of the Southern States. 
Yet 80 complex are the problems, so grave the issues 
involved, that it seems to pass the wit of man to devise 
any adequate remedy. One scheme after another, such 
as miscegenation and the isolation of the black lands, is 
proposed only to be dismissed, and now a solution is 
sought in the wholesale deportation of some 8,000,000 
Negroes to the land whence their forefathers originally 
came. But in South Africa there are, or appear to be, 
several racial questions, though here also that of the 
blacks outweighs all others combined in gravity. In 
fact the Hottentot difficulty may be considered as already 
set at rest by a somewhat rapid process of eliminatioD 
(see p. 238). That of the Boers, as opposed to the 
British element, appears to be also settling itself in an 
amicable way by a natural process of Vision, and by the 
spread of the English language amongst all classes of the 
white community. 

But when this community has thus become practically 

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Sritiah in speech, social usages, free institutions, and 
general culture, and \Fheu all available vacant spaces 
have been filled by its natural increase, the black diifi- 
culty will begin to assume an acute phase. Doubtless 
the Negroid Bantu peoples of South Africa stand at a 
considerably higher level of culture than the true 
Negroes ; but miscegenation with them is as impractic- 
able as with the blacks of the Southern States. Isola- 
tion aJiSO can be regarded only as a temporary remedy, 
for the reserved territories, such as Eafiraria, Zulu, and 
Swazi Lands, have already been encroached upon at 
various points. 

But much of South Africa is essentially a pastoral 
region, and all pastoral peoples are of more or less 
migratory habits. Hence, under little pressure, many 
Zulu-£aSr tribes might be induced gradually to remove 
northwards to those parts of Zambesia which are unsuit- 
able for white colonisation, and whence their ancestors 
originally migrated to their present homes. It is note- 
worthy, in this connection, that after the whites had 
found their way into Matabililand, the paramount chief, 
Lobengula, whose father, Umsilikatzi, came originally 
from Zululand and the Transvaal, had long been meditat^- 
ing a furtiier move with all his people northwards beyond 
the Zambesi Twice he had a large number of boats 
collected for the piu-pose, and had he succeeded in effect- 
ing his escape across the Zambesi after his overthrow, 
he would have found that he had already been preceded 
by the Angoni, Maviti, and other kindred Zulu peoples, 
who are descended from still earlier immigrants from the 
r^ou south of the Limpopo. Nor are such movements 
confined to the Zulus, for some years ago the Makololo 
(Mantatees), who were a Ba-Suto people, settled as con- 
querors in Barotseland about the Middle Zambesi. 

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The remedy, therefore, for futnre racial conflicts 
caused by mutual overcrowding may be found in migra- 
tion — a far more natural and moi'e easily effected system 
of deportation than that proposed by Colonel Kuffin and 
others for the black element in the Southern States. 
This question thus foreseen and provided for, ample 
room will be found in the healthy and cultivable regions 
of the Austral African Confederacy for an indefiDite 
expansion of the English-speaking Anglo-Dutch com- 
munities. As far 83 can at present be judged, this 
confederacy will be developed on lines different both 
from those of the Dominion of Canada and of the Federal 
States of the North American Eepublic. Its several 
members — Cape Colony proper, Natal, and the two Boer 
republics — will continue to constitute practically autono- 
mous states, each with its own local l^islature for 
the management of its internal afiairs, all represented on 
equitable terms in an imperial Parliament charged with 
the general interests. The vast regions lying north of 
this political group — Bechuana, Zambesi, and Nyaasa 
Lands — must long continue to be administered under 
imperial control through chartered corporations or other- 
wise. But these also will naturally be admitted to 
membership, whenever, in the fulness of time, sufficiently 
developed to be entrusted with representative institu- 
tions. A first step was taken in this direction in June 
1895, when the Cape Parliament accepted a motion for 
the annexation of tlie Crown Colony of British Bechuana- 

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General Somy : Areas and Populations — Hiitoric Retrospect ; the Zulu 
Militarr System ; the Great Trek ; HUtorj of Natal and the Boer 
States— Ph]Mical Features — lUv(rs : the Limpopo — Coast Lagoons- 
Climate — Naturd Beaoarces : Mineral Wealth — Flora and Fauna — 
InhabiUnts- The Coolies, Zulus, and Whileti of Natal— Inhabit- 
ants of the Onnge Free State— Inhabitants of Transvaal — Towns, 
Stations — Smui and Tonga Lands. 

Q«ai«ral Bnrrey; Axus and Fopvlationa 

Thanes to the combined influence of the wai-m 
Klozambique current setting from the Indian Ocean, 
find to the rain-bearing atmospheric currents setting 
from the same quarter, all animal and vegetable life in 
extra- tropical South Africa may be said to gravitate 
towards the south-eastern seaboard. It has already- 
been seen (p. 256) that in Cape Colony proper the 
parting-line between the more or less thickly peopled 
settled districts and the almost uninhabitable western 
steppes is roughly indicated by the main line of rail- 
way running from Cape Town north-eastwards to the 
Orange above Hopetown. The extension of that line 

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to Mafeking, and its continuation thence to Palapye 
(Palachwe), will similarly mark off the more arid region of 
Becbuanaland, merging through the Kalahari wilderness 
westwards in the absolute desert of Great Kamaqualand, 
from the grassy plateau and well -watered coastlands 
stretching from Becbuanaland eastwards to the Indian 
Ocean. The western section, with an area of over 
600,000 square miles, has a population of probably lena 
than 300,000, whei-eas in the eastern, -with an area of 
little over 200,000 square miles, the population approaches 

This eastern section, which extends from the head- 
streams of the Orange northwards to the Limpopo, com- 
prises physically two distinct regions — the terraced 
coastlands and the inland plateau ; but it is divided 
politically between the English, the Boers, and the 
Portuguese. Tlie north-east comer between Trans- 
vaal and the Limpopo forms a continuation of 
Portuguese liiast Africa, whose extreme southern limit, 
as determined by the Anglo -Foituguese Agreement of 
August 1890, -is marked by a line r unnin g from Kosi 
Bay below X>elagoa Bay through Tongaland due west 
to the east frontier of Swaziland. Everything south of 
that line is British, comprising the Colony of Katal, 
with the dependencies of Zululand and the southern 
section of Tongaland. The whole of the territory west of 
these coastlands is distributed between the two Boer 
republics of the Orange Free State and Transvaal (South 
African Eepublic). Thus, excluding the Portuguese 
enclave, there are here grouped together as many as 
six political divisions with areas and populations as 
under : — 

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Ana In Fopnlitlon 

■q. mllw. (isei). 

Natal, Britisli Colon; . . . 21,000 544,000 

ZolaUnd B,000 142,000 

South ToDgaland .... 2,000 40,000 

Orange Free State, Boer Republic 42,000 210,000 

TrauBTaal „ „ . . 114,000 760,000 

Scuiluid 3,000 80,000 

Total . . 181,000 1,778,000 

Historic Betrospect : Tlie Zvla UUitary Byatem ; Th« Gnat 
Tnk ; Histor; of Natal and the Boar 8tat«fl 

Our first defioita knowledge of the south-east African 
seaboard dates from the close of the year 1497, when 
Vasco de Oama, after rounding the Cape on his memor- 
able voyage to the East Indies, landed on Christmas Day 
at the point where now stands the city of Durban. To 
commemorate this event he named tbe place Port Natal, 
and the expression Terra do Natal ("Land of the 
Nativity ") already figures on Figafetta's and other old 
maps as the name of the surrounding region. But 
although the Portuguese roughly surveyed the whole 
coast, naming such prominent features as the Ponta da 
Pescaria (" Fishing Point "), Sancta Lucia Eiver and 
Lagoon, Delagoa Bay and Loureozo Marques, they no- 
where established any military posts or factories. Several 
unsuccessful attempts were made by the Dutch, especially 
in 1688 and 1721, to found permanent settlements on 
the coast, and the whole seaboard remained unoccupied 
till the year 1824, when a few English settlers estab- 
lished themselves at Port Natal. 

At that time all the coastlands between Delagoa Bay 
and Kaflrland, as well as parts of the inland plateau, 

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were either under the direct away or exposed to the 
constant attacks of the terrible chief, Chaka, reputed 
founder of the Zulu military power about the beginning 
of the century. The region between the Tngela and 
Umzimkulu rivers, that is, the present Colony of Natal, 
had been repeatedly laid waste, and its inhabitants either 
maaaacred, carried into captivity, or driven to seek refuge 
amongst the kindred peoples of Eaffraria, Thna it was 
that at the arrival of the English the whole land had 
almost reverted to a state of nature, and is described in 
contemporary reports as " a howling wilderness," occupied 
by a few broken and scattered Zulu-Kafir tribes number- 
ing scarcely 3000 altogether. 

Zululand itself had been converted into one vast en- 
campment, held like an impr^nable stronghold by fierce 
and highly - disciplined warlike hordes under Chaka, 
seventh in descent &om a legendary chief, Zulu,^ from 
whom the northern division of the Zulu-Kafir race take 
the name of Abantu ba-Kwa Zulu, " People of Zulu's 
Land." But Chaka was not the true founder of the Zulu 
military system, though it was brought by him to the 
highest state of development of which such a system waa 
capable. He was merely an apt pupil of his kinsman, 
Uingiswayo, heir to the Aba-Tetwa chieftainship,* who, 
during his long exile in Cape Colony (1793-99), had 
observed the immense superiority of a few well-trained 

> Zuln, Eamede, HakeW, Panga, Ifdaba, Yams, Tezengakolu, Chaka 
(Bleek, Zulu Legend*). The original home of the tribe vu the valley of 
the White UmrotoBi river, aud bj a curioiia coiocidenoa it vas in this 
cradle of tlie race that Cctjvttjo, iU \aat ruler, was craehed by the Eng- 
lish, and the Zuln nationalit; resolved into ita primeval tritial elements. 

* In the national genealogies the Aba-Tetwa belonged to the elder 
branch ; conseqneotly Dingiswayo irss the true paramount chief or ths 
Zuln people. Bnt at his death Chaka usurped thii position, and the 
Aba-Tetra appear to have sood become completely absorbed in the Ama- 

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European troops over multitudes of undisciplined savage 
hordes. Dingiswayo, having been recalled on his father's 
death, immediately set about organising a standing army 
on the European model. 

Meantime Chaka, heir to the Zulu chieftaincy, had 
also to flee for his life from his father's wrath, and 
having taken refuge with Dingiswayo, received from him 
the military training which haa made his name famous 
throughout South Africa. Early in the century he suc- 
ceeded in unitii^ both the Ama-Zulu and Aba-Tetwa in one 
powerful state organised on a strictly military basis. The 
kin^om was divided into military districts, and all his 
subjects capable of bearing amis were placed under a 
most rigid ayatem of diacipUne. They coiUd only marry 
with the king's consent, and any duty laid upon them 
they had to attempt, however hopeless its nature might 
be, " There haa probably never been a more perfect 
system of discipline than that by which Chaka ruled 
his army and kingdom. At a review an order might be 
given in the most unexpected manner, which meant 
death to hundreds. If the regiment hesitated or dared 
to remonstrate, so perfect was the discipline and so great 
the jealousy, that another was ready to cut them down, 
A warrior returning from battle without his arms was 
put to death without trial. A general returning un- 
successful in the main purpose of his expedition shared 
the same fote. Whoever displeased the king was imme- 
diately executed. The traditional courts practically 
ceased to exist so far as the will and action of the tyrant 
was concerned."' 

Tribe after tribe was now rapidly attacked, and either 
exterminated, driven from its lands, or absorbed in the 
general Zulu nationality. Thus it happens that the term 

1 Ber. J. Uscdontld, Anlhrop. Journal, November 1890, p. 113. 

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Zulu now often implieB political i-ather than blood rela- 
tionship. The terror of the Zulu arms was spread far 
and wide, and when the English fitst landed at Port 
Natal, Chaka ruled without a rival over nearly the whole 
of the south-eastern seaboard from the Limpopo to Cape 
Colony, his empire including Basutoland, a laige part of 
the present Boer States of the Orange and Transvaal, and 
the whole of Natal. In 1825 he was visited at the 
ITrngungindhlovu Kraal by Lieutenant Farewell, who was 
favourably received and who obtained a cession of the 
nearly depopulated territory about Port Natal. Soon 
after (September 1828) Chaka was killed by his brother 
Mhlangana, who within a few days fell a victim in his 
turn to another brother, Dingan (Diogaan). 

The military system was continued with unabated 
severity by Dii^n, during whose eventful re^ of 
twelve years the foundations were laid of the political 
relations which at present prevail throughout South- 
East Aftica. The chief factor in moulding the course 
of events was the "Great Trek" of 1834-38. After 
crossing the Orange, the stream of Boer migration rami- 
fied into two channels, one continuing its northerly course 
to and beyond the Vaal, thus preparing the way for the 
two Dutch republics, while the other branched off to the 
east in the direction of the Indian Ocean. By the end 
of 1837 as many as 1000 waggons with their long 
teams of oxen, each waggon representing an itinerant 
Boer household, had already crossed the Drakenberg and 
descended to the fluvial valleys flowing through north 
Natal to the coast Here they were at first well received 
by Dingan ; but his suspicions were presently aroused, 
and at a meeting to which they had been invited to 
arrange for a cession of lands in their new settlement some 
seventy of the Boer leaders were treacherously cut oS 

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with most of their families and retainers (February 1838). 
Several attempts to avenge this deed of blood ended in 
farther loss, one involving the destruction of 700 men, 
womea, and children at a spot on the southern fork of 
the Tugela, where the town of Weenen (" Weeping ") per- 
petuates the memory of the disaster. But before the 
close of the same year 1838 Dingan was defeated with 
great slaughter on the banks of a stream since named the 
Blood Eiver in memory of the event. He never recovered 
this blow, which was followed in 1840 by his complete 
overthrow and deposition in favour of his brother Panda 
(Umpande), who had already risen in revolt against his 
oj^ressive rule. 

Dingan was soon after murdered in Swaziland, and 
the grateful Panda hastened to cede to the Boers the 
dispnted territory, where they set up the independent 
republic of " Natalia " with capital Pietermaritzburg,' in 
total disr^ard of the prior rights of the English settlers 
secured by treaty with Chaka (1825). The consequence 
was that the Cape Government took military possession 
of the country in 1841, and in 1843 Natalia became 
the British territory of Natal administered from the 
Cape. Two years later it was placed under imperial 
control, and in 1856 erected a separate colony with 
representative institutions under a Lieutenant-Governor, 
who since 1882 takes the title of Governor. 

Meanwhile most of the Natal Boers again trekked 
across the mountains, and joined their kinsmen, who had 
already penetrated northwards lar beyond the Vaal. 
The region south of that river had been procleiimed 
British territoiy by Sir Harry Smith in 1848. Never- 
theless the continual efforts of the southern Trekkers to 

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secure political freedom were crowned with success by 
the convention of 1854, which recognised them as "to 
all intents and purposes a. free and independent people, 
and their government to be treated thenceforth as a free 
and independent government" Since then the Orange 
Fkee State, as it had already been named, has been 
developed on peaceful lines, and has maintained uninter- 
rupted friendly relations with the conterminous British 
Colonies of the Cape and Natal, though not with its 
Transvaal neighbours. 

These northern Trekkers had already, in 1834-36, 
arrived in lai^ numbers in the region beyond the Vaal, 
which at that time was mostly under the sway of the 
powerful refugee Zulu chief Umsilikatzi, whose headquarters 
were at Mosega in the Marico district on the Bechuanaland 
frontier. To avenge the massacre of some emigrant 
bands, the Boers, under Maritz and Fotgieter, attacked 
and utterly defeated Umsilikatzi in 1837. Next year 
this chief, being also pressed by his hereditary enemy, 
Dingau, withdrew beyond the Limpopo, and founded the 
late kingdom of Matabililand, The whole r^on between 
the Vaal and the Limpopo was thus left virtually in the 
hands of the Trekkers, who were here joined by large 
numbei-s of the Natalia Boers in 1842-43. 

But, owing to internal dissensions and the perpetual 
wranglings of their two chief leaders, Pretorius and 
Potgieter, they failed to establish an organised adminis- 
tration, till the British Government was induced by 
Pretorius to sign the Sand River Convention (January 
1852), which virtually recc^ised the political independ- 
ence of Transvaal. The death both of Pretorius and 
Potgieter in 1853 prepared the way for a period of 
internal peace under Pretorius's eldest son, Marthinus 
Wessels Pretorius, first President of the " Dutch African 

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Republic," afterwards (1858) altered to the " Soutb 
African Kepublic," its present official title. But a fatal 
element of weakness lay in the persistent refusal of the 
Boers to adopt the imperial measures regarding the 
emancipation of the natives. The murder of Hermami 
Potgieter and family (1854), avenged by Pretorius at 
Makapan's Cave, was followed (1856) by the " Apprentice 
Iaw " establishing a system of disguised slavery, which 
was further strengthened by the sanction (1858) of the 
Gnmd Wei, or " Fundamental Law," declaring that " the 
people will adroit of no equality of persons of colour with 
the white inhabitants either in State or Church." Owing 
to this policy opposition was constantly shown to the 
missionaries, preachers of universal equality, as illustrated 
by the plunder of Livingstone's house by the commando 
sent against the native chief, Secheli, in 1852. 

Troubles with the Free State, settled without bloodshed 
in 1857, were followed by an abortive attempt (1859) 
to unite both republics under I'retorius. His return to 
Transvaal (1863) was followed by incessant quarrels 
with the Ba-Tlapin and Ba-Kolong Bechuanas, and with 
the Griquas in the west, and in the east with the Zulu 
King Cetywayo about the disputed Wakkerstroom and 
Utrecht district Pretorius's proclamation of 1868, 
extending the boundaries of the republic west to Lake 
Xgami, east to Delagoa Fay, gave rise to further disputes 
with England and Portugal, Delagoa Bay being ultimately 
awarded (July 1875) to Portugal by the French President, 
Marshal MacMahon, to whose decision the matter had 
been referred. The Keate award, determining the 
south - west frontier towards Griqualand West, was 
followed by the resignation of Pretorius and appointment 
of President Burgess, who in 1875 came into collision 
with the Ba-Pedi chief, Sikokuni, south of the Olifant 

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river, on the question of disputed territory in the Lyden- 
buig and Pretoria districts. 

On his return from a visit to Europe in connectioo 
■with the Delagoa railway scheme, Bui^jess found every- 
thing in the greatest confusion, the Boers dispirited by 
repeated reverees in the Sikokuni war, an empty treasury, 
broken credit, the state on the verge of bankruptcy and 
exposed to Zulu and Ba-Fedi invasions. Hence interven- 
tion of England and Sir Theophilus Shepstone's proclama- 
tion (12th April 1877) annexing Transvaal, followed by 
the appointment of Sir W. Owen Lanyon as British 
administrator. But after three years' preparation the 
Boers openly revolted, and having been successful in a 
few conflicts with British troops leading up to the more 
serious engi^ement of Majuba Hill on the Natal frontier, 
they induced the British Government to restore the 
republic under the suzerainty of the Queen, a British 
Besident being appointed with the functions of a Consul- 
General (Treaty of 21st March 1881). 

S. J. Paul Kruger, elected President in 1883, 
negotiated the Convention of London (27th February 
1884) recognising the "South African Republic," re- 
placing the British Resident by a British Agent, and 
considerably restricting the British suzerainty. This was 
followed by the proclankation (23rd March 1885) of the 
British protectorate over Bechuanaland, thereby arresting 
the westward encroachments of the Boers on the terri- 
tories of the Bamangwato, Bakwena, Bangwaketsi and 
Barolong (Bechuana) tribes, where attempts had already 
been made to set up the ephemeral republics of " Stella 
Land " and " Goshen." At the same time the Transvaal 
frontier towards Bechuanaland was roughly laid down in 
such a way as to keep open the great trade route from 
the Cape through Kimberley, Vryburg, Mafeking, and 

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Palapye to Bbodesia (Matabili and Maahona Lands). On 
the east side the encroachments of the Boers resulted 
in the incorpoiatioa of the temporary " New Eepublic," 
detached &om Zululand in 1888 and renamed Yrijbeid. 
lastly, Transvaal obtained by the CoDventioD of August 
1890 a right of way through Swazi and Tonga L^ds 
to the coast at Eosi Bay, and ultimately (1894) the 
concession of Swaziland itself 

In Zululand the aoceesion of Panda (1840) had been 
followed by a period of comparative repose, broken by 
the outbreak of a civil war in 1856 between his two 
sons, Cetjwayo and Umbulazi, rival claimants for the 
succession. The country continued in a disturbed state 
till 1861, when the Xatal Government secured the 
formal nomination of Cetywayo, who consequently 
succeeded to the throne soon after Panda's death in 
October 1862. Cetywayo soon became entangled iu 
border disputes with Transvaal, and during the temporary 
annexation of this state, he felt aggrieved that the 
British Government took the same views regarding the 
debatable frontier lands that the Boers had advanced. 
The angry discussions that ensued, and especially the 
Zulu king's undoubtedly threatening language, led up to 
an ultimatum, followed by the invasion of his territory 
by the British under General Chelmsford early in 1879. 
At first the Zulus were successful, surprising and 
annihilating a whole detachment at Isandhlwana near 
the Borke's Drift passage of the Tu^la, and soon after 
catting off a small party with Prince Napoleon, son of 
the Emperor Napoleon IIL, who had joined as volunteer. 
But the short campaign ended with the crushing defeat 
and capture of Cetywayo at Ulundi, his chief kraal, near 
the cradle of hia race in the Umvolosi valley (4th July 
1879). Zululand was then divided amongst thirteen 
vou n n 

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semi-independent chiefe, an unfortunate airangemeDt 
which led to much strife and bloodshed. Cetywayo, 
who had meantime visited England from the Cape, was 
then restored (1883) to most of his territory except a 
reserve on the Natal frontier and Usibebus' district in 
the north-east A collision between these two chiefs 
resulted in Cetywayo's defeat and flif^t to the reserve, 
where he died in 1884. The Zulus being unable to 
establish orderly government, or to resist the encroach- 
ments of the Transvaal Boers, who had already set up 
the " New Republic " within their borders, the English 
again interfered, and in 1887 constituted what remained 
of the old Zulu kingdom a British protectorate adminis- 
tered by a Resident Commissioner under the Governor of 
Natal, who is also Governor of the annexed territory. 
In 1895 the protectorate was extended to the southern 
section of Tot^land, and was thus made conterminous 
with Portuguese territory. 

Physical FeatnreB 

The same terraced formation, which constitutes such 
a marked feature of Cape Colony, is maintained with 
little interruption throughout the sonth - eastern region 
between Kafirland and the Limpopa In some places 
the outer coast ranges are mei^ed in a single chain, 
which, under the name of the Lobombo Mountains, 
traverses Zululaod, Swaziland, and Transvaal at a mean 
elevation of about 3000 feet. But the inner and more 
lofty escarpments, which sweep round the extremity of 
the continent from the Orange estuary to the Limpopo, 
are here continued beyond the Stormberg as the Quath- 
lamba or Brakenbeig range, called also the Bandberg, or 

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border range, at an altitude of from 8000 to 10,000 
feet Seen from the coast they present a far more 
imposing aspect than on the landward side, where the 
Free State and Transvaal plateaux already stand at a 
height of from 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea. The 
whole of Natal and Zululand lie on the outer slope ; but 
this slope falls seawards, not in a gentle incline, but 
through a series of broken and deeply -ravined terraras 
gradually assuming a leas abrupt aspect as they approach 
the coast, where they at last mei;ge in a belt of low- 
lying sub-tropical lands. 

A striking contrast is thus presented between the 
fertile seaboard washed by the warm Mozambique 
current and the almost alpine uplands of the Draken- 
berg escarpments. The nucleus of these south - east 
African highlands is formed by the massive Fotong 
("Antelope Mountain") at the converging point of 
Basutoland, the Free State, and Natal, which by the 
French missionaries has been aptly named the Afont aux 
Sources. This imposing table - shaped eminence, about 
10,100 feet high, constitutes the " border craig," or main 
divide between the waters flowing west to the Orange 
basin and east to the Indian Ocean. It stands on a 
lateral ridge connecting the Maluti or " Blue Mountains " 
of Basutoland with the main range ; but it is considerably 
exceeded in height by other crests on the same ridge, 
such as the Cathkin or Champagne Castle (10,520 feet), 
and Mount Hamilton (11,700), probably the highest 
peak in Africa south of the Zambesi. 

From this alpine region the Drakenberg trends north- 
wards, still parallel with the coast, to the Lipalule 
(Oljfant) affluent of the Limpopo at a mean altitude of 
from 5000 to 6000 feet, here culminating in the 
Mauchberg (8730), highest point of Transvaal East- 

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wards risea the Spitekop (5640), and more to the south 
the Klipstad (6000), and Hohiek (5600) ; while some of 
the emineacea, such as the Eaap or " Cape," centre of a 
rich auriferous district, affect the form of marine head- 
lands. This appears t« be the result of denudation, 
which beyond the Lipalnle has reduced the Drakenberg 
to a series of detached eminences moderately elevated 
above the surrounding plateau, or developing isolated 
chains such as the Murcbison and Zoutpansbe^ running 
east and west between the Lipalule and Limpopo. In 
the same direction are disposed several other broken 
ridges, such as the Maquassiebeig, Gat Hand, Witwater 
Rand, and Magaliesberg in the south ; the Dwaraberg, 
Hanglip, Waterberg, and Blaaberg in the north — few of 
which rise much above 4500 feet But as the plateau 
itself already stands at a mean altitude of over 3000 
feet, these ridges detract httle from the aspect of a vast 
level or slightly rolling upland plain, almost everywhere 
presented by the Boer States west of the Drakenbeig 

In Transvaal three natural divisions are determined 
by the general relief of the land combined with its 
climatic and economic conditions: The Hoogt Veld, or 
uplands, comprising the southern districts drained by 
the Vaal, t<^ether with the Biakenberg highlands, a 
region of about 35,000 square miles, from 4000 to 8000 
feet above the sea, almost everywhere abounding in rich 
auriferous deposits; the Sakea Veld, or terraced lands, 
comprising the relatively low eastern zone between the 
Drakenberg and the outer slopes of the Lobombo range, 
falling in many places down to 2000 feet, with much 
fine pasturage and arable land, 18,000 to 20,000 square 
miles in extent ; lastly, the Bosck Veld, or bush country, 
comprising all the central and western parte, merging 

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gradually in the dry steppe lands of Bechuana, a vast 
plateau over 3000 feet above sea -level, and about 
60,000, or, includii^ the Free State, nearly 80,000 
square miles in extent 

the aspect of an elevated lacustrine 
basin, whose waters escaped partly through the Limpopo 
to the Indian Ocean, partly through the Vaal and 
Orange to the Atlantic. The Limpopo and Vaal are 
still the two great fissures in the plateau, which, with 

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their afBueats, carry o£f most of the surface waters to 
the surrouDdiug marine basins. The divide between 
the two river systems lies not in the Drakenber^ 
which ifl pierced by the Lipalule and several of its tribu- 
taries, but in the Witwater Band towards the south-west 
of Transvaal 


From this ridge the Limpopo, Bengwane, or Crocodile 
sweeps round first to the west, then to the north, east, 
and south, describing a semicircle of nearly 1000 miles 
between its source below Pretoria and its month above 
Delagoa Bay. At the superb Tolo Azime Falls it pierces 
the last rocky barriers of the Zontpansbeig and enters 
tiie sphere of Portuguese influence, where it is joined on 
its right bank by the Olifants, largest of its tributariea 
Higher up it receives numerous other affluents on the same 
side, such as the Limvuba (Pafurie) at the Falls, the 
Sand Hout (Ingalele), the Nylstroom, and Fongola, which 
collectively. represent about three-fourths of the drainage 
of Transvaal. From the north, that is from the 
Matoppo Hills fonnii^ the divide towards the Zambesi, 
the Limpopo receives on its left bank a lai^e number 
of perennial and intermittent streams, which similarly 
represent collectively about one-half the drain^e area 
of Matabililand proper. Such are, in ascending order, 
the Manitze (Wanetze, Nuanetze), probably the Manhice 
of the old maps, the Bubye, Um-Zii^;wane, Tiili, Shaetu, 
and Maclouteie, some of which have acquired some 
celebrity in connection with recent events in South 
Central Africa, Altogether the Limpopo, next to the 
Zambesi the largest African river flowing to the Indian 
Ocean, has a catchment basin of probably 130,000 

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square miles. Id other words, it drains a region con- 
siderablj larger than the British Isles. But most of this 
region receives no rain&ll for a good part of the year ; 
manj of the tributary streams are intennittent wadys, 
and much of the water is evaporated or lost in the 
fringing swamps. Hence the discharge bears no propor- 
tion to the extent of its basin, and in any case the 
navigation is entirely obstructed 100 nulee above its 
mouth by the Tolo Azime Falls, to which point it was 
ascended for the first time in 1884 by Captain Chad- 
dock in the Mavd, a small river steamer built for the 
purpose. Its mouth also is obstructed by sandbanks, 
which extend some distance seawards, while the current 
throughout its lower course has a velocity of from four 
to five miles. Consequently the Limpopo is only to a 
limited exteut a navigable river ; and its economic value 
ia further diminished by the fact that it fiows for several 
hundred miles tbroi^h a swampy region infested by the 
tsetse fly. 

In Natal and Zululand the moisture-bearing clouds, 
rolling up from the Indian Ocean and intercepted by the 
crests of the Srakenbei^, feed a large number of copious 
and perennial streams, which mostly flow in independent 
channels to the coast. Durii^ their relatively short 
course they' descend rapidly through a succession of 
scarps and terraces, falls and cataracts, irom altitudes 
of 8000 or 9000 feet down to sea-leveL Hence 
throughout most of their course they present the aspect 
of wild mountain torrents, and even on the broad belt of 
rolling grass lands between the mountain spurs and the 
yellow sands of the coast, their currents are too swift to 
be stemmed by river craft. Such is the general 
character of the Um-tafuna (Um-tamvane), TJm-Zimkula, 
Um-Eomanzi, Um-lazi, Urn-gem, Um-vosi, Tx^la, Um- 

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Llatuzi, Um-Volozi, and U-autu (Maputa), whose rocky 
beds follow in succession from the Cape frontier to 
Delagoa Bay. Of these by far the lai^est is the 
Tugela, which, with its northern a£9uent the Bofblo, 
drains about one-half of Natal From its source above 
Newcastle, to its mouth at Fort Williamson, the Buffalo- 
Xi^la serves to indicate the frontier, first towards 
Transvaal, and then towards Zululand. The true upper 
course is certainly the Buffalo, which at the confluence 
is the larger of the two forks, and which is also dis- 
posed in the same south-easterly direction as the valley 
of the main stream below the confluenc& 

Ooaet Lagoons 

Beyond the Tugela the character of the seaboard 
undergoes a marked change. The spurs and foothills of 
the main ranges recede farther inland, or rather are 
deflected due north, while the coast-line continues to 
follow a north-easterly direction. The result is a zone 
of low • lying sandy coastlands, which broadens out 
towards Delagoa Bay, and which is indented by several 
spacious lagoons, such as the so-called Lake St. Lucia, 
the Kosi inlet, and Delagoa Bay itsel£ The shallow St 
Lucia basin, about 55 miles long and 10 broad, com- 
municates southwards with the sea through a narrow 
channel infested by sharks, and obstructed by a bar 
created, not by the lake, but by the deposits of the 
Um-volozi, which here reaches the coast Northwards 
the lake is continued by a number of smaller lagoons, 
backwaters and passages, nearly the whole way to 
Del^^ Bay. The Xosi basin, largest of these lagoons, 
also communicates with the sea, but on the north side, 
where there is no fluvial estuary to form any obstructing 

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sandbanks. Hence this inlet is accessible through a 
Bomewhat narrow passage to vessels of considerable size, 
which here find better anchorage than on an; parts of 
the seaboard between the St John's Biver and Lourenzo 
Marques. Bj the Anglo -Fortaguese Agreement of 
August 1890, so far confirmed by the ConventioD of 
May 1891, the Eosi inlet lies in the sonthem or British 
section of Tongaland, jost below the conventional line 
drawn from Swaziland due east to the coast at Cosi Bay. 

Its varied relief and the great differences of altitude 
between sea-level and the Drakenberg crests secure for 
Natal a series of vertically-disposed climates analogous 
to those of the hot, temperate, and cold lands of Mexico 
and Guatemala. Ascending from the coaetlands to the 
uplands the traveller experiences all the transitions of 
temperature from that of the tropical or sub-tropical 
seaboard to the cold elevated terraces. But the great 
beat of the lowlands is tempered by the stonns which 
prevail during the austral summer from iN'ovember to 
January, while the cold upland valleys are affected by 
the hot winds, which at times blow for a few days con- 
tinuously frtnn the interior. Thus there is a perpetual 
struggle between the marine and continental influences, 
by which the extremes of heat and cold are constantly 
modified. Even at Durban, in the hot zone, the mean 
temperature is not more than 68° F., which is all the 
more remarkable when it is remembered that the Katal 
seaboard is swept by the warm Mozambique current 
from the Indian Ocean. Here also the average yearly 
rainfall seldom exceeds 44 inches, ^though the fierce 

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gales blowing landwards are at times accompanied by 
dense vapours and rains, mostly confined to the coast- 
lands. In the interior the moisture- bearing clouds 
arrested by the h^her ranges discharge heavy down- 
pours on the seawaid slopes of the mountains. Hence 
much of the humidity supplied by the Indian Ocean is 
received on the lowlands, not directly in the form of 
rain, but indirectly through the running waters descend- 
ing trom the Drakenbei^ uplands. 

In the Orange Free State and Transvaal the condi- 
tions are somewhat reversed, these elevated platean lands 
being largely shut off by the encircling coast ranges, and 
consequently exposed more to continental than to marine 
influences. Owing to its altitude and the dryness due 
to the neighbouring Kalahari j^on, this region enjoys 
on the whole a healthy climate, well suited for European 
settlers. Even the Kaap goldfields, and especially Bar- 
berton, which had till lately home a bad reputation, are 
now found to be "exceptionally salubrious. There may 
be occasioaal cases of fever in the town, but they have 
found their beginnings beyond the boundaries of Bar- 
berton. There is no fever in the town proper, and little 
or no other sickness. Medical men have little or no 
work to do. They flocked to the place thinking to coin 
money out of fever patients ; for a livelihood they either 
flitted, had to become scrip-sellers, or turn their hand to 
harder toil. There are hardly more than half a hundred 
graves in the Barberton cemetery, and the gravedigger, 
finding his occupation unprofitable, threw it up in 
disgust, and took to dicing for gold," ' 

But the low-lying tracts along the Limpopo and other 
rivers are undoubtedly unhealthy, malarious fever being 
here endemic, and its prevalence indicated by the pre- 
1 E. P. tUtbere, The Qold-Fitldt JttvitiUd. Datbui, 1SS8. 

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Bence of the l«etse pest The route or railway from 
LcmreM^o MaTques to the interior also traverses a fever- 
stricken district, dangerous especially in the rainy 
summer mouths. On the plateau the rains usually set 
in about October and last till April ; but they are very 
unequally distributed, being moat copious in the east 
and gradually falling off towards the west, where they 
arc counteracted by the dry currents from the arid 
Kalahari and Namaqua regions. At Pretoria the rainfall 
is scarcely more than 30 inches, rising to perhaps 40 on 
the east frontier and sinking to 1 2 or less on the western 
steppe lands. But the country is at times exposed to 
heavy floods, such as that of January 1891, when it 
rained incessantly for several days, converting the Katal 
spruit at Johannesburg into a roaring river, which swept 
away the city and other dams, and spread havoc over 
the whole district. At certain parts the Vaal river, 
swollen by numerous foaming torrents, assumed the 
aspect of an inland sea five miles wide and forty feet 

Despite its great altitude, the plateau, thanks to the 
hot land winds, has a somewhat higher average tempera- 
ture than Natal, ranging from about 40° F. in June to 
90" or even 95" in January, with a mean of from 68° to 

Nattoal Resourcss — Klneial Wealth 

In Natal extensive coal measures exist, especially in 
the valley of the Klip and other headstreams of the 
Tugela. This rich carboniferous region, which belongs 
to the same geological formation as that of the Cape 
coalfields south of Basutoland, is now traversed in its 
entire lei^h by the Natal Trunk Line, the last section 

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from Newciuitle to Laing's Nek,. wiUiin 3 miles of the 
Traasvaal frontier, having been opened in April 1891. 
Iron ores abonud in man; districts, and in 1886 some 
extensive aoriferous deposits were discovered in the 
Zulu reserve on the left bank of the Tugela. 

In his official report for 1890, Mr. K Nevill, Govern- 
ment chemist at Natal, states that valuable deposits of 
ai^ntiferous galena of copper and of bismuth exist in 
the colony, rich enough to be profitably exported in 
bulk. In Alexandra and Umvoti counties deposits of 
silver-bearing lead ore have also been found, containing 
from 10 to 15 pounds worth of silver per ton of ore. 
Saltpetre has been discovered, over three times more 
valuable than the best Peruvian deposits, and several 
calcareous formations occur which piomise to yield good 
hydraulic cement 

Few regions can compare with Transvaal both for the 
variety and abundance of its mineral resources ; these 
include iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre, coal, 
diamonds, and especially gold, which is widely distri- 
buted throughout the Drakenbeig, in the northern 
Zoutpansberg and Waterberg, and even in the extreme 
western Kustenbuig and Marico districts. Mining opera- 
tions have hitherto been carried on chiefly in the Lyden- 
buig province, about Mount Mauchberg and Mount 
Spitzkop in the central Drakenberg range, and farther 
south and west in the Witwatersraud and Lower Kaap 
(Sheba) districts, MiddelbuFg. In 1891 over 20 gold- 
fields had been ofBcially proclaimed, covering a total 
area of 1,500,000 acres, worked by nearly 400 com- 
panies, and yielding with much fluctuation &om 
£1,200,000 to £1,480,000 annually. At present the 
chief centres of the mining industry are Barberton in 
the Kaap district and Johannesburg in the Witwatersrand, 

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south-west of Pretoria, the output in the latter district 
havii^ exceeded 52,000 oz. in the siu^e month of 
January 1891. The inrush of goldseekers since the 
rapid development of mining operations has transformed 
the whole aspect of the land. Formerly a purely pas- 
toral region, dotted over with a few Boer farmsteads and 
aleepy villages, it has now in many places become a busy 
hive of British enterprise, with large and flourishing 
cities, in which the Dutch element has been almost 
completely absorbed by the English-speaking mining 
and traduig populations. 

There is abundant evidence that the Transvaal gold- 
fields, like those of Matabih and Mashona Lands farther 
north, were known and extensively worked by a civilised 
people at some remote period of the world's history. In 
his Report on the Farm Lisbon (1883), Mr. John M. 
Stuart tells us that he came upon " the remains of old 
workings, showing that, centuries ago, mining was prac- 
tised on a most extensive scale, that vast quantities of 
ore had been worked, and that by engineers of a very 
h%h order. I found quarries, tunnels, shafts, adita, the 
remains of well-made roads, and also pits of ore on the 
side of these old roads, apparently ready to be put into 
wagons. This ore was piled with as much r^ularity 
as if it had been placed for strict measurement, and it 
would seem as if these workings had been abandoned 
precipitately by the miners. I found in one instance 
that a gaUery had been walled up with solid masonry ; I 
was unable to remove the wall, as it was on a farm not at 
that time under Government control The native tribes, so 
&r as I could ascertain by diligent inquiry, knew nothing 
03 to who these ancient miners were, and have no tradi- 
tions regarding them. I prefer to attribute these work- 
ings to the Portuguese, who are historically known to 

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have had many trading possessiona, and to have gained 
much gold in this section in the seventeenth century. 
My reasons for so attributing these workings is that they 
were acquainted with the use of gunpowder. But 
whether even a more ancient people, such as the 
Fbcenicians, or whether the Portuguese did this work, 
is immaterial ; the fact remains, and is open to all who 
will visit this country, that mining on a very extensive 
scale was carried on by some nation in the past." 

lion is widely difi^jsed, and the famous Yzerberg 
(" Iron Mountain ") near Marabastad, north of Fotgieter's 
Bust, consists of a huge mass of rich ore, which has 
been smelted by the natives from time ImmemoriaL 
Diamonds appear to be confined to the Bloemhof district, 
on the Vaal, which belongs geol<^cally to the diamant- 
iferous region of Griqualand West. But coal occurs in 
many districts, such as Utrecht and Wakkerstroom in 
the south-east, and in Middelburg and Lydenburg farther 
north. In some places seams 8 or 10 feet thick lie ao 
close to the surface that they are quarried by the natives. 

In the Transvaal auriferous regions the prevailing 
formations are quartz, porphyry, granites, clay-slates, 
greenstone, Lower Devonian conglomerates, and lime- 
stones. The German geolt^ist. Dr. Schenck,^ describes 
the Barberton (Eaap) formation as of very old and 
highly metamorphosed slates and sandstones, with erup- 
tive diorite, serpentine, and other greenstones. These 
rocks are highly tilted, often even perpendicular, and 
run from east to west, their gold-bearing reefs being 
nearly always disposed in the same direction. The gold 
appears to have been brought with the eruptive rocks to 
the surface, where it was afterwards concentrated in the 

' Quoted by Mr. Fr. Jeppe in "The Kaap Gold. Fields," Aww^Hlfl qT 

(Af Boj/al Geological Society, 1888, p. 412. 

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qnartz reefs, which also often contain iron. This forma- 
tion probably corresponds to the Silurian of Europe, and 
also extends to Swaziland, Zontpansberg, and the recently- 
discovered goldlields of the Tugela basin. 

Tlora and Fauna 

In the £aap valley the vegetation ia sub-tropical, 
but scantily developed owing to the lack of water, except 
during the rainy season. The spruits, or river-valleys, 
are fringed with bush, often very dense, in which the 
prevailing species are yellow-wood, iron-wood, the wild 
fig (in Uie deeper gorges), and especially the thorny 
mimosa But throughout Transvaal and the Orange 
State the dominant flora is distinctly herbaceous, and 
the pasturage, parched or burnt up in winter, is ex- 
tremely succulent during the wet summer months, 
lliough stock-breeding has hitherto been chiefly pursued 
by the Boers, there can be no doubt that much of the 
land is well suited for tillage. Some districts yield two 
annual crops of cereals, including some of the finest 
wheat in the world. Tobacco, the vine, and most 
European traita and vegetables thrive well ; and colonial 
produce, such as sugar, coffee, and cotton, might be 
successfully cultivated In the valley of the Limpopo, 
whose middle course lies within the torrid zone. 

In Natal the great diversity of climates is reflected 
in a rich and varied vegetation, comprising within a 
narrow area forms characteristic of every zone. The 
flg, euphorbia, bamboo, cotton, indigo, sugar-cane, coffee, 
banana, and cocoa-nut palm of the hot lowlands are suc- 
ceeded in the middle zone by wheat, barley, European 
fruits and v^etables, which in their turn are replaced 
in the upland valleys by rich pasturage. Below an 

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altitude of 5000 feet agriculture is everywhere &voured 
by the numerous streams flowing seawards. But it has 
acquired ita greatest development on the hot coaetlands, 
where maize covers extensive tracts, and supplies the 
staple food of the natives. The natives also cultivate 
Kafir corn (Sorghum Cc^ffrorum), yams, cucumbers, and 
tobacco. Arrowroot thrives well, and is already ex- 
ported, but cotton and coffee have failed, and are now 
replaced by sugar, which was first introduced in 1849, 
and now forms a main resource of the colony. The tea 
shrub, also lately introduced in the hilly districts, seems 
to promise good returns. 

Formerly the &uua both of the plateaux and coast- 
lands was extremely varied, comprising elephants, lions, 
leopards, wolves, hyaenas, the hippopotamus, antelopes of 
many species, the wild boar, and monkeys in great 
variety. Now nearly all the large game has disappeared 
from Natal and the Orange State, and even in Trans- 
vaal these animals, though still found, are greatly reduced 
in numbers. Along their route to the Yaal the early 
trekkers are said to have killed 200 lions; now a lion 
hunt is a rare event anywhere south of the Limpopo. 
The hippopotamus and crocodile still infest the Limpopo 
and some other large rivers ; and animals peculiar to 
the plateau, such as the gnu, eland, springbok, wilde- 
beest, ostrich, giraffe, zebra, and quag^, are all, except 
the last-mentioned, still met in Transvaal But as a 
rule the wild fauna has been everywhere lai^ly replaced 
by horned cattle, sheep, horses, and other domestic anJmala 

Snakes abound especially on the seaboard, and some 
species, such as the puff-adder and cobra, are extremely 
venomous. The boa preys on poultry, and the inhabit- 
ants are tormented by several insects, such as the fish- 
moth and Ixodes nataiensis. 

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But a still more formidable enemy is the locust, 
which occasionally sweeps in prodigious multitudes over 
the plateau r^on. Seated beneath the shade of his 
waggon, OQ the banks of the Vaal, the traveller Mohr 
observed on the south-western horizon what looked like 
great volumes of smoke, but which from ite yellowish 
hue the more experienced natives immediately recognised 
as the winged plague of Africa, the aU-devouring locust. 
They began to fall, first a few at a time, then by dozens, 
and presently by thousands and myriads. They came 
in such vast clouds as to darken the heavens, so that 
through all this moving mass you were able to look 
stra^ht at the sun, which, though at its zenith, became 
muddy and beamless as at sunset. Flocks of locust- 
eaters incessantly assailed this surging sea of insect life, 
but their numbers were infinite, countless as the sands 
of the desert Far and wide the whole land was filled 
with them ; the waters of the Vaal, covered with their 
bodiea, became of a grey-yellow colour on the surface ; 
and the garden of the farmstead, where the traveller 
reposed, was in a few minutes left bare and leafless. 
Yet the Boer and his family sat with the composure of 
Turks, looking on at the universal destruction of all 
green things round about, indifferent, because powerless 
to oppose the devouring scourge. Kothing can check 
their onward march ; if their path is crossed by a stream 
they rush headlong in, gradually fillii^ up its bed with 
their dead, until a dry bridge is formed for the myriads 
pressing on from behind. The worst of the evil is that 
where they fall, there they lay their e^, so that with 
the next rainy season countless wingless creatures creep 
out of the ground and hop away, devouring all vegetation 
as they go. Such young broods the Boer call, character- 
istically enough, " footloopers," and those on the wing 
VOL. n X 

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" Spring LaanB." Our traveller's oxen, horses, sheep, and 
goatB devoured them greedily. To the elephant and 
other laige graminivorous wild beasts, they seem to 
afibid a dainty meal ; while all the sonth-esstem tribes 
consider them a great delicacy, collect them in heaps, 
and eat them dried and roasted. Prepared in Uiis way, 
Mohr tried them, but found them, if eaten without salt, 
quite tasteless.' 


In Katal the population comprises three distinct 
elements — the natives, who are exclusively of Zulu-Kafir 
stock ; the coolies, mostly from southern India ; and the 
Europeans, chiefly British, with some Boers, Germans, and 
Norw^pans. There are racial, social, and even religious 
considerations which must prevent the fusion of these 
three elements in a hom(^eneoas nationality for an 
indefinite period, if not permanently. Hence the deter- 
mination of their respective numbers, and especially their 
rate of increase, becomes a question of paramount import- 
ance in estimating the future prospects of the colony. 
The subjoined table of the four last returns seems to 
show that, while the Zulus are nearly seven times more 
numerous than all the others taken collectively, their 
growth is less rapid than that of the Europeans, who 
increased by over 50 per cent between 1879 and 1891, 
and still less than that of the coolies, who doubled them- 
selves in the same period : — 

1870. 19U. 188L 

EuTOpesDi . . 22,700 36,500 40,788 

Indians . . . 17,000 97,800 41,142 

Ki&n .... 320,000 862,000 4G5,9S3 

> To Iht Zambai Falls, i. pp. 114-llS. 

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TIw OooUw <tf Natel 

At this rate of progress the coolies might Beem 
destaned in course of time to outnumber all the rest, and 
transform Natal to an African section of British India. 
But coolie immigration is essentially artificial, and will 
probably be arrested as soon as the whites have become 
sufBciently acclimatised to work on the plantations of 
the low-lying coastlands. They were introduced for the 
first time in the year 1865 to meet the demand for 
labour in this warm zone, where the Zulus could not be 
induced to seek r^ular employment. In 1875 their 
numbers were largely increased by a fresh importation, 
most of those whose engagements had expired having 
preferred to take service in the towns. Few return to 
India, although by the terms of their contract they have 
the right to a free passage back after serving ten years 
on the plantations. They are attracted by the free life 
of Natal, which makes the social bonds of their Indian 
homes no longer endurable, and with their frugal habits 
they soon save enough to purchase small holdings, and 
bring their own produce to the market. Many, also, 
invest their capital in the retail business, and as petty 
traders become formidable rivals of their less thrifty 
white competitors. Thanks to a provision of the contract 
law requiring the planters to introduce both sexes in the 
proportion of forty women to a hundred men, these 
Asiatics are able to found permanent homes in the colony, 
where the dimate of the seaboard is more suited to their 
constitatioD than to that of Europeans. Hence the 
Indian element will probably always remain an important 
(actor in the social relations of Natal 

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Tli« Zoltu of Natal 

It has been seen that the devastating wars of the 
/!ulu kiu*,', Chaka, during the first quarter of the centui; 

(Fnm Fliobi by Ilia Idxilon Slnvwo:^ Cnqnuv.) 

resulted in the almost complete depopulation of JfataL 
Siuce the establishment of orderly government nnder 
British rule, the waste lands have been gradually reocco- 

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pied by a large number of tribes, or fragments of tribes, 
some from the south (Kafirs), but most from the north 
(Zulus), either escaping from the oppressive Zulu military 
system, or else driven firom their ruined homes by 
Bingan's conquering hordes. Thus it happened that in 
a region which at one time promised to become a purely 
British colony, the English settlers find themselves 
already vastly outnumbered by the aborigines, while the 
Government is brought face to fiice with the same racial 
problem that has acquired such tremendous proportions 
in the Southern States of the American Union. Hitherto 
the Administration has displayed admirable tact in deal- 
ing with this troublesome question, and, thanks to several 
judicious provisions, no collision has yet taken place 
between the Europeans and their black " fellow-eitizens," 
The tribal ot^nisation, without being actually broken up, 
has been deprived of its dangeroiis features by the simple 
device of directly appointing paid village headmen, or, 
where possible, transforming the hereditary chief to a 
Government official, by inducing him to accept a fixed 
stipend in lieu of hia customary " perquisites." The 
chieftaincy thus cesaes to become hereditary ; the chief 
acquires the character of a " stipendiary magistrate," 
nominated by the central authority, and responsible to it 
for the maintenance of law and order ; ties of kindred 
are weakened, and political cohesion absolutely severed 
between the allied tribes, which are thus gradually raised 
to the position of vill^e communes. Meantime the 
transformation is facilitated by wise toleration of all such 
long-established tribal usages as are not at variance with 
the recognised principles of natural equity, or inconsistent 
with the requirements of a civilised administration. 

In Natal there are altogether about 170 tribal chiefs, 
and of these nearly one-half have been directly appointed 

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b7 the Government without any hereditaiy title whatever. 
It was amongst these Bantu chie&, many of whom are 
gifted with great natural intelligence, that the iUuBtfiona 
Bishop Colenso sncceaafnlly labom^d to propagate the 
higher moral precepts of Christianity. It was, he assures 
U8, by daily converse with them also, that he himself 
acquired those broader views and sympathies which are 
embodied in his commentary on the Pentateach. Bat 
where he sowed others have reaped, and at present most 
of the Zulu converts in Natal appear to belong, not to 
the Anglican but to the Methodist commnnity. Many 
of the eighty native schools, attended by nearly 40OO 
pupils, and about sixty of the IGO missionary stations 
are in the hands of these Nonconformists. 

The Whites of Natal 

In Natal the Boer element is represented only by the 
descendants of the few trekkere who remained in the 
country after the suppression of the republic of " Natalia " 
(see p. 285). They are centred chiefly in the neighbour- 
hood of Pietermaritzburg, and in the north-western 
districts, but are everywhere being gradually merged 
in the general English-speaking populations. The same 
fete is overtaking the Germans of the Pinetown district, 
who are descended from some immigrants from Bremen 
in 1848. 

An interesting experiment in colonisation has been 
made with a group of 50 Norwegian families, who were 
banded together in a single community, and who put 
their capital of nearly £3000 in a common fund. Allot- 
ments of 100 acres with huts, and a right of commonage 
over 2000 acres, were granted free for the first two years. 

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and a charge of ninepeiice per acre for the next ten years, 
makiDg the total cost of the land 7b. fid. per acre. This 
experiment has proved very successful, the wooden huts 
having already been replaced by good stone houses, and 
the price of the aUotments mostly paid off. 

British immigration acquired little importance till 
about the middle of the century, when a considerable 
number of Yorkshire farmers settled in the colony. 
But tiie movement was again retarded by a variety of 
causes, such as the development of the plantation system, 
which excluded white labour, the attraction of the 
Anstralian goldfields, and especially the great preponder- 
ance of the native population. To overcome these 
obstacles great encouragement was given to intending 
English settlers of all classes, who were offered free 
passages on the condition of entering into more or less 
prolonged engagemente. Thus a steady stream of 
immigration began to set towards the colony down to 
the year 1884, when all assisted immigration was sus- 
pended for some years. In 1891, however, a sum of 
£10,000 was again devoted by the Natal Government 
to immigration purposes, and societies of landowners and 
others l^ve even been formed to promote the movement 
in every possible way. 

Administration — The New Oonstltiitlon 

It is felt that every effort should be made to decrease 
the great disparity between the white and coloured 
populations in a country which now aspires to the 
privileges of responsible government. Hitherto Natal, 
which was detached Irom the Cape and constituted a 
separate colony in 1866, had enjoyed representative 

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institutions to a limited eztenL The LieateoaDt-Grover- 
nor (since 1882 Grovemor) was assisted by an Executive 
consisting mostly of er officio members, and a L^iislative 
Council of thirty-one, seven nominated by the Crown, 
the rest returned by qualified electors for the coonties 
and boroughs. But in February 1891 tliis L^islative 
Council passed the third reading of a Bill for giving the 
colony a responsible government constitution, comprising 
a single Chamber of thirty-aeven elected members, with a 
Cabinet of six Ministers responsible to the Chamber. 
The seats were redistributed on the basis of popula- 
tion, and provision is made for a Standing Committee of 
Council to report upon all measures dealing solely with 
native afiaire before such measures are debated in 
Parliament. The first Parliament under the new Con- 
stitution woe formally opened in October 1894. 

InhaUbaati of the Orange Free State 

The population of the Free State is steadily increas- 
ing, having advanced from 133,000 in 1880 to 208,000 
in 1890, which, for an estimated area of 41,500 square 
miles, gives a proportion of five persons to the square 
mile. Despite a constant stream of immigration from 
Cape Colony, England, and Germany, the natives, mostly 
of Bechuana stock, appear to be increasing more rapidly 
than the whites. Their numbers rose from 72,000 in 
1880 to 130,000 in 1890, whereas the whites ad- 
vanced only from 61,000 to 78,000 in the same period. 

When the " Vortrekkers " made their great forward 
movemeat in 1834-36, they found the "Mesopotamia" 
between the Orange and the Vaal mainly a wilderness, 
roamed over by multitudes of South African game — 

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lions, panthers, elephants, giraffes, gnus, elands, and other 
fflitelopes, zebi&s, qua^^, ostriches, — and 8parsel7 occn- 
pied hy some wandering Bushman, Koranna (Hottentot), 
and Bechuana (Bantn) tribes. Most of the Konumas were 
reduced to a condition of virtual servitude by the Boers, 
while all the Bechuanas were easily dispersed west to 
Bechuanaland, east to Basatoland, except a somewhat 
compact body of Barolongs, who held their ground to 
the number of 25,000 in the Thaba-Nchu district 
towards the Basuto frontier till the year 1884. 

Apart frpm these old allies of tiie Boers against the 
Basutos, the present native population consists of a 
conglomerate of Eorannas and fragments of almost every 
Bechuana tribe, who have mostly arrived since the 
establishment of the republic (1S54), voluntarily accept- 
ii^ service under the new rulers of the land, or seeking 
employment in the large centres of population. They 
cannot be said to have been well treated by their 
Dutch masters, who, by the system of " apprenticeship," 
have sought to evade their pledges to the British 
Government regarding the abolition of domestic slavery. 
The blacks, amongst whom are some half-castes from 
St. Helena, are badly paid for their services, and treated 
with great harshness by their employers. They are of 
course excluded by law from the franchise, and are for- 
bidden not only to bear arms but even to acquire any 
property in the land. 

But the Boers themselves, who have hitherto acted 
as if they were the " chosen people " preordained to 
subdue and enslave the surrounding " Canaanites," ^ are 

* "The IroDtlei Datchman prefers the Old to the New Testament 
H* ii at home among the vara of the leraelites with the doomed inhabit- 
Mite of the promised land. And uo one who haa freel; and foi yean 
mingled irith this people can doubt that tbej hare pertnaded tbemselTci 

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314 coiiPKHDnm or oeoosafht and tbatzl 

being rapidly traosfonned by daHj increasiDg coatact 
with the ADglo-SaxoD world. They are still mainly a 
vigoroos if eomewhat mde race of stock-breeders, poe- 
sessing vast grazing grounds and espedally sheep-walks, 
which yield nearly all the wool that finds its way 
throngh Durban to the European markets. Bat Engli^ 
influences are spreading with the spread of the Fng lish 
language, which has already become the chief medium of 
trade, education, and general intercourse. Most of the 
public schools are conducted by English and Scotch 
teachers, and their language has consequently become 
the almost universal vehicle of instruction for the rising 
generation. Thus the uncultivated Dutch dialect, already 
corrupted by numerous Hotteatot and Bantu expressions, 
grows yearly less suited for the practical purposes of life, 
and a fluent knowledge d* English has now become a 
primary condition of success in trade, the industries, and 
the liberal professions. 

Railway Fnjects — ^Admislttratlo& of the R«e State 

These influences must neceseanly increase with the 
development of the general South African railway system, 
which has already penetrated into the Free State from 
the side of Cape Colony. The lines from Fort Elizabeth 
and East London have crossed the Orange, and, passing 
through Bloemfontein, reach to Pretoria in the South 
AJrican Eepublic. This work was constructed by the 
State, which contemplates extending the line from 
Bloemfontein westwards to £imberley on the main 

by loma wonderful menbJ proceai that they are God'i chosen people, uid 
that the blacks are the nicked and condamDed Canaanitea, over whoae 
hnda the divine anger lowen continnaUy."— R«t. J. Hackenzia, Tt» 
reon NotA qf the Oranga Siver, IS71. 

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South A&ican trunk line, and north-eastwards to Hani- 
smith, the present terminus of the branch from Lady- 
smith on the Natal trunk hne. 

Accordii^ to the Ckmstitution of 1864, revised in 
1866 and again in 1879, the esecutire is vested in a 
Fiesident, chosen for five years by universal (white) 
sn&f^e, and assiated by an Executive Council consisting 
of the Government Secretary, the Landrost (Governor) 
of the capital, and three members appointed by the 
Volkeraad. The Volksraad,^ or national assembly with 
l^slative functions, comprises 57 members returned by 
the burghers for four years from every district, town, and 
field-cometcy (ward) in the rural districts. Each of the 
districts, 18 in number, is administered by a Landrost, 
appointed by the President and confirmed by the Volks- 
raad. The Landrost, who is a county magistrate, deals 
with minor offences, serious charges being remitted to a 
bench of three judges, who hold assizes in the various 
districts. After holding office for the full term of five 
years, Dr. Beitz, a warm advocate of imperial British 
interests, was re-elected President in December 1893. 

Inhabitants of Transvaal 

A census of the South African Bepublic was taken 
for the first time on 1st April 1890, when the total 
population was found to be 680,000, of whom 560,000 
natives, nearly all Bechuanas, and 120,000 whites of 
unspecified nationalities, but probably about half Boers, 
and nearly all the rest British or immigrants of English 

■ From tmli: = folk, people, and niad = connMl. This U the same 
word aa the German SalA, Anglo-Saxon rod, and Middle -Engliih redt, 
as in Tht Jb<ry Qtuen : " Therefore I rede bewara," I. i. 

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speech. Ko accurate survey has ever been made of 
the territory, which, with the receut extensions on the 
east fix)Dtier,i3 supposed to have a total ares of 114,000 
square miles, giving a density of six persons to the 
square mile. 

The region between the Yaal and Limpopo forms 
ethnically a part of the Bechuana domain, and, before 
the arrival of the Boers, it had been &om time imme- 
morial almost exclusively occupied by tribes of Bechuana 
stock, except for a period of about ten years between 
1826 and 1836. Shortly before his death (1828) the 
Zulu king, Chaka, had inflicted a crushit^ defeat on the 
rival Ama-Ntabele (Ama-Ndebele, Hatabele, Matabili) 
chief, Umsilikatsi (Mosetakatsi), who thereupon withdrew 
with his followers north-westwards, and rapidly overran 
the greater part of the country now known as Transvaal 
The central kraal of this renowned chief was situated in 
the Marico district on the west frontier, and it was 
here that he was interviewed in 1835 by Dr. Andrew 
Smith, leader of the flrat English scientific expedition to 
South Central Afiica. " The Matabih," writes the Bev. 
John Smith Moffat, " then occupied the country now 
forming mainly the Marico and Ruatenbui^ districts 
in the TransvaaL The expedition remained some weeks 
in the dominions of tJmsilikatai, and met with every 
facility, and Br. Smith persuaded the chief to send mes- 
sengers to Cape Town. They were treated with great 
consideration, and returned to their master with pre- 
sents and with an impression of the character of the 
English people which has never been entirely effaced. 
It was, however, a severe trial to the &ith of the 
chief and of his people, that the emigrant Boers were 
permitted by the Government to leave the Colony, and to 
encroach upon his territory and that of other chiefs, who, 

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like him, had always sought to be on friendly terms 
with the EDgliah." ' 

tlmsilikatsi had good reason to dread the advance 
of these Vortrekkere, for the very next year (1836)* 
they fell upon him under Gerrit Maritz and drove him 
across the Limpopo, where he founded the powerful king- 
dom of Ntabeleland (Matabililand). But the Boers were 
at that time far too few to hold the whole country ; 
hence the original Bechuana tribes, who had been 
driven westwards by the Matabili invaders, now rapidly 
returned to reoccupy their primeval homes. Thus it 
happens that the great nkajority of the Transvaal 
natives still belong to the Bechuana family. iNotwith- 
standing the spread of the white settlers, many have 
even preserved the tribal organisation intact; while 
others have sought employment under European masters, 
especially in the laige centres of population and in the 
mining districts. 

But all alike have experienced rough treatment at 
the hands of the Dutch rulers of the land ; and for this 
the natives have always blamed the vacillating poUcy of 
the paramount British authority, to whom they looked 
for protection. " When you came into the country," 
writes the Ba - Tlapi minister, Matsau, to Sir Charles 
Warren, " you found the Boers and the Batlapins afraid 
of one another. After you came fear left the Boers, and 
they have filled up the country. When the Batlapin 

1 Official communioalioii, Blae Boot, August 18Sf>, p. 103. 

' There is aome oonfiiaiou about these dates. Thus oue writer rarera 
the Zulu invuioa of Tracavaal to the jear 1830, and their expulsion to 
"1839 or tbereabonts." Bat the inTasioa oertunlf preceded Cbaka't 
demth (1828), and, aa the bojodth of nmsilikatsi m Tratuvul is generally 
nid to have lasted ten years, his lotreat northwards must have taken 
place about 1836, as stated by Lieutenant Msoud (Blue Book, 1886, 
p. 113). 

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318 co>fpE2n>icu or osoorafet akd tbatsl 

propoaed to stop them. Major Lowe Baid, ' No, let 
alone, the Queen is coming, let them alone.' The thing 
haa gone on ever since. Kow, at the time I write 
(June 1885), the Batlapin, who have coltivated landa, 
have been put out of them by the Boers, and now you 
will soon bear that some of the people here have fought 
with the Boers. The people of Hogopitsie have been 
driven out of their laud by the Boers ; the people of 
Kopong have been driven &om their landa and are 
driven away &om the water. All the Batlapin who 
possessed foimtainB are in the same difficulty, and the 
Batlapin, when they see this, say, ' This is not the Boers, 
this is the doing of the English ; it is they who have 
given the Boers the strength to do this.' " * 

At an earlier period Livingstone was often an eye- 
witness of the cruelties inflicted by the Boers on the 
native populations. " I saw and conversed with children 
in the bouses of the Boers, who had, by their own and 
their masters' account, been captured ; and in several 
instances I traced the parents of these unfortunates ; 
though the plan approved by the long-headed among the 
burghers is to lake children so young that they soon 
forget their parents and their native language also. It 
was long before I could give credit to the tales of blood- 
abed told me by native witnesses ; and, bad I received 
no other testimony but theirs, I should probably have 
continued sceptical to this day as to the truth of the 
accounts. But when I found the Boers themselves, 
some bewailing and denouncing, others glorying in the 
bloody scenes in which they had been themselves the 
actors, I was compelled to admit the validity of the 
testimony." ' 

> Letter in Blae Book, Angnst 1S86, p. IIS. 
• MUtimuiry Travelt, 1867. 

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At present the chief tribal divisions in Transvaal 
are: — 

I SoQtli-weit comer, betveaD Vrybtu); 
Ba-Tupi (BatUpin, Batl&piog) -{ and the Hart-Yul oonfluenoe; 

[ chief knal at Taong. 
Bi-BoLOMO \ Both ddas of the Bonth-west ^ntier, sonth of the Holopo 
Bi^-KAiAijL f Biver. 

Ba-Eatla, Westtrn distriote between Hotaeni and Harico. 
Ba-Hlokoa "i 

Ba-Khalak* } West Zontpansberg, and thence eouthwords. 
Ba.Vibda J 

Ba-Sdtla, Eut Zontpaneberg district 
Ba-Eomatclaha, North of Zontpuuberg. 

(East L;denburg, south of the Oliphaut Biver ; better known 
as " Seoooimi's," from the uams of the natiTe obief 
who gave the Boera so much trouble before the Britiah 
temporal; oocupatioD of TranavaaL 

For a long time the Vortrekkers had, so to say, a 
free hand in the settlement of the Transvaal, and in 
their dealings with the native populations. Eemotenees 
from the centres of refining influences, exclusive contact 
with the aborigines, their purely pastoral life, and the 
vast extent of the allotments assigned to the early 
squatters, averaging about 6000 acres, tended to keep 
them in a state of savage isolation described by English 
visitors from the Cape as absolutely barbarous. These 
Dutch patriarchs, often clothed like their Kafir neigh- 
bours in the skins of animals, thus led a solitary esist- 

' This nickname, "knob-nuizen," was first given to them by the 
Boera, from the artificial "knobs" or exciefloences roiaed along the 
bridge of the nose. At present the praetice has Eallen into abejance, uid 
few " knob-noses" are met except amon^ the elderly people. These 
bibea appear to be intermediate between the Bechuanu and the Zulus, 
ud they are sud to have migmted to their present homes ftom the 
Kjaisa rt^on, where traces of their former presenoe are still met. 

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eDce with their families and " apprentices," another name 
for alaveB, on extensive domains stretching beyond the 
horizon, their rudely - furnished habitations littJe better 
than hovels, the daily routine of their pastoral pursuits 
scarcely less monotonous than that of their flocks and 
herds themselves. 

But the discovery of the gold - fields and the rapid 
development of the minii^ and associated industries soon 
caused a rude awakening, and, bj creatdng new interests, 
laid the foundation of the social transformation which 
is gradually assimilating the Boers to the surrounding 
Anglo-Saxon populations. The inevitable friction with 
the native tribes, such as Secocuui's Ba-Pedi, and with 
the rapidly increasing British settlers clamouring for 
equal political rights, and for a share in the admiDistt&- 
tioD of the country, led to further migratory movements 
to Damaraland and the Cunene basin. The spirit of 
unrest and of discontent at the innovations necessitated 
by the altered social conditions again manifested itself 
in an attempt made in 1891 to oi^anise another trek 
in the direction of the Zambesi, with the view of 
founding a new Dutch republic in Banyai or Mashona- 
land, or some other territory beyond the Limpopo. But 
the whole of this region had meantime been brought 
within the sphere of British influence, and all the land 
available for white settlement is already actually 
administered by the chartered British South Africa 
Company. Hence, on the report of the intended trek 
to Mashonaland reaching the Cape, the High Commis- 
sioner, Sir Henry Loch, at once applied (April 1891) to 
President Xruger, plainly intimating that any attempt 
to found another Boer State anywhere within protected 
British territory would be forcibly resisted. The 
President's emphatic reply was : '- 1 have damped the 

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trek, and have sent for the suspected leaders. A 
proclamation has been drafted. The Government is 
fully alive to its obligations." 

This memorable message marks the close of the 
period of Boer political expansion in South Airiea. 
There is no room for the foundation of any more Dutch 
States bejond the Limpopo ; and emigrants from the 
Transvaal in that direction can be received only on the 
condition of recognising British supremacy. Hence, 
whether such movements take place or not, the result 
miust everywhere be the same — inevitable assimilation to, 
that is, absorption in, the English-speaking populations ; 
stimulated by two potent factors, the rapid increase of 
the British settlers both in Transvaal itself and beyond 
the lampopo, and the supremacy of the English language 
as the almost exclusive instrument of education through- 
out the South African Kepublia 

Towns — Btatimis — Rallwara 

In Transvaal the social transformation now in prc^ess 
is clearly indicated by the rapid growth of Jokannesburff 
and SarhertOfi, the two chief centres of the British rriinifg 
operations. These places, though of quite recent founda- 
tion, have already far outstripped the much older Boer 
towns, Pretoria, capital of the republic, and its southern 
rival Potchefatroom. Pretoria, which takes its name from 
President Pretorius, stands amongst the Magalies hills at 
an altitude of 4500 feet on the Apies, farthest southern - 
headstream of the Limpopo. Like most of the Dutch 
settlements it was laid out on a regular plan, with broeid 
streets and boulevards running at right angles to each 
other. But most of the space still remains unoccupied, 
TOL. n Y 

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and scarcely 6000 inhabitants reside in a city which was 
originatly planned to accommodate ten times that number. 
rotchefstroom lies 90 miles farther south, near the 
Free Stat« frontier on the Mooi, a romantic little affluent 
of the Vaal. It was the first place founded in Transvaal 
by the Vortrekkers, and for some time continued to be 
the seat of government, and the largest town in the State. 
Us present population of about 5000 is outnumbered 

three times by that of Johannesburg, the bxisy centre of 
the Witwatersrand goldfields, and already the true com- 
. mercial capital of Transvaal, altbougli its name figures on 
no map issued before the year 1887, Barberton, next 
in size and importance to Johannesburg, occupies an 
analogous position in the Kaap auriferous region. It lies 
near the Portuguese frontier, about 60 miles due east of 
Ijourenijo Marques, with which it will shortly be con- 
nected by the Transvaal continuation of the Delagoa 
May railway, Barberton, which takes its name from 

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Mr. Graham fiarber, discoverer of a rich auriferous reef 
in the iiomediate vicinity, has a somewhat fluctuating 
population of about 10,000. 

The Delagoa Bay line was opened in December 1887 
ae for aa the Um-Komah (" King Geoi^ Kiver "), beyond 
the Lebombo range and a 2 miles Jrom the coast. Since 
then it has slowly advanced into Transvaal territory, 
and the section from this point to Pretoria is now open. 
A branch to Barberton in the De Kaap nuning district 
will aoon be completed. From Pretoria the line is 
continued through Johanneshuig to Yereeniging, where 
a junction is formed with the Free State and main 
trunk line ftxim the Cape. 

Korth of Pretoria the white population diminishes 
rapidly. Here almost the only permanent settlements 
are Marahastad, that is, Maraba's Town, so called from the 
chief of that name ; Eratding, near the famous " Iron 
Mountain " ; and Nylstroom, on the " Nile " affluent of the 
Limpopo. This river was so named by the early trekkers, 
because it was the first stream met by them lowing 
northwards. Hence they concluded that it must be the 
Nile, and that they were already within "measurable 
distance " of Egypt and the Land of Canaan which they 
were predestined to occupy. 

In Natal nearly all the European settlements are so 
many stations on the main railway, which runs from 
Durban, its seaward terminus, in a north-westerly direc- 
tion through Pietermaritzlmrg to CkarUstoitm, close to the 
Transvaal border, to which point the line was com- 
pleted in April 1891. Durban, the outlet for the 
whole trade of the colony, and so named in honour of the 
Colonial Grovemor, Sir Benjamin D'Urban, was founded 
in 1846 on the only inlet accessible to shipping along 
the whole of the Natal coast It consists of two 

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distinct quarters connected by rail, Durban proper on tia 
north side of the basin, and Port Natal at the entrance, 
which, since the construction of the breakwater, has a 
depth varying with the tides and winds from 12 to 16 
or 1 8 feet at low water. The basin itself, a lat^ lagoon 
of irr^ular circular shape, has scarcely more than 7 feet 
in its deepest part; so that large Tessels are unahle to 
pass beyond the entrance at Port Natal. All the fore^ 
trade of the colony is necesearily centred at Durban, 
which also enjoys a considerable share of the traffic witli 
the Boer States. Hence the exchanges have increased 
enormously, especially since the development of the 
Transvaal raining industries, the imports advancing from 
less than £500,000 to over £3,500,000, and the exports 
from £380,000 to £1,480,000. between the years 1870 
and 1893. The health of Durban has much improved 
since the completion of the aqueduct, which yields a 
daily supply of 250,000 gallons of good water for a 
cosmopolitan population of about 30,000 — Europeans, 
Zulus, Hindus, Arabs, Chinese, and other Asiatics. 

Durban is connected by branch railways northwards 
with Verulam, and southwards with Isipingo, both active 
centres of the sugar industry ; while the trunk line ruos 
inland through the German settlement of Pinelovm to 
Pietermaritzburg, capital of the colony- Standing at an 
elevation of over 2000 feet above the sea on a fertile 
plain watered by a tributary of the Um-Geni and 
encircled by gently -sloping wooded hills, Pietermaritzburg 
is one of the healthiest and most agreeable places in 
South Africa. Farther on, the railway ascends by steep 
gradients and sharp curves along the slopes of the 
Drakenbei^ througli Lidgettown, still in the Um-Genj 
valley, to Weenen, Ladysmith, and Newcastle, all in the 
Tugela basin. From Ladysmith a branch has been con- 

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80UTH-E48T AFRICA 327 

structed across the crest of the DrakeDberg weat to 
Harrismitti in the Free State ; and from N^ewcaatle, ceDtre 
of the coal mining industry, the main line runa due north 
to Majnba Hill on the Transvaal frontier, memorable for 
the repulse of the British forces by the Boers in 1881, 

In the Free State, a region mainly engaged in pastoral 
pursuits, there are no large centres of population. Even 
BloemforUein, the capital, bad less than 4000 inhabitants 
in 1890. It lies on a southern affluent of the Vaal at 
an elevation of 4500 feet, about 120 miles frum the 
Cape fr-ontier, and enjoys the advantage of an excellent 
climate specially recommended to persons suffering from 
pulmonary affections. Hence Bloemfontein has become 
a sort of South African health resort, visited by numerous 
invalids fr^m the Cape, Tvith which it is now connected 
by rail. 

Most of the other white settlements in the Free State 
are little more than rural villages, possessing some import- 
ance as market-places and convenient marts for the 
distribution of supplies to the surrounding farmsteads. 
Such are Ladybrand and Harrigmith in the east, the latter 
guarding the chief pass over the Drakenberg range to 
Natal ; Bethulie, headquarters of the French Protestant 
Missions near the Orange and Caledon confluence; 
PhUvppolis and RouxviUe, near the south frontier; and 
Jager^oiUem, centre of the diamond industry in the 
Modder basin. Here was found in 1881 one of the 
largest diamonds in the world, the " Jagersfontein," which 
weighed over 209 carats uncut.* 

Before 1884 the largest place in the Free State was 

Thaba Nchu, capital of the 6a-Bolong republic on the 

Basuto frontier. But in that year this little native state 

was deprived of its independence in contravention of the 

I E. 8tr«et«r, HMary of Diamoiub, p. OS. 

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treaties; and since then xohnj of the Ba-Bolongs have 
croesed the border and settled amongst their former 
enemies, the Basutos of Basutoland. 

BwaiUand and Tongalaad 

After the annexation of the "New Kepublic" to 
Transvaal in 1888, the Boers still continued to 
encroach eastwards on the former territories of the 
Znlu State, their objective being Kosi Bay, or some other 
convenient outlet on the Indian Ocean. Thus began the 
invasion of the Swazi district, to which they were 
eepecially attracted by its rich pasture-lands and extensive 
goldfielda This little native state, which has an area 
of abont 3000 square miles with a population of 80,000, 
lies on the uplands between the Diakenbeig and Lebombo 
ranges, being enclosed on three sides by Transvaal, and 
eastwards by Tongaland. It dates from the year 1843, 
when the Ba-Rapuza people, under their chief Swazi, 
asserted their independence against the Zulus, and, in 
accordance with native custom, took the name of Ama- 
Swazi from the founder of the dynasty. The late king, 
tJmbandine, amassed considerable wealth from the royalties 
which he levied on the mining companies working the 
goldfields of his territory. But the aggressive attitude 
of the Boers drove him to appeal for protection to the 
British Government, which had already recognised the 
autonomy of the Swazi State by the Convention of 1884 
between England and Transvaal. After long diplomatic 
negotiations its independence was reaffirmed by the 
Convention of August 1890, so far as regarded the 
control of strictly native affairs. But it was stipulated 
that the British and Dutch settlera should be released 
from the authority of the Swazi king, and placed tmder 

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the joint jurisdiction of the British and Transvaal Govem- 
menta, the right to make a railway throngh Swaziland to 
Koai Bay being further conceded to TranBvaaL But the 
arrangement was obviously a mere compromise, and by the 
Convention of Kovember 1893 between the British and 
Transvaal Gtovemments, Swaziland was surrendered to 
the South African Republic The royal residence was 
at Embekelweni, where, since XJmbandine's death in 
1890, a provisional government had been carried on by 
the Queen B^ent and native indunas (chiefs). 

Tongaland, between Swaziland and the sea, had also 
recovered its independence after the overthrow of the 
Zulu power. But this low-lying malarious coast region, 
which extends from the St. Lucia lagoon to Delagoa Bay, 
bad always been claimed by the Portuguese, though they 
bad never formed any permanent settlements south ol 
Louren^o Marques. With a view to reconciling all 
interests the country was divided between England and 
Portugal by the Agreement of August 1890. The 
whole territory has an area of 7000 square miles, and 
a population of 30,000, distributed by international 
agreements as under : — 

North Tong»kud (PortugasM) . &000 10,000 

South Tongaland (British) . . 2000 20,000 

The Ama-Tonga nation oomprises several distint 
tribes, mostly peaceful agriculturists, protected from tl 
encroachments of white settlers by the absence of miner 
wealth and its extremely unhealthy climate. To th 
circumstance was partly due the failure of the Germs 
trader Liideritz to occupy the St. Lucia district on beht 
of the Imperial Government, after he had induced tt 
Berlin authorities to annex the equally valueless r^o 

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of Kamaqualand od the opposite side of the CoDtiaent 
In the Qorthem difitrict the natives have been debased 
bj the baneful influence of the Portugaese and Banyan 
traders, who have " flooded that territory with drunken- 
ness, vice, and crime." ' 

' J. Thorbnrn, Tima, 4th Jnne 18B1. 

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Qenanl Itomarks — PoliticiJ Divisions : I. Bsohdakai^ks 3ottth ant> 
North — OoographicBl ExploratioD — Physical Futures — Th« Kalsbari 
Wildemssa — Flarial SysUms : l^ka Ngami — Inhabitants of Bechu- 
8n»l«nd— Table of the Chief Bachuana Nationa — The Bushmen — 
Stations and Trade Bootes — Material Frogresa — II. Zahbesia South 
A)n> NOBTH — Political DiTisions, Boundaries, Extent — Historic 
Betrospeot — The Zimbabye Buias — Oeographical Research — Briliih 
Occupetioa of Hashona and MataUli Iianda— The Barotse and Hako- 
lolo States— PhyeicU Features of South Zambeeia ; Uineral Wealth 
— Matabililand ScenBrf — Climate — Fauna— Inhabitants — IfoRTS 
Zahbbsia ! Physical FeatnTos— Rivera of Zambasia— The Zambeai— 
The Victoria Falls— Lake Nyssea— The Shiri Bsain— Lake Shirwa— 
Climate of North Zambesia — Flora and Fauna— Inhabitants— Table of 
the Chief Tribes and Nations in North Zambesia— The Ba-Lnndas, 
Barotse, HambnodaB, Ba-Shnkulumbwe. Ba-Tonga, Mangoiga, Uako- 
lolo, AwMUwamba, Awawandia — The Stevenson Road. 

0«Benl Bemarks — Political OivlBlonfl 

The very heading of this chapter is significative of the 
vast change that has taken place in the political rela- 
tions of South Africa since the first steps were taken to 
bring about the partition of the Continent That brief 
interval of less than a decade has witnessed the creation 
of " British South Central Africa," a territory nearly 
1,000,000 square miles in extent, with a population 

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that may be approzimatelj eatimated at about 4,000,000. 
It occupies the whole of the central region between the 
Germ an and Portuguese poBsessions on the west, the 
Boer republics and Portuguese East Africa on the east, 
and stretches from Cape Colony uninterruptedly north- 
wards to the southern extremity of Lake Tanganyika, 
where it is conterminous on the one hand with the 
Congo Free State, on the other with German East 
AMca. Thus the " British highway trom the Cape to 
the Zambesi," the dream of home and colonial statesmen 
since the close of the Eafir and Zulu wars, has suddenly 
been more than realised ; for this highway has been 
carried fully 600 miles beyond the Zambesi, and across 
the Zambesi-Congo water-parting right into the Upper 
Congo basin. Assuming that the free navigation of 
Tanganyika will be permanently secured by international 
agreement, British trade and enterprise will have free 
access to the heart of the continent for another 400 
miles, to the northern extremity of that lacustrine basin. 
The highway is thus practically brought within 150 
miles of Motint Mfiimbiro, where begins the British 
north-eastern sphere of influence that extends thence 
down the Nile valley to the Mediterranean, though here 
temporarily interrupted by the political troubles in 
Egyptian Soudan. When the little gap between Tan- 
ganyika and Mfumbiro is obtained by agreement with 
Germany and the Congo State, whose frontiers converge 
at this point, England will enjoy the privilege of free 
right of way within her own borders across the entire 
length of the continent from the Cape to the Nile delta. 
Meantime it is satisfactory to know that by the terms of 
the Anglo - German Agreement of July 1890 British 
passengers and British goods are secured perfect freedom 
and exemption from all transit dues " between the 

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northern end of Lake Tanganyika and the British 
sphere of influence " in North-Eaat Africa 

So rapidly has this marvellous transfonnatioa been 
effected that a certain vagueness still attaches to the 
very nomenclature that has been proposed to indicate in 
a comprehensive way the new territories brought within 
the pale of the British Empire. Lying entirely south of 
the equator, nearly midway between the two oceans, the 
whole domain is denoted with sufficient accuracy by the 
expression, British South Central Africa.* Cktrrect 
statistics of areas and populations are available only for 
the small southern section of Bechuanaland, that is, the 
British Crown Colony which was transferred in 1895 to 
llie Cape Government. Hence the figures embodied in 
the subjoined table of the main divisions, giving the 
results of more or less trustworthy surveys or reports of 
travellers and political agents, can for the most part be 
regarded only as approximately accurate : — 


BKmaH aoTiTH Ckntbal Afbica. 

Am In 
Sq. MllM. 

South Bkc hit an a land, 

at annexed in 1886— 

1. Barolong tetri 



2. BatkroandB«tl« 

3. K^^ari ^nah 



Crown Colony till 18S5, 

4. Btutaard's coun 


siocB then annexed 
to Cape Colon;. 

1881) . 



' For the division which lies Dorth of the Zambeai the expresdou 
" Northern Zambeaia " haa been offioiaily adopted. The dimions soath 
of the Zambesi hare been named HatabilUand and Hoshonaland. Thew 
thrae divieionB conatituto the territory now andet the administration of 
the Chartered Company, and nam«d Bhodesia. 

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DiTisiONB or Bbitish South Cbhteai: AmwA— Continued. 

Ba. HuA. Population. OovarninaDt. 

Bakwana birri- 

tories (Gbiuit- 


an\ and Se- 



2. Kalahari Bu>h- 


8. Bamangwtto ter- 


4. Tovana territory 



formerly Mor- 





1. MatabiliUnd 



2. MaahonaUnd . 



3. Barotsa and Ba- 

il hukulumb we 

Africa Chartered 

Lands, and 






Bbitish Cestral Apric* 


Nyanaland, with tb« 
Shire Baain 



Administerad by 
British Commi.. 

Total British Sontli Cen- 

tral Africa . 



That the road from the Cape to the Zambesi should 
be kept open at all costs was a fundamental principle of 
South African politics, in which the imperial and colonial 
authorities were of accord. But soon after the restora- 
tion of the Transvaal (1881) this road began to be 
threatened by the Boers encroaching on the territory of 
Mankoroane and other Bechuana chiefs, beyond the west 

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frontier of the republic It waa even for a short time 
actually seized by the filibusters, who set up the 
ephemeral states of Goshen and Stellal&nd^ in the 
districts north of Griqualaud West, which are traversed 
by the main route from Kimberley to Shosfaong and 
Palapye. In this aggressive movement the Boers were 
actii^ in secret concert with the Germans, who bad 
occupied Angra Pequena ou the west eoaat in 1884. 
The bands of the Imperial Government were thus forced, 
and to prevent a permanent block of the highway lead- 
ing northwards, the greater part of South Bechuanaland 
was constituted a British Crown Colony, with the consent 
of the local chiefe, glad thus to secure protection i^jainsb 
their implacable foes, the Transvaal Boers. 

But the scramble for Africa was now in full swing, 
and the claims of Germany on the one hand and of 
Portugal on the other, again compelled the Imperial 
Government to take action for the purpose of safe- 
guarding British interests in the central r^on, extend- 
ing from the newly-created Crown Colony to the shores 
of Lake Tanganyika. A protectorate over North Bechu- 
analand had already been proclaimed by the High Com- 
missioner in March 1885, its northern limits beii^ fixed 
at 22° S. latitude. But it was obvious that it could not 
stop at this conventional line, which intersected Khama's 
country,' and exposed the whole of Zambesia to the risk 

> That is, Qoown ftnd Stills ("Still" or "Peaceful") Und. But 

popular etymology sood transformed StUU to the Latin SUUa, "atai," 
whence "StellftUnd," and even " Star- land " ; "because the war between 
ChierH Mbbsouw and Mankoroaue, which eTentoall; led to the laud 
becoming inhabited by white people, took place in the year 18S2, when 
the great comet was visible " (Blue Book, 1885, p. 202). 

' Kbama himself objected at the time that "boundary line there ii 
none at 22°. It speaks of notfaing which baa existence ; it is to cat m; 
country into two" (Blue Book, August 188S. p. 4E}. 

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of being appropriated by the GermaDS and Portnguese. 
After the eettlement of the frontier difGculties on the 
east and west seaboards hj the Lisbon Convention of 
Pecember 1886, Gennany claimed a Hinterlwid, giving 
her access to the Zambesi from the •meat side, while 
Portugal claimed a double Hinterlaod, absorbing the 
whole region intervening between her western and 
eastern possessions. The German question was amicably 
arranged by the Anglo-German .d^eement of July 1890, 
by which England was allowed a free hand in dealing 
with the eztrav^ant pretendons of the Portuguese. 
The liabon Cortes having refused to ratify the Anglo- 
Portugueee Agreement of August 1890, the tedious 
negotiations with Portugal, which more than once 
threatened to end in open hostilities, were at last 
brought to a close by the Aoglo-Portugueae Treaty of 
May 1891. 

Meantime the British protectorate had been rapidly 
extended to the whole of Khama's territory, to Moremi's 
(now Sechome's) in Ngamiland, to South and North 
Zambesia (Matahili, Mashona, Barotse, and Mashuku- 
lumbwe lands), to the Shir^ highlands and Nyassaland, 
while the rest of the region intervening between Zam- 
besia and Tanganyika was ofBcially declared to lie 
within the limits of the British sphere of influence. 
Thus the frontiers of British South Central Africa, as 
recognised and finally adjusted by the above-mentioned 
international treaties and conventions, are conterminous 
in the north with German East Africa and the Congo 
Free State, in Uie west with the Porti^ese and German 
West A&ican possessions, in the east with Portuguese 
East Africa and Transvaal, in the south with Cape 
Colony. Its gec^raphical continuity, which had been 
seriously threatened first in South Bechuanaland, and 
VOL. U z 

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then in the Zambesi valley, is amply secured by the 
agreements with the several surrounding states. But its 
political unity must necessarily be a work of time. At 
present its administrative organisation is in s rudi- 
mentary condition, and within its broad limits are com- 
prised all kinds of jurisdiction, except responsible 
and representative government But by agreement with 
the Crowu, the direct government of the whole of 
Zambesia in its widest sense, that is, the vast r^on 
extending from Bechuanaland to Lake Tanganyika, 
was taken over by the South Africa Chartered Com- 
pany in June 1895, and is now administered from 
Salisbury. It will be convenient to treat the several 
physical sections under the two broad divisions of 
Beckuanaiand South and Nai-th, and Zambesia SinUh and 

L Bechuanaland South and North 

We are told by the Rev. John Mackenzie * that when 
he went first to South Africa in 1358 there was no 
region known by the name of Bechuanaland. "The 
country of course was there, and the Bechuana people 
were there, but the name Bechuanaland expresses a 
political fact which had no existence at that time. The 
country was known only by the tribal names of its 
people — as the country of tlie Batlaping, the Barolon^ 
the Bakwena, or the Bamangwato. Bechuanaland 
became known to us only a few years ago as a country, 
the independent chiefs of which were united in their 
desire to come under the protection and administration 
of England, and thus save themselves, as they hoped, 

1 " BechuBnaknd and the Land of Ophir," Froc. Say. Oeo. Soe. 1883, 
p. 725. 

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from the nii certainties attending the advance of the 
ener^tic and sometinies reckless white man." 

NeTertheless the term " Bechuana " has been current 
in books of travel and geographical worka, at all events, 
since the beginning of the present century. Dr. H. 
licbtenstein, to whom we owe the first intelligible 
acconut of the people, already speaks of them as " Beet- 
juana" in a collective sense, and one of his four main 
divisions of Austral Africa is "the land of the great 
Beetjnana race." ' Yet the word Bechuana is unknown 
to the natives themselves, or at least has only recently 
been adopted by them at second-hand from the whites. 
It is of unknown origin, and like Damaia (see p. 176), 
was probably due to a misunderstanding on the part of 
the first Europeans who visited the country, and whose 
inquiries about its various inhabitants elicited the remark 
ba-chuana, " they are alike," meaning they are all one, all 
of the same stock. 

But in the absence of a common national name the 
term is convenient, while the recent political remodelling 
of the southern continent has given a sufficiently definite 
meaning to the expression '■ Bechuanaland." It com- 
prises the whole of the central plateau between Cape 
Colony and the Zambesi river south and north, and ia 
conterminous on the west with German South-West 
A&ica, on the east with Transvaal and Matabililand. 
The southern division, forming the Crown Colony of 
British Bechuanaland, was at first limited on the north 
and west by the course of the Molopo-Hygap river ; but 
by the proclamation of May 1891 the boundary was 
extended northwards to the Nosob river and westwards 
to 20° £. longitude, thus absorbing the whole of the 
so-called Bastaard'a country as far as the German pro- 

> Traivils in Soulh AfrUa tn Qu Ytan 1S03-1806. Berlin, 1811. 

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tectorate. The northern division, forming the British 
protectorate, indades the territories of the Towanft 
people in the north, Uiat ia, Kgamiland ; of t^e Bamang- 
wato people in the centre, that ia. Chief Ebame's country ; 
and a neutral zone, which extends from Ehama's south- 
wards to the Molopo, and which is already regarded as 
virtually forming part of the Crown Colony. 

OftOfr^ihlcal BxplontliHi 

The first recorded expedition to the Becbuana country 
dates from the year 1801, when Truter and Somerville 
penetrated from the Cape to LitAku (Lataku), which was 
at that time the capital of the allied Ba-Tlapi and Ba- 
Bolong nations with an estimated population of 15,000. 
These pioneers were soon followed by the memorable expe- 
dition of Dr. Lichtenstein (1803-1806), who found tliat 
the confederacy had already been dissolved, and that the 
Ba-Tlapi had removed their chief station to Euniman, a 
few miles farther south, near the present frontier of 
Griqualaud West Lichtenstein was accompanied by 
some Mozambique slaves, who were at that time 
numerous in Cape Colony, and who felt themselves 
almost at home amongst the Becbuana peoples, so close 
was the resemblance in their physical appearance, mental 
qualities, and languages. Further observation led to the 
discovery that the Kafirs also belonged evidently to the 
same fundamental group. Thus it was that South African 
ethnoli^y was for the first time placed on a solid founda- 
tion by this explorer, who formulated what may be called 
the Bantu theory, at the very time that the Indo- 
Germanic or Aryan theory was being developed by Sir 
William Jones and the Schlegela His comparative 

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studiea of the southern peoples satisfied him that " all 
theee tribes south of Quiloa and east of Cape Colony 
should be regarded as a single great nation, which is 
sharply distinguished on the one hand from the Negroes 
and Mohammedans (Arabs), and on the other horn the 
Hottentots. I do not hesitate to extend tiieix domain 
westwards to the meridian of Cape Agulhas, for Eafir 
tribes reach so far in the interior of the country under 
2.')° Bouth latitude."' Since Lichtenstein'e time their 
domain has been widened by every successive explorer, 
until it now embraces neeirly the whole of the southern 
continent from Sudan to the Cape. 

Towaa and Donovan's expedition of 1808, sent to 
the interior by Lord Caledon, Governor of the Cape, was 
followed by the more fruitful journey of Eurchdl, who 
in 1812 traversed most of the southern difltricta, and 
collected a great mass of information on the country and 
its inhabitants. About the same time the Bechuanaa 
were viaited by the Eev. John Campbell, forerunner of a 
long line of devoted missionaries, including the illustrioua 
names of Moffat and Livingstone, by whom many tribes 
have been evangelised, and the whole nation raised to a 
distinctly h^her level of social culture. During a second 
journey in 1820 Mr. Campbell passed from Litaku, 
where an English Protestant Mission had already been 
foonded, northwards to the territory of the powerful 
Ba-Harutse (Barotse) people Thus an important section 
was added to the great highway to the interior, which 
became known as " the English road " and " the Mission- 
aries' road," and which was afterwards carried by Dr. 
MoC&t beyond Shoshong to the Matabili country, and by 
Livii^tone beyond Xoboleng to Lake Ngami and the 
ZambeaL This route was followed by the naturalist. Dr. 

1 Beinn, vol. i. p. 89S. 

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A. Smith, who reached the Limpopo in 1834-36, and by 
all sabseqaent travelleTa, such as Fritseh, Mohr, Balnea, 
MacCabe, Chapman, Shelley and Orpen, Mackenzie, Holub, 
A. Anderson and others, who have traversed Bechuana- 
land in every direction, and completed the work of 
geographical exploration in all its essential details. 

Physical FMtnTea 

Bechuanaland is separated by no salient gec^raphical 
outlines from the surrounding lands, except towards the 
north-east, where a somewhat ill-defined frontier towards 
Matabililand is formed by the Tati hills and other 
irregular ridges and koppfes, or isolated eminences, which 
appear to represent the scattered fragments of a pro- 
foundly eroded mountain system, at one time extending 
through the Matoppo range north-eastwards to the 
Mashona highlands. Elsewhere the transition is every- 
where very gradual, from the grassy steppes of Transvaal 
and Grriqualand westwards, from Great Bushmanland 
across the Orange northwards, and fixim the sandy wastes 
of Namaqualand eastwards to the vast central region 
which on most maps figures as a blank space entitled 
the " Kalahari Desert" But with the progress of 
discovery the limits of this blank space have been 
continually contracted westwards, so as to leave a broad 
tract of moderately fertile and somewhat hilly land 
extending from Griqualand along the Transvaal frontier 
north-eastwards to Matabililand. Here are concentrated 
nearly all the settled districts and lai^ centres of 
population, such as Taungs, Vryburg, Mafeking, Kanya, 
Molopolole, Shoshong, and Palapye (Palachwe), which 
already form so many stations on the great highway ot 

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trade, travel and miration, running from Cape Colony 
through Kimberley, north -eastwarda to Matabili and 
Mashona Lands. Thus this northern highway, like 
the southern section from Cape Town to Kimberley, 
serves to mark off the almost uninhabited arid wastes 
stretching thence westwards to the Atlantic from 


the more fertile, better watered, and, consequently, more 
thickly peopled region extending eastwards to the Indian 
Ocean. Despite the copious summer rains, the districta 
traversed by the main northern route suffer from a 
deficiency of surfece moisture for a great part of the 
year. This appears to be due to the porous nature of 
the soil, a red sandy loam mixed with gravel, through 
which the running waters rapidly disappear. But below 
the surface they continue to How along the face of the 

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hard underljing rocks, sjemtes, porphTties, and coarse- 
grained sandatones, until they are arreated by dykeB or 
derated igneous formations, where they accumulate in 
extensive underground reservoirs. According to the 
different character of the underlying rocks, the soil is 
covered with either good pasturage, or coarse tall grass, 
dense thickets of scrub, such as buckthorn and various 
species of thorny acacia {A. Giraffia, Sorrida and 
Beienem), or else la>^e forest trees, including the baobab 
and banyan ' with an undei^rowtb of the aromatic resinoua 
falboss (Mahratta) shrub. Kich alluvial soil also occurs 
in the valleys watered by intermittent streams, and 
between the two parallel ranges of granite hills at 
Shoshong. In such localities the natives grow fine crops 
of maize and millet, and here also wheat, oats, and potatoes 
might be raised, as in Transvaal, by artificial winter 
irrigation. Unfortunately most of the woodlands in the 
southern districts have already been used up to supply 
the fuel required by the machinery on the Kimberley 
diamond fields. Hence the aspect of the country- 
improves in the direction of the north. Beyond Kanya 
it is generally well wooded, especially along the water- 
courses, and the scenery between this place and Molo- 
polole is not surpassed in natural beauty by that of any 
part of Cape Colony (Mackenzie). 

The Kalahari WUdemoBS 

Westwards the land becomes rapidly more and more 
arid, and at last merges everywhere in a broad zone of 
sands separating it from the so-called Kalahari Desert. 

' The bsajsD, introduced at some remote epoch from India, ia locally 
known by the name of Mare-oa-Mialo, Le. "tree with Ic^." 

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Probably to tbe presence of this sandy belt along ita 
eastern maigin this r^on is indebted for its popular 
reputation of an iminbabit«d and uninhabitable waste, 
differing little from the true desert of Great Namaqualand 
on its western border. Tbe sands are disposed in vast 
ridges irom a few feet to several hundred feet high, often 
over 50 miles wide, and running in straight lines for 
hundreds of miles all tbe way to Lake Ngami, and at 
some points even to the Zambesi Although traversed 
by tracksi known to the Bushmen and Valpens,' they 
have always presented a formidable barrier to travellers 
wishing to explore the inner r^on of depressions and 
vleys, which constitutes tbe Kalahari proper, as indicated 
by its very nama* The whole region may be described 
as a vast elevated plain, from 3000 to nearly 4000 feet 
high, of lacustrine origin, drained at a remote epoch by 
rivers brealoDg through the outer edge northwards to 
tbe Zambesi and southwards to the Orange. Thus the still 
extant vleys (Anderson's, Kgami, Makarikari, and many 
others) may represent all that now remains of this great 
inland sea, while tbe sand-belts indicate tbe margins of 
the flooded depreasione which continually shifted their 
contour-lines with the gradual subsidence of the waters. 

■ "Though a few whits nion and Griqnas have penBtwtwi thna hr, yet 
the tuttivM themselveB will give no infonnation, and are very jealons and 
siupiciotu of any traders. ... It is, however, certMn that this vast 
tract, a blank npon maps, when explored, wilt prove (o be anything but 
tbe desert it has hitherto been called " (Lieat. £. A. Haund, Bine Book, 
Angnst 1885, p. 120). According to this anthori^ even the sand-helts 
are not entirely barren, for "they cany good grass and buiih with camel- 
thorn trees, the bnah being invariably thickest on the crest but oecesMtily 
laok ■ surface water-supply " {Proe. Roy. Oto. Sec. January 1891, p. 2). 

* Ealahari, Ealakhari, Ealakbadi, or Earri-Earri, is the same word a> 
Ha-Eari-Eari, which io tbe Seohutuia langaage means "salt-pans," and 
which u applied in a pre-eminent tense to tha vast shallow basin eaat of 

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That the whole re^on was at one time trnder water is 
evident from the deposits of shells and the numerons 
remains of aquatic or amphibian animals occurring in all 
directions. Its transformation to dry and even arid land 
has been attributed partly to upheaval, a process said on 
doubtful authority to be still going on, partly to the 
destruction of the forest and herbaceous vegetation by 
fire, which, according to a commonly accepted theory, 
tended to diminish the rainfall and at the same time to 
increase the evaporation. But a more potent factor than 
any local causes was the gradual decr^se of moistDre, 
due probably to cosmic influences, whilv appears to have 
been going on both in the northern and southern hemi- 
spheres from remote geological times. 

But this general process of desiccation has not yet 
reduced the Kalahari to the condition of the true desert 
regions, such as the Gobi, Hadramaut, the Sahara in other 
parts of the globe. Its proper character is indicated 
by its Dutch name Bosjesveld, the English " Bush," which 
implies an abundant if somewhat stunted vegetation, as 
well as a numerous fauna and even a sparse human 
population. The whole region from the Orange to Lake 
Ngami was traversed in 1885 by G. A, Farini, who went 
north from Kimberley through Kheis by SheUey and 
Orpen's old route, returning by another route consider- 
ably more to the west. This traveller met plenty of 
scrub, a great variety of bulbous and trailing plants, 
edible tubers, and fine grazing grounds in several districts ; 
and in one section of the return journey " for four daya 
we passed through undulating country looking almost lilce 
an English com district, covered as it was with a golden 
crop of Bushman grass which was now ripening, and was 
almost equal to oats as fodder for the horses and cattle 
The spaces between the bunches were often literally 

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covered with sama, or water-meloDs, so that we did not 
trouble for water. Meat too was plentiful, as we got 
fresh eland and wildebeests nearly every day. We often 
came across the spoors of lions." ^ 

Elsewhere, " ^e country gradually became more and 
more level. The gentle undulations, only broken here 
and there by a distant fcoppje, and covered with ripe 
grass, resembled the gently -swelling bosom of a golden 
ocean, the similitude to which being heightened as the 
ripe ears of the grasses, bowing before the breeze, flashed 
from their under - side a silvery light like the moonlit 
ripples of the sea." * 

Similar passages occur in several parts of Farini'a 
book, which, however, has been received with some 
reserve, owing mainly to his account of certain ruins not 
seen or referred to by any other explorer. But later 
reports have all tended to confirm his description of the 
" desert"; while the existence of the ruins need no longer 
be doubted, since the unexpected discovery of even more 
extensive remains of a somewhat analogous character, 
scattered over the neighbouring Benningwa uplands and 
other parts of Matabililaad. The Kalahari monuments, 
which are situated just south of the Tropic of Capricorn, 
on the north side of the Nosob river, comprise " a long 
line of stone which looked like the Chinese wall after an 
earthquake, and which, on examination, proved to be the 
ruins of quite an extensive structure, in some places 
buried beneath the sand, hut in others fully exposed to 
view. We traced the remains for nearly a mile, mostly 
a heap of huge stones, but all flat-aided, and here and 
there with the cement perfect and plaiuly visible between 
the layers. The top rows of stones were worn away by 

' Through the Kalahari DearH, p. 287. 
' Op. rit p. 186. 

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the weather and the drifting sands, some of the upper- 
moBt ones curiously rubbed on the under - side and 
standing out like a centre-tAble on one short leg." 

nuTial Srstenis — Lake Ngami 

Most of the Kalahari and South Bechuanaland belong 
to the vast catchment basin of the Hygap, which, 
althougli comprising a drainage area of nearly 200,000 
square miles, sends very little water to the Orange, 
which it joins below the great falls. Not one of 

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its numerous branches — Nosob and L'b from the north- 
west; Kuruman, Molopo, and others from the east and 
north-east — is a perennial stream ; nor are they all 
flooded at the same time, so that there is scarcely ever 
sufficient volume in the main stream to reach the 
Orange. 'When one is full another is dry, and the 

freshets nowhere last more than a few weeks, while at 
times long droughts prevail throughout the whole extent 
of the basin. Usually these southern wadys contain no 
surface waters beyond a few isolated pools, though a 
little moisture may generally be obtained by digging 
holes in the sandy depressions. After the summer 
Tsins, a good deal of water remains in these depressions, 
which by the gradual process of evaporation or infiltra- 
tions pass successively irom the condition of shallow 

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lagoons to dangerous quagmires and arid pkin& Accord- 
ing to the natute of the soil, they assume the character 
either of vleys clothed with a scrubby vegetation long after 
the water has disappeared, or of salt-pans where the 
ground is incrusted with a thick saline efflorescence after 
the periodical rain-water has evaporated. 

North of the Hygap basin the Bechuanaland plateau 
takes a sl^ht tilt northwards, so that the rest of the 
Kalahari region drains to the Zambesi fluvial system. 
But so level is the ground that in many places the 
intermittent streams have an uncertain flow, while the 
two great flooded depressions of Lakes Ngami and 
Makarikari have become closed basins, or at least com- 
municate with the Zambesi only during exceptionally 
high floods. But considerable uncertainty still prevails 
regarding the drainage of this lacustrine region, which, 
according to some authorities, is connected both with the 
Zambesi and Limpopo systems. Thus, on Sir Charles 
Warren's official map,^ there is continuous waterway 
from the Chobe affluent of the Zambesi to the Maklutsi 
affluent of the Limpopo, the connecting links being the 
Mapabe (Tamalukan) flowing from the Ghobe to the 
Botletle (Zouga) embsary of Lake Ngami, then the 
Botletle, which falls into Lake Makarikari, of which the 
Maklutsi figures as an effluent. But this connection 
of the Maklutsi with Makarikari is at least doubtful, 
and pending more trustworthy surveys the Ngami- 
Makarikari depression may be regarded as at present 
a closed basin, communicating occasionally with the 

Although its limits are far from being accurately 
deteimined, Makarikari is known to be a much laiger 
sheet of water than Ngami, which, since its discovery in 
< Bine Book, August 1S85. 

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1849 by Livingstone, appears to have been continually 
subsiding. Becently it was even reported to have dis- 
appeared alt(^ether, but this could only be during some 
exceptionally long period of drought, for Ngami certAinly 
receives during the wet season a considerable contribu- 
tion from the Tonk6 (Tiogu^) branch of the Eubango, 
formerly one of the main headstreams of the Zambesi, 
and still intermittently connected with that river. The 
Eubango has its farthest sources on the Bih^ uplands 
east of Beuguela, and after collecting all the waters fix>m 
the eastern slope of the Cunene divide, flows for 
hundreds of miles, first south-east towards the Ngami 
depression and then north -feast through the Mababe 
lagoon district to the Zambesi at the Cbobe confluence. 
Its middle and lower courses traverse what was un- 
doubtedly at one time the bed of a vast inland sea, 
whose waters have been mainly discharged through the 
Zambesi eastwards to the Indian Ocean. All that now 
remains of this great lacustrine basin are the flooded 
depressions of Makarikari, Mababe, and Ngaml, which 
are themselves slowly disappearing. 

Early in the year 1891 the Ngami country was 
visited by Mr. H. 0. Buckle, leader of an expedition 
sent north by the African Exploring Company, who 
reports that the whole district immediately south of the 
lake consists of one mass of quartz reefs, twenty miles 
long by one or two wide. Between this block and the 
hills, which lie some sixteen or twenty miles farther 
south, the reefs seem to disappear, but crop out again in 
a more scattered form in the hills themselves. Laige 
quantities of quartz may also lie concealed beneath 
the dense bush overgrowing this part of the coontiy. 
But from various adverse causes the expedition failed to 
procure &ir average samples, from which some opinion 

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might be formed r^arding the gold-bearing value of the 
reefs. Still farther south, ADderson, who has traversed 
every part of the Kalahari wilderness, found clear indi- 
cations of considerable mineral wealth. Coal abounds in 
several districts, and there are extensive deposits of rich 
copper ores in the western districts. Gold also appears 
to occur in some places, and this circumstance may 
perhaps explain the existence so far west of the ruins 
described by Farini, although no traces have yet been 
discovered of old mining operations, as in Mashona and 
Manica Lands. 

^ihabitantfl of Bechn&iulaiicl 

It is evident from the geographical nomenclature 
that the true aborigines of Bechuanaland were peoples 
of Hottentot-Bushman race and speech. Thus most of 
the names of water-courses — Nos-oh, Up, Mol-op(o), 
Hyg-ap — contain some dialectic or corrupt form of the 
element db, ib, eb, which in Hottentot means " river " or 
" water," as in Oar-ib, the " Great Water," that is, the 
Orange Kiver. But long before the South African 
historic period these aborigines were driven south 
beyond the Orange, or west to the Kalahari wilderness, 
by peoples of Bantu race and speech pressing continually 
forward from the Zambesi Hence, since their first 
contact with Europeans at the beginning of the present 
century, these South Central Bantu peoples, at present 
known by the collective name of Bechuanas, have 
been in exclusive possession of all the fertile eastern 
districts traversed by the South African highroad of 
trade and migration. Here they are grouped in lar^ 
tribes or nations, a correct knowledge of whose relative 
VOL. u 2 a 

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positions is neceasary to a clear understanding of recent 
political events in Soutli Central Airica. In the sub- 
joined table all the main divisions are disposed in 
regular order, from south to north, between the Orange 
and Zambesi Kivers. 

Tablb of the Cbibf Becruan* Natiohb. 

Ba-SaomaEa IGHqiul&nd Weat and tbenoe north to Euroman and 
Ba-Tlako I Taunga, aU now amalgamated with the Ba-Tlapi. 
n. m, ,„, ( Maintv between TiUDsa and Viyburg ; chier, Mankoroane ; 
BA-iiAPi I a^ta\, Taunga. 

(■Between Vryburg and the Molopo river, with hunting 
Ba-Boloko i gnmada far to the west ; uhier, Montaioa ; capital, Mafe- 

(. king ; a branch at Tbaba Nsha in the Orange Free State. 
BA-HABtrTBB 1 About the headwat«n of the Molopo and Marico valley ; 
(Barotse) / now mibject to TranavaaL 

{From the Molopo to the Heteinaehwani tributary of 
the Notwani river, including the Etnya district i 
chief, Ohaaitsire ; capital, Eanja. 
(From the Ba-Wanketn territoi; north to the Tropic of 
Capricorn, and from the Notwani river nortJi-weot to 
and bevond Anderaon's Vie; ; chief, SecheU ; capital, 

B..c.„„™ {»•£."*• '^-»""»"«' '•" "^KS^ 

Ba-Eam, 9hoshong Hills,* reduced and absorbed bj the Ba-Maogwato. 

K.':,^T.„ }B«i..u^.tu..Midd,.z.»b-i. 1 D.|;J« 

Ma-Denassa, Makarikari lagoon. > with ao 

Ba-Najoa, Hababa district south of the Zambesi poUticsl 

Ba-Yetb and Ma-Koba, Touk^ diatrict K. of L. Ngami. J etatos. 
n. u.unni »rt /From the Ba-Ewena tsrritoiy north to the Zambesi: 
BA-MANOWATO j jjjjjgf^ Khama ; capitol, lately Sboehong, now PaUpye. 

■ That a, the " Fish People." Bnt the word ocean in a great variety 
of forms : Ba-Tlapi, Ba-Tlapin, Bachapin, Bablapi, Matchapi, Maa^aping, 
etc They are perhapa the most cinlisad and one of the moat nnmeraus 
of all the Becbuana nations. 

* On the older maps these figure m the " Bakau Hills," from the 
name of this tribe. 

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L to 


Lake Kgsmi, and ttienca weat to Orampokud ; » bnDoh 
'the B&-Huigwato;> chief, Secbome, sncceBsor (IdSl) 
Moremi ; capital, Denokajie. 

Formerly several of these divisions, such as the Ea- 
Tlapi, Ba-Rotse, Ba-Wanketsi, and Ba-Kwena, were power- 
ful nations, which have been gradually weakened by 
internal disseasions, a^ressive ne^hbours, and frontier 
wars with the Boers and Matabili. At present all 
recognise British supremacy, and most of them are 
practically ruled by the High Commissioner, whose 
edicts and proclamations have force of law far beyond 
the actual limits of the Crown Colony. The only really 
Belf-goveming peoples are the Ba-Mangwato and the 
kindred Ba-Twana, who between them rule over more 
than half of North Bechuanaland. After the death 
( 1 8 90) of King Moremi, the Ba-Twana have been governed 
by the chief headman, Dithapo, on behalf of the heir, 
Sechome, who is a minor, and related on the mother's 
side to Khama, Xing of the Ba-Mangwato. 

Ehama has for many years been the most distin- 
gnished native ruler anywhere south of the Zambesi. 
Under the beneficent guidance of judicious missionaries 
and British agents, he has long governed his people 
wisely and firmly, abolishing witchcraft and other savage 
customs, excluding strong drinks by severe excise 
measures, personally administering justice with equity 
and moderation, encouraging agriculture, the industrial 
arte and education, and at the same time ofiering a 
stout resistance to the incessant attacks of the fierce 
Matabili hordes on hie eastern frontier, "In 1863, 
without warning and without cause, the Matabili 
attacked the Ba-Mangwato cattle stations, and captured 

1 Tet Dr. E. Holnb noticed a marked diffewnca in the appearance of 
the two peoples, the Ba-Twana being "quite black," the Ba-Hangwato 
"blown,"— .^, AfUhrap. ItMUuU, 1880, p. 10. 

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a number of cattle. Ehama bad the courage to leave 
the protection of the hills and meet the MatabUi in the 
open plain. The Ba-Mangwato, in the first instanctv 
drove back a division of tbe Matabili, but were in turn 
compelled to retire. So severely had the MatAbili to 
pay for this victory that they have not f^ain returned 
to attack the Shoshong hills. They have occasionally 
made incursions into the Ba-Mangwato country, wbeu 
some villa^ of Ba- Kalahari or Bushmen is on the 
instant massacred. lately the attention of the Mata- 
bili has been directed to tbe Ba-Mangwato at Lake 
Kghabe (Ngami), who have been twice attacked." ' 

But since the occupation of Mashonaland and the 
death of Lobengula, all this border warfare has ceased, 
and peace reigns throughout Ba-Mangwatolsnd. 

Ehama, through lids father Sekhome, is fourth in 
descent from Eari, founder of the Mangwato state. 
Before his time the Ba-Kwena, Ba-Wanketsi (Ba-Kgwa- 
ketsi), and Ba-Mangwato were all one confederate people, 
of whom the 6a-£wena were the elder branch; the 
sacred animal or totem common to all being the kwena, 
or " crocodile." Then K!ari withdrew from the alliance, 
and adopted a new totem, the Puti, or duiker antelope, 
which has ever since been the emblem of the Ba-Mang- 
wato nation. The Bechuanas appear to be the only 
group of the Southern Bantu peoples who thus preserve 
in its integrity the primitive totemic system. The 
reverence or worship which they pay to their respective 
totems, usually animals from which tbe tribes themselves 
are often named, is expressed by the word lino, to dance. 
Thus the Ba-Katlas dance to the kaila, monkey ; the 
Ba-Kwenas, as well as the Ba-Wanketsi and Ba-Sutos, 
to the kviena; the Ba-Tlaros and others to the Uu, or 
' Bar. J. HftckenzM, Blue Book, 188S, p. M. 

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elephant; and the Ba-Rotse to the chiiene, or Cape 
baboon. The last-mentioned are rec(^ised by all the 
otherB aa the elder branch, hence the formerly powerful 
but now much reduced Ba-Botses take precedence of all 
the Bechuana nations. At a remote epoch some of the 
Ba-Rotsea moved north of the Zambesi, where they 
founded a l&tge " empire," which still exists, havii^ 
recovered from its temporary overthrow by the Mako- 

The BarEalaharl Half-BroedB 

Other early migrations took place westwards to the 
Kalahari wilderness, where alliances appear to have been 
formed with the Bushman aborigines. But the Vaalpena,^ 
or Ma-Sarwa, that is, " Bad People," as the descendants of 
these unions are called, were regarded as outcasts by the 
full-blood Bechuanas, and were consequently despised, 
and till recently enslaved and ill-used in every way by 
the Ba-Rolonga and other neighbouring tribes. Amongst 
them are, no doubt, also included many pure Bechuanas, 
remnants of vanquished peoples, who from time to time 
took refuge in the Kalahari wilderness. But all alike 
have been subject to the same oppressive treatment — 
compelled to pay tribute in skina and other produce of 
the chase, to till the land as serfs, or tend the herds at 
the cattle stations. To protect them from these exac- 
tions severe edicts have been issued by the British 
authorities, and in 1888 it was officially announced that 
within the protectorate all these peoples, whether Ba- 
Kalahari (full-blood Bechuana refugees, called also Ba- 
Lala, "needy," or "mendicants") or Vaalpens, would be 
regarded as freemen, and that henceforth the magistrates 

1 Farini, on bia return jonmey, mat some ot these Vudpeiu, who told 
turn their re«l nnme vm* Kmttea.— Op. eiL p. 349. 

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would recogiUBe no claims arising ont of the assntned 
relations of master and slave as between the Bechnanas 
and the Ba-Kakhari. 


The Ba-Lala are generallj understood to be tme 
Bechuanas, the term Ma-Sarwa being applied to the 
half-breeds, who represent all shades of transition between 
the Bantu and Bushman races. Although scattered in 
small fragments or family groups all over South C«utral 
Africa, the Bushman aborigines are at present mainly 
confined to the Kalahari wilderness, and here alone it 
is possible to study them in their primitive condition, 
in many cases still unmodified by contact with the 
surrounding peoples. 

The Bosjesmans or Bushmen of the Dutch settlers 
are known to the Cape Hottentots as San-qua or Soaii- 
qita, and to the Namaquas as Saan-qua or 2aan-gtta, 
while, according to Arbousset, they generally call them- 
selves Khwai} that is, " men." Their ethnical relation 
to the Hottentots has already been indicated at p. 183. 
The affinities are probably fundamental, both in physical 
type and speech, though there are many important 
features in which the Khwai differ greatly from the 
Khoi-Khoiu. The expression is far more animated and 
wild, the glance more furtive, the gestures and move- 
ments quicker and more agile. The Bushman in thie 
respect may be described as mercurial, the Hottentot as 
leaden, and the distinction applies with equal force to 
their mental qualities. Hence, although tlie former 

' Khu^i U the same word ks the Hottentot Khoi, uul tbe Hottentot 
plural ending qua, i-iea, kka, another JiiJicstion that the Hoiteatot 
and Bushman Unguagea are fuudamentally one. 

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occupies a much lower position socially, be appears to 
be endowed with a greater share of natural intelligence, 
as shown both in his artistic taste and skiU, in which 
the latter is singularly deficient, and in his folk-lore, 
which is so rich and varied, so charged with natural 
wisdom and sentiment, as to rank as an oral, national 
literature, fully on a level with that of the Polynesian 
islanders. H. H. Johnston met a Bushman who could 
speak Dutch fluently, besides Ei^lish, Portuguese, Hot- 
tentot, and several Bantu languages. Like Lichteostein, 
Bleek, and many others, this observer was struck by the 
" mental ability " of the race, so " strangely at variance 
with their low physical characters." ^ 

All travellers speak in eloquent terms of their re- 
markable powers of observation and skill in delineation, 
as evidenced by their pictorial representations already 
referred to at p. 257. These rock drawings and paint- 
ings " differ much in aim and character. A lai^e portion 
are of the caricature class, rudely, but very spiritedly, 
drawn in black paint. The class representing fights and 
hunts are a large and interesting one. It will be noticed 
that many of the drawings are representative of figures 
and incidents among white people, also of other native 
tribes. Some even surest actual portraiture. The 
ornamentation of the head-dresses, feathers, beads, tassels, 
etc., seems to have claimed much care, and to have 
given the native artists great pleasure in delineation. 
The higher class of drawings will be seen to indicate 
correct appreciation of the actual appearance of objects ; 
and perspective and foreshortening are fownd correctly 
rendered" * 

1 Jour. o/Ou AnArop. InttituU, 1883, p. 463. 

' "Notes on a Collection of faesimih Bushmm Drawings," b; Uaik 
HatcMDEOB, JouT. qftht Anlhrop. InttUaU, 1982, p. 404. 

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Yet these iatellectuall; gifted aborigines live a life of 
extreme misery and liardsbips. By preference they 
dwell in caves od the uplands, descending from time to 
time to the plains to shoot game with their poisoned 
arrows, and collect the roots, berries, ants, locusts, 
lizards, or snakes, which form their chief nutriment. For 
they neither keep flocks nor herds, nor till the land, but 
depend almost entirely on the chase for their sustenance. 
Hence they are unattached to the soil, which for them 
has no value, and easily move about from place to place 
in quest of food. Owing to this hard stm^le for exist- 
ence they have acquired extraordinary powers of endur- 
ance, and wiU oilen pass four or five days without eating. 
But when any laige game is captured an incredible 
quantity of meat is consumed in a semi-raw state, and 
the gorge is followed by a long interval of repose, broken 
only by the necessity of again seeking for food to allay 
the pangs of hunger. 

The Bushman stands at the lowest stage of human 
culture, with no sense of property, no social organisation, 
no chiefs or established tribal usages, no religion, no 
domestic animals, no industries, no utensils or weapons, 
except the bow and arrow required for the hunt, no 
dwellii^ beyond a trench dug under some sheltering 
bush, no clothes but undressed skins thrown over the 
body in cold or wet weather, no marriage rites or fiimily 
ties. In the Bushman language there are no words to 
distii^isb the girl from the wife ; a couple live together 
and rear their ofispring by the same instinct that per- 
petuates the brute creation ; the mother comes and goes 
at pleasure; infidelity is an unknown offence, and the 
women are often the prize of the stronger. 

There appear to be neither tribal nor even family 
groups in the strict sense of the terra, but only the 

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radimentary elements, out of which the commumty 
might Under favourable conditions be gradually evolved. 
Hence it is that the remarkable Bushman folk-lore is 
concerned not so much with human as with animal 
life in general The hare, the crocodile, the lion, or 
qoa^a plays quite as important a part in Uie scene 
as the native, who is more often absent than present. 
These dramatis persorue are even made to speak, each 
his own proper languf^, which is indicated each by its 
proper click. Thus, while the nimiber of these strange 
sonnds is restricted to six for the ordinary Bushman 
langnsge, in the " literary " language they are practically 
nnlimited, each animal introduced into the dialogue 
having its characteristic click used only by itself. The 
lessons of wisdom conveyed by these stories are all 
derived irom the habits of the animal world, so that the 
Bushman may truly be said unconsciously to follow the 
advice of the inspired writer, " Go to the ant, thou 
sluggard ; consider her ways and be wise." 

The Kalahari Bushmen are described as taller, and 
altogether a finer race than those of Cape Colony. But 
travellers' reports differ considerably ; nor is it always 
easy to sift their evidence, for the term " Bushman " is 
often applied in a very loose way to dispossessed Hot- 
tentots, half-castes, or broken tribes, which own no flocks 
or herds. Even the Ma-Cenassa of the Makarikari salt- 
pan, and the Ba-Y^y^ of Lake Ngami, have been called 
Bushmen, although the former are certainly Bechuana 
half-breeds, the latter a Bantu people originally from 
Nyassaland, but now reduced and degraded by the 
Ba-Twana conquerors. Many of the so-called western 
Bushmen as far north as Ngami are really impoverished 
ITamaquas, of the same extraction as the Topuaars of 
Walviseh Bay. They call themselves Aunin, and appear 

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to be QumerouB, occupying the bouudless plains extending 
far to the east and north to Lake Ngaml 

The above account applies to none of these, bnt only 
to the true Bushmen, or rather to Buch as have not yet 
been Infiuenced by contact with their neighboura. These 
are now reduced to a mere handful, and are rapidly 
disappearing, either dying out or adapting themselves 
to the changed conditions of their environment. " The 
Bushmen in Bechuanaland in the present day are follow- 
ing their masters' lead in the ways of civilisation. They 
are employed as hei-ds and wa^ou servants in Sooth 
Bechuanaland ; and on our recent journey to Shoshong 
we found on entering Kbama's country that that chief 
had entrusted a flock of goats to the Bushmen who were 
living at Mamabula. In the heart of the Kalahari the 
vassals have flocks of goats of their own, while they herd 
also the flocks of their masters." ' 

Stations and Trade Bontes — Material FrogreeB 

The great highway running through Bechuanaland 
along the west frontiers of Transvaal and Matabililand 
north to the Zambesi, mainly traverses a somewhat arid 
region, which in places might even be called desert* 
But at certain intervals along its course occur more or 
less extensive fertile tracts, which owe their produetivilj 
to the presence of copious perennial springs, undergronnd 

' Rev. J. Mack^nsie, Blue Book, 1886, p. 63. 

' " Wtist of Shoshong it ia trttterlesa desert for hundreds of mOa, 
trhich can only be crossed in rainy seasons, and lived in by Bushmen wd 
Bakalagari (Ba- Kalahari). Between Shoshong and Holepolole is a oarMt 
of this desert. The distance between the two places Is about 120 mOw 
t have, in some years, in this Journey had to cross an interval of sixtj 
miles through deep sand from one water to another." — Rev. J. S. MoAt, 
Blue Book, I88G, p. lOG. 

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reservoirs, or surface streams. In these oases, as they 
may be called, are necessarily situated nearly all the 
chief centres of population, which have at some time 
been, or still are, royal residences, and which have in 
recent years assumed the character of market towns, 
trading marts, seats of British adminbtration, centres of 
missionary activity, and even railway and tel^raph 
stations.' The whole present life and future prospects 
of the land are thus concentrated along the line of the 
vital artery, the possession of which is of paramount 
political importance to the suzerain power, and through 
which flows a continuous stream of civilising influences, 
thence diffused throughout the whole of South Central 

Skoshong, till lately the residence of the Ba-Mang- 
wato chiefs, is the largest native place soutli of the 
Zambesi, with a mixed Bechuana and Makalaka popula- 
tion, at one time estimated at 30,000. It has still 
a considerable population, although it has ceased to be 
the Mangwato capital, Ehama having recently removed 
some miles farther north to the busy station of Palapye 
{Palachwe, Palatswie). Shoshong lies on the slopes of 
two parallel ridges which enclose a fertile plain at the 
conveiging point of the routes leading north to the 
Zambesi and north-west to Lake Xgami. 

Molepolole (^Lepelole), headquarters of the famous Ba- 
Kwena chief, Sccheli, lies between Shoshong and Kanya, 
capital of the Ba-Wanketsi nation, 120 miles south-west 
of the former, 70 miles north of the latter. In the 
neighbourhood of Molepolole is a celebrated cave which, 
according to the national legends, is the cradle of the 
Bechuana race. From it issued all living things, and on 
its rocky wall is shown the imprint of the first step 
taken by the first man emerging from its cavernous 

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Eanya stands on a well-wooded hill rising 
nearly 200 feet above the Bnrrounding plain, and 
containa, with the five outlying villages at the foot of this 
hill, over 3500 huts. Much of the cultivated land is 
owned by the English misBionaxies, who have here a 
Bubstantial church, residence, and schools. 

£anya is followed 66 miles farther south by Mafe- 
king on a headstream of the Molopo close to the 
Transvaal frontier, and just within the frontier of the 
Crown Colony, of which it is at present the chief 
emporium, and residence of the British Commissioner. 
Meieking is the present terminus (1895) of the South 
Central African trunk raOway, which, before the end of 
1890, had already reached Vrybwrg, 94 miles farther 
south. Mafeking was also till lately the terminus of 
the Cape telegraph system, which in 1890 was continued 
by the South Africa Chartered Company to Kamutsa, 
80 miles farther north, and, since then, via Falapye to 

Vryburg, that is, " Freetown," was founded by the 
Boer filibusters as the capital of their ephemeral 
" republic " of Stellaland, but has now been chosen as 
the seat of administration of the British Crown Colony. 
It lies 130 miles by rail due north of Eimberley, 
the only important intervening station being Taung 
(^Taunga) on the Katong (Hart's river), present residence 
of the Ba-Tlapi chief, Mankoroane Molehabangue. 

Kuruman, one of the earliest Bechuana towns visited 
by Europeans, is noteworthy as the only important 
place in the country which does not lie on the main 
route between the Orange and Zambesi It is situated 
some miles west of Taungs, at the foot of a sandstone 
hill on the right bank of the upper Kuruman river. 

1 liTiugBtoue, Latt Joumalt. 

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After the rupture between the Ba-Tlapi and Ba-Kolong 
nations, Kuruman succeeded Latuha (^LahUv,) on the 
Takun branch of the river, as the new capital of the 
Ba-Tkpi people. Here the first missions were founded, 
and Kuruman is still the chief centre of missionary work 
in Bechuanaland. Koloheng, Livingstone's first station, 
and the nei^bouring Liteyani, in the Ba-£weiia terri- 
tory, have long been abandoned. 

In the Kalahari there are no settlements or perma- 
nent centres of population, but only a few scattered 
farmsteads and camping grounds near the springs and 
vleys. Along the routes between Shoshong or Mole- 
polole and Lake Ngami, sach places are characteristically 
called " waters," and are described as a " brackish pan," 
a " small pit of fresh water," a " deep well," a " spring in 
the reeds," " water only during the rains," and so on. 
Two of these, Lokudatu, 275, and Qhaiisi, 445 miles 
from Molepolole, are the most important places in the 
whole wilderness, the former having several lai^ pans 
and permanent waters supporting numerous herds of 
cattle, the latter (150 miles from Ngami) having a 
copious perennial spring near some probably auriferous 
quartz reefs and lai^e baobab forests. Such places mark 
the necessaiy sites of future villages, and possibly even 
of flourishing agricultural and industrial centres. 

That this is no sanguine forecast may be inferred from 
the rapid settlement and material prt^ress of Bechuana- 
land since the occupation of Mashonaland. In his official 
Report for 1890, the Administrator, Sir Sidney Shep- 
pard, speaks of the enormous strides that have been 
made in opening up and developing the country, 
especially since the foundation of the British South 
Africa Company in 1889. The completion of the 
railway to Mafeldug, the construction of the tele^ph 

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with iron poles to the Zambesi, the sinking of wells, 
the making of roads, the building and fortifying of camps 
at commanding points, and the vastly increased traffic 
with waggons laden with stores and merchandise of all 
kinds along the great route to the north and north-east, 
all testify to the new life which the prospect of untold 
wealth in the goldfields of Mashona and Matabili I^nds 
has already infused into the country. 

n. Zambuia Sonth and North (Bhodesia) 

In strict geographical language the new term " Zam- 
hesia " should be confined to lands comprised within 
the Zambesi hydrc^raphic system. But convenience 
and poUtical exigencies have already overridden such 
physical considerations, and " British Zambesia " in its 
widest sense includes districts in the extreme south 
which drain to the Indian Ocean through the Limpopo 
and other coaat streams, and districts in the extreme 
north which drain through the Congo to the Atlantic 
These outlyii^ districts, however, are relatively of 
small extent ; and, broadly speaking, the region in 
question may be said to coincide with the middle 
Zambesi catchment basin. It is nearly bisected by this 
great South African watercourse, which forms its salient 
geographical feature, while clearly separating the south- 
em plateaux from the northern highlands and lacustrine 

Sonth Zambesia — Bonndaties — Extant 

The southern section of Zambesia comprises two main 

^visions — Matabihland (Matabeleland), lately ruled by 

the once powerful Zulu chief, Lobengula, and Mashona- 

land, both of which are administered by the Chartered 

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South A&ica Company. Matabili and Moshona Lands, or 
" Shodesia," aa they are now officially called in honour 
of Mr. Cecil Ehodea, founder of the South A&ica Com- 
pany, occupy jointly the whole of the hilly plateau which 
Btretches from the Limpopo northwards to the Zambesi, and 
whidi is conterminous west ajid east wit^ the Bechuana- 
land protectorate and the Portugese sphere of influence. 
Towards Bechuanaland the ill-defined frontier claimed hy 
the Ba-Mangwato chief, Khama, runs from the confluence 
of the Shashi (Tati) with the Limpopo in a zigzag line 
north-westwards to the Guay ("Tobacco"), and then 
follows the course of that river northwards to its junction 
with the Zambesi below the Victoria Falls. On the west 
side the long-contested froatier with Portugal is only pro- 
visionally settled by the Anglo -Portuguese Agreement of 
June 1893, the Zambesi and its Kabompo affluent forming 
the provisional boundary. On the east the boundary is 
deflected along the northern scarp of the Mashonaland 
uplands south-eastwards to the Euenya river at 33° K 
long., and then coincides with that meridian southwards 
to the Pungwe river, where it is again deflected round to 
the west and south so as to leave to Portugal the Masai- 
K!esei district of the disputed Manica territory. Beyond 
this district the line again coincides with 33° £. long, as 
far as the Bosi river, where it turns south-westwards to 
32° 30' E. long., which meridian is then followed south- 
wards to the Sabi at the Lunda confluence. Beyond this 
point the frontier is indicated by a line traced south-west- 
wards to the confluence of the Pafurie with the Limpopo, 
where the navigation is arrested by the falls.* By this 
modification of the unratified 1890 Convention, England 
advances her eastern frontier so as to embrace the whole of 

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the breezy Mashona and Matabili uplands, which here rise 
abruptly above the level and marshy plains of Gazaland. 

The northern division of British Zambesia, now known 
as Northern Zambesia and British Central Africa, com- 
prises two very distinct political regions, the protectorate 
of Barotadand in the west, since 1894 directly admims- 
tered by the South Africa Company, and in the east the 
Nyassaland highlands, administered by a British Com- 
missioner; with an intermediate group of petty states 
about Lakes Bangweolo and Moero, most of whose chiefs 
accepted the British protectorate early in 1891. But 
here we seem to plunge into the unknown, and all 
the information we possess of this region is derived 
from the rapid journeys recently made for the first 
time by Mr. Joseph Thomson and Mr. Alired Sharpe 
from Lake Nyaasa westwards to Bangweolo and Moero, 
and south-westwards to the ZambesL According to the ' 
"Concession" made in 1890 by Lumanika, king of 
Barotseland, in favour of the South Africa Company, the 
boundaries of the protectorate are — on the south, the 
Zambesi, Ohobe, and Lomba rivers to 20° £. long. ; on 
t^e west, the same meridian to where it is crossed by 
the Lumedzi ; on the north, the watershed of the Zambesi 
to the confluence of the Lnnga and Kafue rivers, about 
where 27° E. long, is intersected by 12° S. lat. ; on the 
east, the whole of Maahukulurabweland, whose chiefs, 
hitherto independent, are now recognising Lumanika aa 
the paramount ruler. 

Eastwards the frontier, as modified by the Anglo- 
Portuguese Agreements of 1891 and 1898, is laid down 
in such a way as to surrender to Portugal a tract of 
about 30,000 square miles on the north side of the 
Zambesi, which river, with all its affluents, is in return 
thrown open to the free navigation of all nations on the 

VOL. II ^^ 2 B 

ft ..- 'i ■ ,Ciooglc 


same terms aa the Congo. On the north -east the 
frontier line runs from the north end of Lake Nyassa to 
the south end of Tai^nyika, and is traced so as to keep 
Stevenson's Road within British territory. British 
Xorth Zambesia is thus conterminous westwards with the 
Congo Free State and Portuguese West Africa, south- 
eastwards and eastwards with Portuguese East AMca, 
north-eastwards with German East Africa, northwards 
with Tanganyika and the Congo Free State. 

Although Zambesia nowhere approaches the seaboard, 
ample provision is made in the Anglo-Portuguese Agree- 
ments for easy access to the Indian Ocean, not only by 
the free navigation of the Zambesi with the Shir^ and all 
its other tributaries, but also by the stipulation that 
Portugal shall construct a railway between Mashonaland 
and the coast ^ either by the Pungwe or the Bosi river 
' valley, and shall also open a highroad from Beira at the 
mouth of the Pungwe to the British frontier. By these 
clauses Portugal, after 400 years of jealous exclusiveness, 
enters, so to say, into the comity of nations, and removes 
for ever the artificial barriers which had hitherto ob- 
structed free intercourse between her eastern possessions 
and the interior of the continent. British Zambesia, the 
region more immediately affected by this liberal measure, 
stretches across nearly fourteen degrees of latitude for 
about 1000 miles, from Tanganyika southwards to the Lim- 
popo ; and for nearly 900 miles west and east between the 
Portuguese spheres of influence on the Atlantic and Indian 
Oceans. Even after the recent cessions to Portugal north 
of the Zambesi, the total area cannot be less than 550,000 
square miles, with a probable population of 3,000,000. 

' ThiBrBUiTayUnowcoinpleUfromFanUsvilU, 40 mllMop the Pungwe 
riper, to Chimoii on the plateau ; it is being extended UDthward to Bein 
and veitward to DntaU in the MaahoiuUnd dinsion of Bhodetia. 

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Historic Retrospect— The ZimbabTe Bnlne 

At the southern extremity of Nyaasa there is an 
abandoned missionary station called Livingatonia, and 
the lofty range rising above the north-west shore of the 
lake is known as the Livingstone Mountains. Bat the 
name of the illustrious explorer occurs nowhere else in 
Zambesia, a land which is nevertheless for ever sacred 
to his memory, for this is the scene of bis great discoveries, 
and here he ended his days on the desolate shores of 
Bangweolo in the very heart of the vast region bequeathed 
by him as a trust to his fellow-countrymen. Down to 
the middle of the nineteenth century our knowledge of 
the Zambesi basin had made no perceptible advance since 
the middle of the sixteenth century, when the Portuguese 
plundering expeditions under Francis Baretto (1569) 
and others had already reached the Manica goldfields, 
and had established permanent stations (Sena and Tete) 
on the main stream. It is evident from the contemporary 
writers De Barros (1496-1570) and Ivano dos Santos 
(1505-1580) that the Portuguese at that time possessed 
a considerable knowledge of both banks of the Cuama 
(Zambesi), probably as far inland as Zumbo, though that 
station was not actually occupied by them till 1740. 
De Barros knew that " other people inland call this 
river Zambere," ^ that is, Zambese, the letters r and s 
normally interchanging in the southern Bantu dialects ; * 
and of the sL\ tributaries mentioned by him all but one 
may be still identified with some certainty. They are 
the Panhames, that is, the Hanyani, rising at Mount 
Hampden in Mashonaland, and flowing north to the 
Zambesi a few miles below Zumbo ; the Luamguoa, which 
' Atia, First Decads, Book X. ch. i. Lisbon, 1777. 
> Com^ the Sechuana iforimo with the Zulu-Kafir il<i^ma. 

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is the Lu-OaDgwa, a large western afBuent of the 
Hanyani ; the Airaja, that is, the Buia or Luia, an 
upper branch of the Euenya, which reaches the Zambesi 
below Tete, after draining a latge part of the north 
Mashona escarpments ; the Euenia, which still bears the 
same name, now usually written Ruenya; lastly, the 
Manjovo, which is the Majova, a northern tributary of 
the Zambesi just below the famous Lupata goi^ The 
identification is confirmed by the statement that all these 
rivers "water Benomotapa's country, and the greater 
number of them carry down much gold which is yielded 
by that land.'" This Beaomotapa ia elsewhere called 
Monomotapa,' and his territory is described as " the great 
kingdom of Sofala," with a coast-line limited north and 
south by the Cuama and Espirito Sancto (Zambesi and 
Limpopo), and extending for an unknown distance inland, 
but so as to include the gold mines of Manica, " which 
lie nearest to Sofala," as well as those of Matuea 

> It is fttim these very riven, Han^rkDi, Rneny* and its tribntanes, 
tbSit the Klasbona natives still " bring gold'dust in quilla for ule to tha 
white men," — Haand. 

* Both titles have in fact the same meaning ; the fiist components, 
Betia and Mono, being the still carrent Bantn words bteana, bona, muene; 
«i«Kinii,thfttiB,"lord," "master," "chief," "ruler." Theseoondpart,jm)(apo, 
common to both, probabl; means a "mine," from the Bantn won) ^pa= 
"to dig," "excavate." Hence De Bsrros bo lar rigbtl; explains these terms 
in tie sense of " prince, "or "king," or "ruler" in general, the fiill meaning 
being "Lord of the Mines," an appropriate title for the ruler of the 
auriferons Manica and Masboua Lands. Doa Santos, who redded in the 
oountry as a Dominican missionaly, and was personall; acquainted with 
this potentate, never uses either title, but always calls him the Joitera. 
'■ The name of Juiteva is common to the sovereign lord of the country 
bordering on the river Sofala (Sahi or Pungwe), which at his accesuon to 
that dignity he assumes, to the exclusion of the titles he might before have 
been known hy, this dignity in the esteem of tha people placing him on a 
level ivith the Deity ; indeed, the EaGrs acknowledge no other god than 
their monarch, and to him they address those prayers which other Dstions 
are wont to address to heaven." — Eiitory, Book I. ch. iv. That De 

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(Masbonaland), Toroa, or Eutua, and others in the present 

De Barros had also a fairly accurate knowledge of the 
famous monuments of Zimhabye,^ near the present Fort 
Victoria in Matahililand, which were rediscovered hy 
Adam Benders in 1868,' and revisited and described by 
several members of the Chartered Company's memorable 
expedition to Mashonaland in 1890. His account of 
these monuments, now ruins, correspoDde even in some 
of the details with that given by Maund, Bent, and 
other recent observers. " ITiere are other mines," writes 
De Barros, " in a district called Toroa, which is otherwise 
known as the kingdom of Bulua, whose ruler is a prince 
by name Burrow, a vassal of Benomotapa. This land is 
near the other which we said consisted of extensive plains, 
and those ruins are the oldest that are known in that 

Barroa'a Honomotapa and Dos Santoa'a Jniteva vera one &nd the same 
person is evident from the fact that both are described na ruling over the 
same country about Sofala, and that the capita or royal residence of both 
W88 the same, Zemboe in Dos Santw, Symbaot in De Barroe, already 
mentioned in 1614 by Barbosa, vrho speaks of tbe "1a^ town of the 
Gentiles which is called Zinbaosh." — Vogage to Malabar, translated from 
a, Spanish HSS. for the Haklujt Society, by the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley. 
In the Atlas of 1753 occnrs the legend, Cttpii rtx Qnitovt, in reference to 

' He eren gives the correct meaning, " royal residence," of this word, 
the Bantu oomponeDta of which are 4mmia="a house," especially a 
Bubetantial building, and fn^u="a lord," or "chief"; hence nzimba- 
inbuie = Zimbabye = achiers dwelling, a royal residence, ssiu reyio, as on 
Bome of the older maps, Mbuit still means " a lord " in the Chi-Nyanja 
language of Nyassaland. (See A. Riddel's Orammar, Londoa ISSO. See 
also, for the general elucidatiou of these matters, A. H. Eeane'a Tit 
Portuffuae in South Africa, in R. W. Murray's South Africa, London 

* " It was really Renders who first discovered these ruins, three yeaia 
before Mauch saw them, though Hauch and Baines first published them 
to the world, and they only described what the old Portuguese writera 
talked of hundreds of years ago." — E. A. Maund, Qto. Proc February 
1SS1, p. 105. 

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region. They are all in a plain, in the middle of which 
stands a square fortress, all of dressed stones withia and 
without, well wrought and of marvellous aize, without 
anj lime showing the joinings, the walls of which are 
over 25 hands thick, but the height is not so great 
compared to the thickness. And above the gateway of 
that edifice is an inscription which some learned Moorish 
(Arab) traders who were there could not read, nor say 
what writing it was. And grouped, as it were, round 
this structure are others on the same heights, like it iu 
the stonework, and without lime, in which is a tower 
twelve bra^aa (72 feet) high. All these structures the 
people of the country call Symbaoe (Zlmbabye), which 
with them means a court, for every place where Beno- 
motapa stays is so called ; and aa they apeak of this as 
being a royal building, all the other dwellings of the king 
bear the same name. . . , Thej lie west of Sofala in a 
straight Line 170 leagues more or less under the latitude 
of 20° and 21° south. . . .^ In the opinion of the Moors 
who saw them they seemed to be very ancient, and were 
built there to hold possession of those mines, which are 
very old, from which for years no gold has been taken 
owing to the wars." — Loc cU. 

With this may be compared the present state of the 
Zimbabye structures aa described and illustrated by Mr. 
Baumann, who accompanied the Chartered Company's 
expeditionary force in 1890. The ruins, which stand 
on the edge of the Mashonaland plateau, are scattered 

' This UtitDde Bud nktiTe poaition to Sar&U corresponda eiacttj witti 
tho ute oF the chief ruins which are identified in Maund'B map vitli 
Zimbabye, and which lie due weat of Sofala, hmt tlie ncently-encted 
Port Victoria in Matabililand, 20° IG' S. latitude. But the distance (170 
Portngnete leagues=640 miles) is much too great, as the ruins in qnestion 
are not more than about S30 miles " in a straif^ht line " west of Sofala. 
The Fortugnete league equals 3-84 English miles. 

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to a great dist&nce over a gentle slope, where a lai^ 
koppje or knoll is crowned with a sort of fort composed 
of huge masses of granite. The main ruins on the 
slope below consist of massive circular walls, sometimes 
amtDged in concentric rings, and a main building of the 
same form no less than 80 yards in diameter, within 
which a lai^ solid conical tower, the most interesting 
feature of all, is enclosed by loftier and still more maasive 
walls. The whole is built without mortar, in r^ular 
and neatly dressed courses, of uniform pieces of granite 
about twice the size of an ordinary brick, very hard, 
greenish-black in colour, and giving a metallic ring when 
struck. The work of disintegration is being slowly 
carried on by burrowing and climbing plants, but the 
wall is still 30 feet high with an average thickness of 
18 feet at the base, tapering to about 8 feet along' 
the irregularly broken top. On the entrance side the 
passage widens out so as to contain the great conical 
tower or keep 35 feet high and 18 feet in diameter at 
the base.* 

Similar ruins, very old and very extensive, occur at 
the Benningwa hills about the upper waters of the 
Lunde river, and numerous other remains are now known 
to exist in various parts of the Matabili and Mashona 
plateaux all apparently connected with long-abandoned 
gold mines. Those at Massi-Kessi may possibly be of 
comparatively recent date, for the Portuguese had a 
mining station in that district down to the end of the 
last century, when they were expelled by the Ba-Rue 
natives driven to open revolt by their intolerable oppres- 
sion. But it is evident from De Barros that the chief 
monuments, both at Zimbabye and elsewhere, date from 
an epoch anterior both to Portuguese and Arab times. 
1 Pall Mall OazOU, 13th October 1890. 

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Many conjectures have been hazarded regarding their 
builders, some looking on the ruins as of Phoenician or 
Azumite (Abyssinian) origin, others attributing them to 
the Persians of the Sassanid epoch. 

In 1891 Mr. Theodore Bent, commissioned by the 
Royal Geographical Society to examine the remains with 
a view to determining their origin, discovered some 
images and pottery which appeared to be of Sabiean 
workmanship, and which consequently tended to support 
the opinion of those archieoli^ists who identify this 
auriferous region with the Land of Ophir. Mr, Bent 
describes the ruins as absolutely unique, the walled 
encloBure, 260 yards round, containing many phalHc 
emblems, which belonged evidently to a phallic temple, 
with walls in some places 16 feet thick and still 40 feet 
high. Some neighbouring remains of the same age and 
style comprise numerous walls and steps, arches and 
walled-up caves, built probably by Sabiean Arabs. A 
phallic altar haa been found sculptured with birds and 
large vases, and with a frieze representing a hunting 
scene — four quaggas, at which a man is throwing a 
dart while holding a dog in a leash, and two elephants 
in the background. Some blue and green Persian 
pottery, and a copper blade plated with gold, have also 
been found, but no inscriptions. On the whole, Mr. 
Bent is inclined to attribute these monumeuts to pre- 
Mohammedan Arabs, probably of the Sabseo-Himyaritic 

Oeographical Beaeajch— British Occupation of MastaonaUiid 

After their occupation of Manicaland before the 
close of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese made no 

' Free S.Qto.Soe. M«7 :892. 

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further attempt to open up or even to explore the 
interior till comparatively recent times. Except on 
the banks of the Zambesi, their stations were confined to 
the coastlands, and their knowledge of the country 
inland from Sofala instead of advancing remained 
stationary, and in some respects even deteriorated. 
Thus the map accompanying Dapper's Africa, issued at 
Amsterdam in 1684, shows scarcely any improvement 
on Pigafetta's published at Bome in 1591. So great 
was the prevailing ignorance that De Barros's Monomo- 
tapa, that is, Dos Santos's Juiteva, paramount lord of 
the kingdom of Sofala, already figures in Dapper, not as 
a personal title but as a vast empire, " Monomotapa- 
laad," as be calls it, and historical geographers have 
ever since been searching in vain for this fabulous 
empire or kingdom of Monomotapa, which never had 
any existence, but bad its origin in a misunderstanding 
of the early Portuguese texts. 

Although possessing at least temporary stations on 
the Zambesi as far inland as Tete and Zumbo, the Portu- 
guese knew nothing of the extent of the great river, had 
never heard of tbe Victoria Falls, or even of the vast 
Kyassa basin, which lay so near their outpost at Sena, 
until the era of modem research was ushered in by 
Livingstone's brilliant achievements. They held tbe 
seaboard for purely fiscal purposes, and concerned them- 
selves with nothing hut slave-dealing, tax-gatbering, the 
levying of extortionate customs, and other vexatious 
regulations at the mouths of the water-courses giving 
access to the interior. Thus tbe coastlands between the 
Limpopo estuary and Zambesi delta continued to present 
formidable difficulties to travellers and explorers, until 
the barriers of seclusion were broken down by the 
Anglo -Portuguese Agreement of June 1891. Hence it 

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was that the inland regions were first reached bj 
Livingstone and the other pioneers of South Central 
African exploration, not from the Indian Ocean by the 
natural highways of the Zambesi, Fungwe, Sahi, or other 
independent coast streams, but by the long overland 
route from the Cape through Bechuana and Matabili 
Lands. Livingstone had led the way along this route 
by the memorable expeditions of 1849-56, during which 
he discovered Lake Ngami (1849), reached the Liambai 
(1851), afterwards found to be the true upper course of 
the Zambesi, ascended this river and gained the west 
coast at Loanda (1854); then, retracing his steps, 
descended the Zambesi to the Victoria Falls, first sighted 
by him (1855), aud reached the east coast at Quitimane, 
thus earning the distinction of being the first European 
to cross the continent from the Atlantic to the Indian 
Ocean, During his next expedition (1858-63) he dis- 
covered and explored the Shir6 valley, Lakes Shirwa and 
Nyassa, crowning these brilliant exploits by the dis- 
covery of Lakes Moero and Bangweolo (1868), and 
tracing a great part of the Luapula, or eastern head- 
stream of the Congo, as far as Nyai^w^ (1870). 

Thus the whole of the vast Zambesi basin was 
traversed in its entire length and breadth by this 
illtutrious explorer, who left httle for his successors to 
do except fill up the details of the picture roughly 
drawn by him. During the last two decades this work 
has been steadily prosecuted by travellers, hunters, 
traders, missionaries, scientific explorers, mining pro- 
spectors, and others, whose itineraries intersect each 
other in almost every direction throughout the whole 
of South Central Africa. In 1884 the whole region 
from the Cape to Nyassa was for the first time 
traversed in a north-easterly direction by W. Montagu 

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years that this comparatively recent expedition seems 
already forgotten, and some of tlie diatriets for the first 
time visited hy this pioneer are now heing permanently 
occupied hy British settlers. Before Mr. Kerr's expedi- 
tion, others, such as Mohr, Selous, and Holub, had also 
reached and even crossed the Zambesi farther west ; 
missionary stations, some since abandoned, some still 
flourishing, had been founded in the Shir4 and Nyassa 
uplands (1872); the Matahili goldfields had been dis- 
covered and suri'eyed by Hartley, Baines, and Mauch 
(1868); and the whole region between the Limpopo 
and J^amhesi had become the " Paradise of hunters," some 
of whom, notably Mr. Selous, have published valuable 
descriptions of the geographical features and ethno- 
logical relations of the great southern " Mesopotamia," 
Lastly, in 1890, the expeditionary force organised by 
the Chartered South Africa Company to take formal 
possession of Afashonalaud, marched from the Limpopo 
along the eastern frontier of Matabililand to Mount 
Hampden, culminating point of the Mashona highlands, 

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constructing a permanent highway, throwing bric^^ 
across the streams, and erecting fortified stations, such 
as Forts Tuli, Victoria, Charter, and Salisbury, along the 
line of march. 


By this occupation of Masbonaland, a memorable 
event in the history of British colonial enterprise, an 
end was put to the reign of terrorism which had pre- 
vailed in the region between the Limpopo and Zambesi 
ever since its invasion by Umsilikatzi and his disciplined 
hordes in 1838 (see p. 286). After crossing the Lim- 
popo the Matabili chirf had established his headquarters 
at Buluwayo^ in the Matoppo hills, and here was 
founded the fortified encampment which enabled Umsi- 
likatzi and his successor, Lobengula, to hold military 
posseseiou of the country (henceforth known as "Mata- 
bililand " ^ for upwards of half a century. Here was 

' UEOaUj, bat wrongly, written Qubulnwtya, tba gu being manly ths 
Zulu prefixed particle of motion " to," and fonniog no part of tlie tvord, 
whtcb baa tbe oluncteriitic meaniDg of the "Shamblea," or "Place of 
Slangbter." The original Boluwayo stood on the anminit of the Zambed- 
Limpopo water-parting ; but the royal reaidence nu afterKarde removed 
18 milea farther north to the present or New Buluwayo, on a beadatream 
of the Umkboai or King river, 20* 10' 8. lat, about IfiO miles dne west of 
the Zimbabye rains, and 118 north-east of the Bechnana frontier at 

* Matabili, however, which is a corrupt form of the 8e-8uto Anis- 
Ndabeli, is not the national name at all. "The proper name for my 
people is Zulu," said Lobengola to Mr. £err, in reply to a question on 
the subject {op. eil. p. 87). In fact the original tribe that Umsilikatzi 
led oat of Transvaal was the Abeianzi branch of the Zulu family. These, 
though no longer full-Uood Zulus, still form the fint of (he three Mata- 
bili claases, the two others being the Ahemhla, originally Bechoana 
prisoners of war, and the Maholi, a motley gatherEng of Mashonas (Ama- 
Swina), Makalakaa (Ma-Kolanga), and other broken tribes swept into the 
Matabili kraals during their incessant pillaging eipeditiona. 

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introduced the terrible Zulu system of government, which 
had depopulated the present Natal and many broad 
tracts of the present Transvaal, and which speedily 
reduced much of the region beyond the Limpopo to an 
uninhabited wilderness. The Matabili occupation was 
practically in the nature of a hostile camp planted in 
the midst of peaceful and industrious populations, such 
as the Ma-£alakas, Ba-Kyais, and Ma-Shonas, who were 
partly exterminated, partly enslaved, or driven to the 
more inaccessible highland districts by the periodical 
razzias of the Zulu impis. The sphere of these raids 
was gradually widened, until they embraced the whole 
region west to Lake Ngami, east to Gazaland, north to 
and even beyond the ZambesL They may be compared 
to the plundering expeditions of the Turkoman marau- 
ders, finally suppressed by the Eussian occupation of 
Merv, and as Britbh philanthropists ei^rly applauded 
that occupation, prec«ded as it was by torrents of blood, 
it is strange that many of the same philanthropists have 
uttered disapproval of the Chartered Company's bloodless 
occupation of Mashonaland, by which the period of 
Matabili government by systematic plunder and massacre 
was closed for ever. 

What this regime meant for the unfortunate abori- 
gines has been vividly told by Mr. Kerr. "Attack is 
entirely a matter of cunning and stalking. A Matabili 
impi (army) will approach as stealthily and as invisibly 
as snakes, crawling as closely upon the ground, and 
concealed by the undergrowth, they watch the move- 
ments of their intended victims, the timid Mashona. 
Then, when a favourable opportunity occurs, up they 
rise like a wild black cloud of destruction. Hissing and 
shrieking their fiercest battle-cry, they bound and leap 
like the Mipsprinffer (antelope) from rock to rock, deal- 

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ing with fearful precision the death-giving blow of the 
assegai, and ever and anon shouting with a thrilliDg 
dcatasf their terrific cry of triumph, as they tear out 
the yet beatiog hearts of their victima. After a pursuit 
of the flying and panic-stricken horde, the ravagers herd 
in the straying cattle, and then the devastating cloud 
moves away, gathering in ite cu'cuitous route other 
nebulae in the shape of slave girls and boys, as well as 
the cattle from perhaps hundreds of hitherto quiet and 
smiling valleys. They return to their king with news 
of victory ; dancing as they sing the story of their soul- 
stirring and daring deeds, while in feasting they drink 
the beer made by the bands of the girls whose parents' 
lives and property were the fruits of the chase, their 
bones lying bleachiug in the sun amid the weather-worn 
rocks of the deserted highland hom&" ^ 

But the system could not last The periodical raids 
yearly became less " pi-ofitable " ; those sent against the 
Bechuanas and Towanas of Lake Ngami often ended in 
disaster ; there was no source whence the losses of the 
Zulu impis could be repaired ; the missionaries at Hope 
Fountain, Buluwayo, Inyati, and other stations, though 
making scarcely any converts, had a certain inQuence in 
mit^ting the ferocity of the Matabih hordes; the 
country was invaded by Boer squatters and overrun 
in all directions by British hunters, travellers, and 
raining prospectors ; the indunas themselves felt that 
their occupation was gone; thanks to arrangements 
made by English agents at Buluwayo no attempt was 
made to interfere with the Chartered Company's expedi- 
tionary force to Mashonaland ; Lobengula, who had suc- 
ceeded UmsiUkatzi in 1870, felt his position so insecure, 
that he more than once made preparations to migrate 
> Op. ea. vol. L p. 10*. 

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northwards beyond the Zambesi In tbe hope of saving 
a remnant of bis waning authority, be had accepted 
the BritiBh protectorate, undertaking to introduce orderly 
government and put a stop to the periodical raids in the 
surrounding lands. But this arrangement did not suit 
bia unruly subjeeta, who lived by war and rapine, and 
who, about tbe middle of the year 1893, began to renew 
tbeir plundering expeditions in Masbonaland. This 
brought about the inevitable collision between tbe impis 
and tbe levies of the Chartered Company, which, actii^ 
in concert with the imperial forces advancing &om 
Bechuanaland, defeated the king's beat troops in ever; 
encounter, and occupied Buluwayo in Ifovember 1893. 
Lobengula, who bad already taken flight in the direction 
of the Zambesi, died of fever on 23rd January 1894, at 
a spot some 40 miles south of that river. He had 
been abandoned by nearly all his followers, and after his 
death the whole nation ceased all further resistance. 
With the disbandment of the impis, tbe Zulu military 
ayatem was brought to an end, and Matabililand was 
incorporated in the territory of tbe Chartered Company. 
A peaceful and equable settlement speedily followed, and 
tbe system of administration already adopted in Mashona- 
land haa been extended to tbe newly acquired territory, 
with such modifications as were required by the 
changed conditions. The effective administration remains 
in the hands of the Chartered Company, tbe respon- 
sible authority being vested, not in the Adminiatrstor 
alone, as heretofore, but in the Administrator in Council, 
who thus takes the place of the Governor in Council of 
Crown Colonies. The Council consists of three nominated 
members, and a judge nominated ^y the Company with 
tbe assent of tbe Secretary of State, and removable by 
the Secretary of State alone. The arrangement, which 

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applies equally to Mashona and Matabili Lands, is thoB 
in tbe nature of a compromise between a Crown Colony 
and territory administered exclusively by a Chartered 

The Barotse and BUkololo StatM 

In the regions beyond the Zambesi, the chief part has 
been played in recent times, not by Zulu but by 
Bechuana or Basuto intruders from the south. At some 
unknown but apparently not very remote epoch, a 
branch of the Barotse nation had passed northwards 
and founded a large " empire " about the middle course 
of the Zambesi. But when Livingstone first penetrated 
to this region he found that the rulers of the land were 
no longer the Barotse but the kindred Makololo (Man- 
tati), a branch of the Basuto or eastern Bechuanae. 
These Makololos, whose name has become a household 
word throughout the Zambeai and Shir6 basins, moved 
northwards about the year 1835 under their chief, 
Sebituana, who, like Umsilikatzi, had been one of Cbaka's 
indunas, and who, like him also, waa thoroughly familiar 
with tbe Zulu military system. About that time a 
general dislocation of the tribes north and south of the 
Vaal was caused by the combined pressure of the 
conquering Zulu hordes advancing from the east, and 
of tbe Boer Voor-Trekkers moving up from the south. 
Thus threatened on two sides in their original homes 
about the sources of the Vaal, the Makololos were led by 
Sebituana along tbe eastern verge of the Kalahari in 
quest of new lands, but found no resting-place untU they 
bad reached the banks of the Zambesi Here their 
disciplined valour enabled them rapidly to overrun the 
Barotse territory, and reduce the natives to a state of 

VOL. ir 2 c 

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Sebituana was succeeded in 1850 by his son, living- 
stone's friend, Sekeletu, and he by Impololo (Impororo), 
last of the Makololo dynasty. Constant fratricidal strife 
and rivalries for the leadership soon wasted the strength 
of the intruders, and a sudden rise of the oppressed 
Barotse resulted in the total extermination of all the 
Makololos settled in the re^on north of the Chobe. 
Those dwelling sotith of that river took refuge with 
the Ba - Twana of Lake Ngami, but only to meet a 
like fate ; nearly all the men were massacred, and the 
women and children distributed amongst the surround- 
ing tribes. The Barotse empire was thus reconstituted 
and even advanced in several directions beyond its 
former limits, absorbing the Mabunda and others on the 
terraces north of the Zambesi, and reducing either to 
servitude or vassalage the Masupias about the Chobe 
and Zambesi confluence, the Ba - Tonga occupying the 
north bank of the Zambesi above the Victoria Falls, and 
quite recently (1891) the numerous Bashukulumbwe 
(Ukulombwe) tribes of the Kafukwe basin, as well as 
some of the Manica ' people, whose little known territoiy 
appears to extend east to the Cht^we affluent of the 
Zambesi, and north to the Iramba country towards 
Katanga. At the time of Dr. Holub's visit (1875) 
the restored Barotse kingdom comprised eighteen large 
nations with over a hundred subdivisions, and stretched 
from the Zambesi-Chobe confluence for fifteen or twen^ 
days in the direction of the north. At present King 
Lumanika, who accepted the British protectorate in 
1890, rules directly or indirectly over the whole of 
the. Middle Zambesi basin south and west to the Chobe, 
east to and beyond the Kafukwe, north to the head-waters 

■ Not to be confounded with the bJatoricU Hanica people of the 
■uriferoiu region east of Mashonalond. 

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of the Eabompo, a vast region embracing sn area of 
at leaet 250,000 square mileB, with a population vaguely 
estimated at from 600,000 to 1,000,000. 

Short as was the political Bway of the Makololo, it 
lasted long enough to impose their Seauto language on 
the Barotee nation and several of the surroundiug tribes. 
Hence the curious phenomenon that, while the Makololo 
people have disappeared from this part of Central Africa, 
their speech continues to be the chief medium of com- 
munication amongst the riverain populations and gener- 
ally throughout the Barotse kingdom. Sesuto being 
itself merely a variety of Sechuana, it follows that this 
Bantu idiom is now almost exclusively current from the 
banks of the Orange to the confines of Katanga, where 
it comes in contact with Umbundu and Ei-Swahili (see 
p. 148). 

Nor have the Makololo ceased to exist, even as a 
political factor, as is asserted by some writers.' In the 
year 1859, that is, some time before the Barotse 
" Bevolution," Sekeletu sent a small party of Makololo, 
Barotse, Batoka,^ and other subject tribes, with Living- 
atone to the east coast in quest of a cure for leprosy, 
from which the king was suffering. This httle band, 
which took the collective name of Makololo, never 
returned to Barotselaud, but settled on the right bank 
of the Shir^ below the feUs, Here they gradually 
reduced most of the surrounding tribes and founded 
several petty " Makololo " states which still exist, and at 

' Bereiring to the succeasftU Batotee rinng, Mr. Hackenzie writoa : 
"Thus perished the Makololo from amoDg the number of Sonth African 
tribes. No one can pat his finger on the map of AfVica uid tAj, ' Hera 
dwell the Makololo. ' "— Ten Tear* North of the Orange River. 

' Properly Bit-Tonga, of which Batoka is a corrupt Makololo form. 
The Ba-Tongu ara closely related in speech and usages to the ueigbbour- 
iDg Ba-Sbukulumbwe people (Seloos). 

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present comprise the whole of the lower Shir^ valley 
between the falls and the Euo confluence. But they are 
Makololo states in name only, for of the ordinal founders 
not more than two were of Makololo stock, and the 
prevailing language is not Sesuto, as in Barotseland, 
but the Chi-Nyanja of the Anyanja (Manganja), the 
dominant aboriginal race between Lake Nyassa and the 

Long before the arrival of the Makololo, the Kyassa 
uplands had been invaded by other intruders from the 
south, who were chiefly of Zulu race, or at least passed 
for Zulus, and had been trained to the use of arms under 
Chaka or some of his military chiefs. North of the 
Zambesi these Landins, as they are called by the Portu- 
guese, bore many names, such as Ma-Viti, Ma-Zitu, 
Ma-Ngone (A-Ngone), TJ-Mgoni, Munhae, and eo on; 
but although they arrived as invincible conquerors, 
exterminating whole tribes and laying waste many 
lands, especially between the Bovmna and £ufigi rivers 
east of Nyassa, they nowhere succeeded in foimding a 
powerful state such as those of Umsilikatzi in Mata- 
bililand and Manikus in Grazaland Possessing no 
political cohesion, and arriving in separate bands at 
different times, each successive horde re^iarded its pre- 
decessor in the light of an enemy, and while occasionally 
combining to plunder the native tribes they more 
frequently turned their arms against each other. At 
present none of the Zulu fighting bands possess anj 
dominant power in Nyassaland. The Ma - Viti of the 
upper Shir^ districts have even made treaties with the 
EngUsh political agents, binding themselves to give up 
slave-hunting, to resist the Arab slave-dealers, to respect 
the missionary stations, and generally to abandon their 
lawless predatory habits and settle down to peaceful 

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ways. Thus the beneficent results of the spread of 
British influences are already being felt throughout 
North as well as South Zambesia.' 

FhTslcal Features of Sonth Zambeaia— Hlneral Wealth 

The region between the Limpopo and Zambesi may 
be regarded as a northern extension of the Transvaal 
plateau, standing at a mean elevation of &om 3000 to 
4000 feet, and obliquely intersected by the Matoppo 
hills, which culminate north-eastwards in the Mashona 
highlands, and which, throughout their entire length of 
about 400 miles, from Tati to Mount Hampden, form a 
distinct water-parting between the streams flowing north- 
west and north to the Zambesi, south - east to the 
Limpopo, Sabi and other affluents of the Indian Ocean. 
The plateau falls abruptly northwards to the Zambesi 
and eastwards to Gazaland, so that the outer escarp- 
ments seen from these low-lying alluvial plains present 
the aspect of unbroken mountain ranges from 4000 to 
about 5000 feet high. Elsewhere the incline is much 
more gentle, and the main routes pass from Shoshong 
and Palapye through the Tati hills north - eastwards, or 
from Fort Tuli northwards, by a gradual but continuous 
ascent to Mount Hampden (5000 feet), apparently the 
^ To these results the Zalu half'breeda have tbemselvee contributed. 
When Captain H. J. Eeine waa engaged in composiDg the freah distarb- 
anoea that had broken oat in 1892 in the Zambeai-Njasaa tegion, he 
found the Angoui well disposed towards the English, and received willing 
aid from them ia his efforts to restore order. This unexpected change in 
their attitude w&s dae to the fact that, since the overthrow of the Zula 
empire, they have renewed relations with their kindred bejond the 
Limpopo, and Captain Eeane iscertained that "word had been sent 
norlhwarda from the Cape Znlus that their induaby in the diamond and 
gold fields might be injuriouslj afiected if the northern Zolua in our 
coantrj were unfriendly to ua." 

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highest point in South Zambesio. The former runs from 
Tati (2630 feet) through Buluwayo (3500) and 
Umbajifl (3600) to Hartley HiU (3800), while the 
latter, opened by the Chartered Company's expeditionary 
force in 1890, ascends from Fort Tuli (3000 ?) through 
Forts Victoria (3670) and Charter (4750) to Salisbury 
(4960) on Mount Hampden, 

A striking feature of the tableland are the numerous 
granite koppjes, bills or knolls which are widely distri- 
buted, especially over the southern districts beyond Tati 
and about the Luude and Sabi river valleys. These 
koppjes appear to represent the harder core of rocks, the 
softer parts of which have been extensively eroded or 
weathered during the long ages that the plateau stood 
out as dry land between the waters of the Indian Ocean 
on the east and of the great inland Zambesian sea on the 
west and north. The whole r^on has been compared 
to a " Btorm-tossed sea of granite," where huge boulders 
of fantastic shape are balanced upon granite hills often 
of considerable size, in the wildest confusion, as if result- 
ing from some suddenly arrested convulsion of nature. 
" These koppjes are formed of immense blocks of granite 
piled up in every conceivable form, some looking like the 
ruins of old castles perched on crags unassailable by 
aught but time, others taking the fantastic shape of 
animals, or standing up like obelisk monuments fashioned 
by nature out of one piece of granite of gigantic size, 
often poised on the point of a steep koppje where none 
but the Great Architect of the Universe could place it 
The country is one bristling mass of such koppjes from 
the Samokwe to the Shashani river (75 miles from 
Tati). Thence they stretch away to the Matoppo 
Mountains, and culminate near Old Buluwayo in Tab 
Ingoko Mountain, 5000 feet above the sea" (R A. Maundl 

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Quartz reefs crop oat in the valleys between the 
granite hills, and much gold is said to be washed down 
by the numerona streams flowing from these bills to the 
Shashani, which traverses an extensive koppje district 
on its course to the Limpopo. The richest gold-bearing 
reefs, however, seem to lie mainly in the Tati hills and 
Mashona mountains, that is, at the south-western and 
north-eastern extremities of the Zambesi-Iimpopo water- 
parting, and along the eastern escarpment of the plateau 
towards the Gazaland frontier. But the extensive ruins 
at Zimbabye, in the Benningwa Hills and many other 
places, all evidently associated with old mining operations, 
show that the auriferous deposits are probably widely 
distributed throughout the whole of the plateau. In 
1891 lai^ deposits of alluvial gold were discovered so 
far north as the district of Mount Shankuru, about 70 > 
miles north-west of Mount Hampden, and every indica- 
tion tends to show that either native or alluvial gold 
occurs almost everywhere in the r^on stretching from 
Swaziland and the Natal frontier north to the Zambesi. 

Formerly the Portuguese exported from the Manica 
district alone about 130 lbs. weight per annum, and the 
quantity forwarded from their possessions in a few years 
was estimated at 2,000,000 metigals, or over £1,000,000 
sterling. But the Manica mines were closed by the 
Zulus early in the present century, and the occurrence 
of gold in South Zambesia seemed to be almost forgotten 
till its rediscovery in 1865-68 by Henry Hartley, 
Thomas Baines, Carl Mauch, and C. J. Nelson. The 
glowing descriptions of these pioneers, who were either 
practical miners or skilled geologists, have been lai^ly 
confirmed by more recent research, which so far bears 
out Mr. F. Mandy's assertion that the northern slopes of 
Mashonaland " will eventually prove to be the alluvial 

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goldfields of the world. The neighbourhood of the 
Amazoe and its tributary etreams is a veritable £1 
Dorado. I have seen ignorant natives, with the rudest 
appliances, and practically no knowledge of gold working, 
wash large quantities from the surface soil Over an 
area of several hundred square miles gold is to be found 
in every streaio. Here is what will prove the largest 
and richest goldfield that the world has ever seen ; 
extending from the great granite backbone in the soath 
to within 60 miles of the Zambesi in the north, and 
from the Sabia (Sabi) in the east to the Itfata river 
(flowing to the Makaraki Salt-Fan) in the west, this 
huge auriferous area ever improves and grows richer to 
the north, north-east, and east. The immense waves of 
promising quartz which seam the country, cutting through 
. the soft soapy slate in a north-easterly direction, the 
numberless old workings to be found everywhere, and 
the inahQity of some of the reefs to hide their gold from 
the prying though cautious gaze of the observant white 
man, all tends to prove the wonderful mineral wealth 
here locked up. Right through the royal town of 
Buluwayo runs an immense reef carrying visible gold. 
Close alongside Umvuchwa, country residence of Loben- 
gula, streams another great reef, also unable to hide the 
gold imprisoned within ite bosom. Two miles north-east 
of the old capital is still another grand quartz reef with 
\Tsible gold, and all these reefs have been traced for 
some miles. In every direction you may chance to ride 
the same indications greet your gaze — soft slate on edge 
with intersected veins of quartz." ^ 

At Sinoia's kraal, near the source of the Angwa, 
about 60 miles north-west of Fort Salisbury, Mr. Selous 
lately discovered a most remarkable old working, which 
I Haialrililand, 1889. 

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he describes as a vast circulai- pit, over 100 feet deep 
and at least 60 in diameter, bow flooded by a lake 
which extends some 180 feet into a spacious ' cavem 
under the rock. The water is of a lovely deep cobalt 
blue, and so clear tbat pebbles are visible at the bottom. 
A slanting shaft, running at an angle of about 45° from 
a point 300 feet from the top of the pit, strikes the 
bottom jost at the edge of the water. All the excava- 
tions appear to be tbe result of old workings, which, 
after exhausting a veiu of quartz along the shaft, tapped 
a spring of water, which, welling up, formed the under- 
ground lake and flooded the works. The rocky walls of 
the tunnel are covered with innumerable scores, apparently 
made by some kind of iron instrument, and the remains 
lepresent a prodigious amount of human labour. There 
are no native traditions regardii^ these works, or about 
the extensive lemon and citron groves in the same district, 
which being here exotic plants, were no doubt introduced 
by the old miners from Persia or the Mediterranean.' 

Besides gold, other metals, especially copper and iron, 
are widely distributed throughout South Zambesia- The 
laige perennial pool near the confluence of the Tati and 
Shashi rivers is the centre of an old mining district, 
where iron and copper, as well as gold, were worked by 
the Mashonas before they were conquered or driven 
north by Umsilikatzi's impis. Hartley Hill also consists 
largely of rich iron deposits ; ^ and still farther north, in 

1 The introdQotioD of the orange and lemon ia generally attribated to 
ths Portogaese miisionsriea. BnC long before tbeir time these plants 
vera widely diffased throughout the eastem leahoard. Barbosa (1614) 
alivady spealis in sereral places of "oranges, lemons, and cedrats " as 
abounding in Mombasa, the island of St Lawrence (Madagascar), and 
Zanzibar {op. cU. pauim). 

1 Its native name is Thaba Intihl, the " Iron Monataiu " ; and ben 
" rlrgin iron is dag out that without smelting is hammered into assegai 
beads »ni] hoes " (F. Mand;). 

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the Maabona highlands, the natives mine and smelt iron 
ores, working the metal into spear-heads, knives, hoes, 
and many other articles, well wrought despite their 
priiuitiye processes. The iron is white, very tough, and 
malleable. In 1894 a survey of the Lebangwe affiaent 
of the Zambesi revealed the presence of large copper 
deposits, and of extensive coal beds, and even gave 
indications of diamond- hearing ground. The seams of 
coal vary in thickness from nine inches to four feet, and 
appear to be of great extent. 

MatabilUand Scenery — Climate — Fauna 

Altt^tber the South Zambesiau uplands are one of 
the most highly-favoured regions in the whole of Africa 
" The scenery of the country is of the grandest type, but 
mingled with it are the loveliest and most feiryjike 
scenes that can be conceived. At first the hills are 
scattered ; but the landscape becomes more broken as 
you proceed to the north. At last, after passing the 
Mangwi river, we enter a very world of mountains, 
where colossal granite boulders are pitched in every 
direction, where every valley is a rippling stream of 
pale-blue water, from whose bed the ground gently rises, 
covered with most luxuriant grass, to where those 
wonderful granite structures rear their time - worn 
sides. Then grand trees rise up, and from out the 
spaces between these Titanic rocks hang forth their 
graceful and brilliant foliage, toning down their other- 
wise desolate grandeur to an aspect of almost enchanting 
loveliness. . . . Hundreds of streams are bom here; 
fountains are everywhere; and the curious pale-blue 
water, peculiar to granite formations, can be seen gliding 
along the bottom of every valley. Crossing the Sheshani, 

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and climbiiig a steep aod very difficult ascent, we emerge 
on the summit of the great divide between the Zambesi 
and Limpopo watersheds. From here the view to the 
east, west, and south is indescribably beautiful At 
sunrise, with the delicate purplish haze of the early 
morning mists roantling the distant peaks, the wondrous 
combination of peaceful glades rich with yellow waving 
grasses, the more sombre hues of the scattered clumps 
of forest trees, and the grandeur of the granite hills, 
their sides and tops shining and polished by the hand of 
ages ; this mingling of the beautiful with the sublime, 
softened by distance, and the iridescent tints of the 
mist-chai^ed air, forms a scene of glorious beauty, and 
Fairyland seems spread before one" ^ 

The same writer, who has an extensive personal 
knowledge of this r^ou, assures us that no South 
African country offers such splendid advantages to the 
British fanner as Matabili and Mashona Luids, being 
well suited for irrigation and small holdings, and capable 
of supportii^ a vast population. All European cereals, 
as well as most European and tropical fruits and vege- 
tables, thrive well ; while the climate is for the most part 
quite as healthy as that of Transvaal, and European 
children bom in the coimtry grow up strong and healthy. 
The climate of Mashonaland has been declared by Mr. 
Selous, than whom no better authority could be quoted, 
to be " as good a one as any man has a right to expect 
in this troublesome world." The despatch of the late 
expeditionary force has placed beyond doubt the exist- 
ence of a lofty plateau from 4000 to 6000 feet high, 
abundantly watered, and, as a rule, well timbered, with a 
climate well adapted for Europeans, with a constant fresh 
breeze settling from the south-east, and tempering 

' F. Mandy, ap. cil. 

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the tropical raye to a degree of actual coolness. A rain- 
fall of over 40 incheB has been registered at Buluwayo; 
and although the glass rises at times to 105° and even 
111° F. in the shade, this intense heat, thanks to the 
dryness of the atmosphere, is less oppressive than 85° on 
the seaboard, where the air is saturated with moisture 
The temperature is not quite so cold as that of South 
Transvaal in winter, and somewhat higher in summer, 
during which, being the wet season, the extreme heats 
are tempered by frequent thunderstorms. Diarrhoea and 
dysentery, caused probably by the water, are the most 
prevalent disorders amongst strar^rs, ague being mainly 
confined to the low-lying swampy and riverain t»»3ts. 
In the extensive high veldt of Matabililand proper, 
" fever is unknown, and white children could be reared, 
which is a sine gud non in a country if it is to be 
colonised by white men " (Lieut. Maund, Blue Book, 
August 1885, p. 117). Elsewhere this well-informed 
writer remarks that Matabililand " is probably the most 
healthy part of South Africa, and its agricultural capa- 
bilities are surpassed by none. The soil is very rich, 
and there is plenty of water in running streams that 
abound." He also declares that the climate of the 
Mashona highlands "is far more healthy than that of 
the now well-colonised seaboard of South Africa. The 
seasons are well marked, and the rainfall good. For 
eight months, from April to November, the air is par- 
ticularly dry and salubrious ; during and just after the 
rains one must be careful, as in all tropical climates. 
But with proper precautions, dwellings placed high and 
above exhalations from the marshes left by the subsiding 
rivers, the new mining and farming communities will be 
as healthy as are the missionaries who have lived so 
long there with their families" (Oeo. Proc. De& 1890), 

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The fat- tailed Cape sheep do well everywhere, but 
the open uplandB are uot suited for milch cows in winter, 
and although good pasturage abounds, lung sickness and 
other distempers are prevalent amongst the cattle and 
horses. The tsetse pest appears to be mainly coniined to 

the Limpopo and Zambesi valleys, and even here it tends 
to disappear with the disappearance of large game. Tn 
former times I)e Barros tells us that elephants were very 
numerous, yielding large quantities of ivory, which, 
together with gold, was exported through Sofala to the 
Indian market in exchange for silk and cotton stuffs 
from Cambay. Elephants still exist, though in reduced 

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numbers, as well as other large South African £aiina, 
such as the lion, leopard, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, 

buffalo, baboons, koodoo, water-buck, bush-buck, stein- 
buck, giraffe, pheasants, guinea-fowl. In fact, game 
is still so abundant that the expeditionary force of 

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1890 waa able to supply itself "all along the road" 
(EUerton Pry). 

InhaMtantB of South ZambeoU 

Vlieii Umsilikatzi was driven across the Limpopo 
(see p. 286), the upland region between that river and 
the Zambesi waa mainly occupied by three Bantu 
cations, forming a more or less homogeneous group 
different both from the Bechnanas and Zulu-Kafirs, and 
on the whole at a aomewhat lower stage of culture than 
either of those half-civilised peoples. These were the 
Mdkalakas (Ma-Eolonga^), chiefly in the south, that is, 
about the streams flowing from the Matoppo divide, 
south-east to the Limpopo -, the Banyai (Ba-Nyai), chiefly 
in tiie north-west, that is, about the streams flowing 
from the same divide north-west to the Middle Zambesi ; 
and the Mashonas (Ama-Swina), chiefly in the north, that 
is, on the highlands to which they give their name. A 
clear understanding of this geographical distribution of 
the primitive populations will enable the historical 
student at once to recognise the sagacity of the Matabili 
chief, who, by establishing his central military kraal at 
Buluwayo on the Matoppo divide, was able to overawe 
both the Makalakas and Banyai occupying its two 
watersheds, and at the same time to show a bold front 
towards the Mashonas, better protected than the others 
in the natural strongholds of their northern highlands. 
The result is that, although all three still exist, the 
Mashonas alone retain a semblance of national coherence ; 
while the Makalakas and Banyai have been eOaced as 
distinct nationalities from the map of South Zambesia. 

Certainly the Mashonas have suffered terribly from 

> Uft-E&Unf{a, i.t. " The Children of tha Sud." 

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the periodical attacks of the disciplined Zulu hordes, 
those dwelling on the southern slopes having been ^ttier 
exterminated or reduced to a hard servitude, the rest 
maintaining their independence only by leading the life 
of troglodytes in their mountain fastnesses. But nothing 
could save the Makalakas and Banyai, who have been 
everywhere enslaved except in the extreme west and 
north-west, where a few Makalakas have settled in 
Shoshong and along the Guai valley in Bamangwato 
territory, where some Banyai groups have found a 
refuge in the Mafungobuzi hills and on the right bank 
of the Zambesi Some of the Makalakas have even 
moved across the Zambesi, and are now settled on the 
left bank between the Victoria Falls and the Guai con- 
fluence. On the other hand the Mashona territory has 
been encroached upon by some Barotses (Bechnanas), 
who have established themselves in the district south- 
west of Mount Wedza, about the head -waters of the 
Sabi ; but they have foigotten their Se-Chuana language, 
and now speak the dialect of the surrounding Mashonas. 
The son of their chief, Sipiro, lately subject to King 
Gungunyana of Gazaland, but now under the British 
protectorate, informed Bishop Enight Bruce that they 
were kinsmen of the Zambesi Barotses, the Matabili 
having driven one section northwards, the other aoutb- 

Both the Banyai and Makalakas " are closely allied 
by language and customs to the Mashonas " (Mackenzie), 
who may be r^arded as the primitive Btock of this 
Zambesian group. Although physically inferior, they 
are in other respects greatly superior to the Matabili, 
being naturally of peaceful disposition, agriculturists 
rather than herdsmen, growing large quantities of rice, 
^ Froc Boy. Quo. S<ic Juno ISBO. 

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Indian corn, and tobacco, and sbowii^ great skill in 
several arts, such as cotton weaving, dyeing (with native 
indigo), and especially iron and copper work. But 
morally they stand at a somewhat low level, heing 
descrihed as cowardly, suspiciouE, and selfish, and there 
can be no doubt that the race has been degraded by 
the wars, massacres, and oppression of the Matabili 
conquerors. The Matabih themselves have suffered by 
contact wiUi these peoples, and not more than a fourth 
of the Abezansi, or First Class, can now pretend to be of 
pure Zulu blood. In their marauding expeditions their 
constant practice was to kill all adults and carry off the 
chUdren, who were brought up ia the military kraals, 
where they soon forgot their mother tongue, and prided 
themselves on being "Matabili." Thus in this region, 
as in BO many other parts of Central Africa, the Zulu 
name rather than the race has been perpetuated by alii- 
ancea and inteiminglings of all sorts'with the aborigines. 
Besides the recognised trilKil groups, scattered over 
Matabililand are certain low - caste tribes collectively 
known as Ama-Zizi. They appear to be survivors of the 
primitive Hottentot-Bushman race, whose domain for- 
merly extended north to the Zambesi. At present these 
Ama-Zizi lead a sort of wandering gipsy life, conjurers, 
and medicine-men, held in much awe for their supposed 
supernatural powers. The European gipsies are simi- 
hurly credited by the ignorant classes with second sight 
and other " uncanny gifts." 

Hcdrth Zaabesia 

In no part of the continent have more surprising 
scientific, political, and social transformations taken place 
in recent years than in the r^on between the Zambesi 
VOL. u 2 n 

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and lake Tanganyika. Within less than a single decade 
the rough work of exploration accomplished by Living- 
stone has been completed in all essential details through- 
out the whole of the lacustrine and highland district of 
Nyassaland, from the Shir^ river and Lake Shirwa 
northwards to Lakes Bukwa and Tanganyika. These 
magnificent uplands, with their vast flooded hasins, which 
had remained unknown to the Portuguese settled for 
nearly four hundred years at their very portals, have 
become the scene of British missionary and commercial 
enterprise. Portuguese slave - dealing has been sup- 
pressed in the south ; Arab slave - raiding has been 
successfully resisted, and, it may be hoped, permanently 
arrested, by a handful of brave Englishmen in the north. 
Steamers, serving the highest interests of humanity, have 
been launched on both of the great lakes, which are now 
connected by a highway familiarly known as "Steven- 
son's Eoad." Temporary or permanent missionary and 
trading stations have been founded at Blantyre and 
Mandala in the Shir^ highlands,^ at Livingstonia, Baud- 

' Hermanii von WUaman, who pasied through NyuMland in 18S7, 
describes the Scottish missionary station at Blantyre, and the Africau 
Lakes Company's station at MaDdalii, na the best and Gseet Etuopean 
sottiamenta he had »een in any part of inner Africa {Meint Zvieite Dunh- 
quervng Aeqaatoriat-Afrika' s, etc. ; Frankfort am Oder, 13B1). Still 
more recently (18BS) the French traToIlor, Captain Trivier, waa struck by 
the rapid spread of hnmaoising British influences throughout the Nyaasi- 
Tanganyika plateau. " When I met Captain Trivier at Earonga ha had 
prepared me for the marked way in which the people of Uambwe and 
Uliillgu hsd been ' Britannicised,' more by the presence among them of 
the London Mbaionary Society's agents than by the Lakee Company. 
What struck Captain Trivier most forcibly waa that, wherever he went 
through those lands, the natives invariably greeted him irith 'Good 
morning.' a salutation originally learnt from the misaioouies (it dates 
back to Livingstone's days), but which has now come into comiDon use 
among many of the people who have not yet seen a white man." — Consul 
H. H. JohnaCon in Proc Boy. Oea. Sot. December 1890, p. 73G. 

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404 cohpendihh of GBoaBApmr and tratel 

awe, Sikoma, and Karonga, od the southem and western 
shores of NyasBa and elsewhere. Strong mititary posts, 
garrisoned by Sikhs from India, have aUo been established 
at several points, such as Fort Fife on the plateau between 
Nyassa and Tanganyika, Fort Abercom at the southern 
extremity of Tanganyika, Fort Eosebery on the Luapnla 
midway between Lakes Bangweolo and Moero,Fort Maguire 
on the south-east side of Lake Nyassa, Fort Sharpe on 
the Shir^ below Lake Pamalombe, and Fort Johnston, 
also on the Shir^ five miles from the south end of Lake 
Nyassa. Successful political and exploring expeditions 
have penetrated from the Nyassa basin westwards and 
north-westwards beyond the Zambesi-Congo water-parting. 
A journey of great scientific interest has been made along 
the frontier of the Nyaasaland Protectorate by Mr. Consul 
J. Buchanan.' Lastly, the A-Nyanja, or " Lake People," 
hitherto plunged in the deepest ignorance and superstition, 
have already made some prioress both in letters and 
European mechanical arts. Even the fierce Yao slave- 
hunters have been partly reclaimed, and Commissioner 
Johnston tells us that the entire work of setting up and 
printing the British Central Africa Gazette is done by 
members of this predatory tribe.' According to the 
report for 1891 of the Livingstonia Mission on Lake 
Nyassa, supported by the Free Church of Scotland, as 
many as 4000 children are at present receiving systematic 
instruction in the local schools ; excellent bricks are made 
by the natives iu large quantities at a surprisingly cheap 
rate ; they are thus acquiring a taste for neat and com- 
fortable dwellings, one of the primary conditions of social 
progress, while the influence of their teachers is becoming 
yearly more widespread, discouraging the barbarous 

1 Sm Beport in the £«d SuUtlm for July 1891. 
■ B«pon for 18B1-9S, p. 24. 

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practice of witchcraft, substituting free labour iu the 
fields and houses for domestic slavery, and showing by 
precept and example the advantage of peaceful ways 
over chronic intertribal warfare. Since the suppression 
of the Arab and Yao slave-hunters legitimate trade has 
begun to flourish, the exports having risen from nearly 
£7000 in 1891 to over £85,000 in 1894, and the 
imports from £33,000 to £76,000 in the same period. 
Of the exports the most important at present are ivory, 
oil-seeds, and especially coffee, which appears to grow 
wild throughout the Congo and East African forest. 
Coffee-planting promises to become the staple industry of 
British Central Africa, The export of this article has 
increased in geometrical proportion since 1892, and that 
of 1895 "can now be definitely expected to fully double 
that of 1894."* 

FhTBleal Featnree 

The Meshona uplands are continued north of the 
Zambesi by the Shir^ and Nyassa highlands, the whole 
system forming part of the outer continental escarpments, 
which are here pierced both by the Zmibesi at the 
Kebrabase Falls above Tete, and by the Shir^ at the 
Murchison, Pampaze, and other rapids above the Elephant 
Marsh. On the probable assumption that a great part 
of Central Zambesia at one time formed a vast lacustrine 
basin, it was through these flood-gates that much of the 
great inland sea was gradually discharged eastwards to 
the Indian Ocean. 

Although Kyassa, southemmoBt member of the East 
African lacustrine group, lies at an altitude of scarcely more 
than 1570 feet above sea-level, the Nyassa-Shu-^ uplands 

' Coiunl-QeneTal Sharp«'s Report fiw 1894. 

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attain far greater elevations than those of MasboDalaQfL 
The lake itself is encircled by mountains, which even on 
the west or lower side rise to 5500 feet in the sandstone 
Chombe (Waller) peak near Florence Bay, and which in 
the Kirk range farther south have an elevation of over 
6000 feet. West of these escarpments the V ipsha (Zipeba) 
plateau presents the appearance of an open grassy plain, 
extending westwards to the territory of Muasi (successor 
of Livingstone's Muasi), at a mean elevation of from 
4000 to 5000 feet (Sfaarpe). Far loftier is the imposing 
Livingstone range which sweeps round the north-eastern 
shores of Nyassa, rising sheer above the water's edge to 
a height of from 9000 to 10,000 feet South of this 
range Mount Mtonia, at the source of the Rovuma river, 
is probably over 5000 feet, while the whole system 
culminates in the Shir^ highlands with the m^piificent 
Milanji Massive, which stands 9000 feet on a pedestal 
already 2000 feet above the sea. Milanji extends 20 
miles eastwards to a narrow pass separating it from 
Mount Cheza, whose wooded crests tower above the south 
side of Lake Shirwa,' 

From Karonga on the north-west coast of Nyassa the 
Stevenson Boad leads across the level N'Konde plain (60 
feet above the lake) and over some very rough hilly 
ground up to the plateau between Nyassa and Tanganyika, 
which for a breadth of about 170 miles maintains an 
altitude of from 4000 to 5000 feet. This plateau, which 
is skirted north and west by the Chingambo Mountains 

' HiUnji vaa asc«niled for the Brat tims in October 1891 bj Ur. 
Aleisnder Whyte, irho foand it mora anitsble for a Muiatoriam thtn 
many of the hill-statioDs in IndiB and Ceylon. Both tbe flora, vith iti 
gigantio conifere (Widdriogtouia) and goigeoni wild flowers, and the 
fauna with its immease variet}' of fiuchee, honey-birda, warblers, flj- 
oatf hers Rnd other btrde, preaenled many featnreB of gnat interest to the 
naturalist (PariiamenlaTy Papen, Aftiea, No, 6, 1892). 

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(6000 to 7000 feet), forms one of the great continental 
water-parting3. Within one and a half day's march Dr. 
Kerr Croea has atood on the banks of streams such as 
the SoDgwe and Loangwa, flowing, the former through 
Lake Njassa, the latter through the Zambesi to the Indian 
Ocean ; the Saisi running to the closed basin of the salt 
Lake Rukwa, and several headstreams of the Chambezi, 
iarthest south-eastern affluent of the Congo.^ 

This upland r^on is generally well watered, and 
covered with rich herbage interspersed with clumps of 
fine timber presenting the park-like aspect so character- 
istic of the African tablelands. The whole country is 
evidently one of the most highly favoured in climate, 
fertility of soil, abundance of water, and natural products 
in- the whole continent, its proximity to the equator 
being more than counterbalanced by its mean elevation 
of over 4000 feet, and by the invigorating south-eastern 
breezes from the austral seas. " The land at the north 
end of the lake (Nyassa) is a veritable African Arcadia. 
You may walk for miles and miles through banana 
plantations; then you may emerge upon wide-stretching 
fields of maize and millet and cassava. All the oozy 
water-meadows are planted with rice ; but above all, the 
great wealth of the country is in cattle, which thrive 
remarkably in the N'Konde distiict, and consequently 
milk and beef are cheap and abundant The inhabitants 
of this happy land are a contented, pleasant-dispositioned 
folk, who knew no trouble until the Arabs sought to 
subdue them a few years ago. . . . The ordinary route 
to Tanganyika leads you up through the most beautiful 
gorge of Fwambo to and through the mountain ranges 
which look down on the south end of Tanganyika. The 
goi^ of Fwambo is an exquisite bit of scenerj'. A 
' Free. Boy. Oto. Soe. February ISfll, p. 92. 

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beautiful stream dashes dowti in many cataracts and 
rapids through a deep but not very narrow gorge between 
precipitous mountain sides, and this gorge is filled with 
magnificent forest of a truly West Aliican character — 
an ideal tropical forest with ita inunense umbrageous 
trees, its graceful oil-palms, its parasitic orchids and 
trailiDj^, swinging creepers." * 

(^ Here the precious metals of South Zambesia are 
mainly replaced by the useful minerals, iron on the Nyassa- 
Tangauyika plateau and in Muasi's west of Nyassa, copper 
farther west in Katanga and perhaps in Iramba. " Iron- 
stone is found extensively, and in places old workings are 
observed. On the hillside I counted five smelting kilns 
standing in the bush not many hundred yards from one 
another. Each will contain half a ton of iron ore. They 
use charcoal when smelting, and are well acquainted with 
the principles of the working of iron. Spears, hoes, axes, 
knives are manufactured extensively. The ore found is 
the brown hematite, which is very hard and compact, and 
is often found in beds 10 feet thick. The banks and 
bed of the Songwe river in some places are formed of 
this ore." * 

But gold also undoubtedly exists in the elevated 
region, which stretches from Kyassa westwards to the 
Loangwa river,' and which was traversed for the first 
time by Mr. Alfred Sharpe in 1690. At Missala in 
Mpeseni's territory this explorer was shown specimens of 
alluvial gold, which betrays the presence of auriferous 
reef^ in the hills skirting the Loangwa valley. After 
losing all his canoes during the descent of this rapid 

I Conaal Johtuiton, loc. cU. * Dr. Gross, loe. cit. 

' That U. the Urge Affluent ot the Zimberi, not to be coofiised with the 
much muiUer Loaugws which flowa through Muasi's oountiy east td 
Nf uw betweea Bondawe and Kota-Kota (Ngota-Ngota). 

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stream, which in some places flows at the rate of 8 or 9 
miles an hour, Mr. Sharps passed south-westwarda over- 
land to the Zambesi 30 miles above Zumbo. Here he 
came upon painful evidence of the disastrous results of 
Portuguese rule far heyond Zumho, their farthest station 
in the interior. Between the Loangwa and Kafue con- 
fluences the country is now an uninhabited wilderness, 
all the people " having been killed off or driven away hy 
the Zumbo half-castes. I ascended the river (Zambesi) 
for a day's journey, but could get no food, as the country 
is desolate and uninhabited." In the district east of the 
Loangwa and north of Zumbo " population is very scanty, 
though the frequent remains of ruined villages showed 
that very recently this must have been a well-populated 
country. About the ruined tillages and on the road we 
constantly saw human skulls and bones, all that the 
Zumbo half-castes have left of the original Asenga (A- 
Sei^) inhabitants." ^ 

From the Kyassa- Tanganyika plateau the Congo- 
Zambesi water-parting runs north-west of the route 
followed hy Mr. Sharpe, trending south-westwards along 
the Loldnga range, which skirts the southern shores of 
Lake Bangweolo parallel to and north of the Mchinga ^ 
mountains west of the Loangwa valley. Here also the 
divide between the two great hydrographic systems is so 
contracted that Capello and Ivens, who passed through 
in 1885, in a short march of three hours drank the 

I Proe. Hoy. Quo. Soe. December 1890. p. 748. 

' The term Mchinga, Muchiuga, MoshingB, is of frequent occurrence in 
this put or £^t Uentnl Africa. In the local Bantu dialecte it Biinpljr 
meant any loft<r ridge, and is merely another form of Livingstone'i 
Lokinga ; henoe the alternative name Muahinga often applied to thia 
range. In the Bantu liagiiistic group it iotercliattgea with ch and tk, *» 
in other gronpe; compare kirk and cAurcA. Hecce kinga-chinga, the 
Gnt qrlUbles being the prefixed clasa element lo, ma, mu, etc. 

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waters of the Lufira flowing to the Congo, and of the 
Loeogue (Kafue) running through Mashukulmnbwelaud 
to the Zambesi.^ 

West of Iramba the two great fluvial basins are 
scarcely anywhere separated by any distinct dividing 
line. Here the central plateau of Austral Africa presents 
the aspect of a boundless level plain from 4000 to 5000 
feet above the sea, so little inclined either way that in 
many places the headstreams of the Congo and Zambesi 
either intermingle their waters, as in the marshy depres- 
sion of Lake Dilolo, or else overlap each other, as about 
the sources of the Lualaba and Kabompo, which 
belong respectively to the Congo and Zambesi systems. 
In former geological times, when both basins were flooded 
by vast inland seas, the intervening dry land must have 
presented the aspect of a broad level or slightly undu- 
lating isthmus intersected by 10° to 12° south latitude, 
and stretching without interruption from the LoMnga 
and Garenganze uplands westwards to the Angolan high- 
lands. The irregular southern escarpments of this 
elevated isthmus are still closely followed by the irr^ular 
windings of the Zambesi from below its sources in the 
Dilolo depression to its confluence above Zumbo with the 
Kafue, its great northern affluent from the LoMnga 

Bivers of Zambesla — The Zambesi 

Apart from the Pungwe, Bosi, Sabi, Manitze, Tuli, 
Shashi and a few other streams flowing either directly or 
through the Limpopo to the Indian Ocean, all the running 
waters of British Zambesia find their way to the same 
marine basin through the Zambesi, which for length, 
volume, and extent of its drainE^e area takes the fourth 

' Cspello and Ivena, De Angola A Contra-OiuUh ii. p. ICB. 

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place amongst African rivers. But although exceeded in 
these respects by the Nile, Congo, and Niger alone, this 
great artery of South Central Africa can only in a limited 
sense be regarded a^ a navigable highway. Till recently 
it was approached from the sea by the £wa-Kwa, that 
is, the Quilimane or noi-themmost branch of its delta, 
which is at present severed from the main stream by a 
sandy tract several miles wide. But in 1889 Consul 
Johnston successfully crossed the bar at the Chinde 
mouth, and ascended in the steamer Stork, drawing 13 
feet, through that branch up to the point, 40 miles from 
the sea, where the tidal influence ceases. The voyage 
thence to and up the Lower Shir^ to Mount Morambala 
was continued in a flotilla of small boats, and from this 
point to the head of the Zambesi-Shir^ navigation at 
Katunga, fluvial port of Blantyre, in the African Lakes 
Company's steamer, the James Stevejison, drawing about 
18 inches. This expedition showed that the Chinde 
branch is the most accessible ; and that through that 
channel there is continuous waterway at all seasons for 
small craft from the sea to Blantyre port. But the 
main stream is so shallow in parts, and so beset with 
shifting sandbanks, that, during the dry season, even the 
navigable section to the Eebrabasa rapids and Chikar- 
ongo Falls, 334 miles from the coast and 50 miles above 
Tete, is accessible only to canoes and small keel boats. 

The Middle Zambesi, that is, the section between 
Eebrabasa and the stupendous Victoria Falls, is a fine 
deep stream, in many places from 300 to 400 yards 
wide, and with a moderate current of about 3 miles an 
hour, interrupted only by the Kansalo Bapids a few 
miles above the confluence of the Sanyati-Umfuli, which 
descends from Hartley Hill in Mashonaland. In this 
section the main stream is joined, besides the Sanyati, by 

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the Guai, Angwa (Voangwa), Hanyani, and all its other 
southern tributaries from the Matoppo and Mashoua 
watershed, with the single exception of the Euenya, 
through which the auriferous Mazoe, Inyagwe, Mudzi, 
Gavareai, and others converge on the right bank below 
Tete and above the Lupata Gorge. But all these rivers, 
descending from elevations of 4000 to 5000 feet down 
to the normal level of the Zambesi valley, have extremely 
rapid courses, and are, therefore, useless as navigable 
waterways. A similar character is presented by the 
Loangwa, which I'eaches the left bank at Zumbo, but 
which flows from the Kyassa - Tanganyika plateau so 
rapidly that the natives " do not travel up or down the 
river in canoes, as the current is too swift for any going 
down stream to return." ' Yet the Loangwa has a 
course of at least 400 miles, and with its great tributary 
the Lusenfwa (Lukusasi) drains the greater part of the 
uplands between Lakes Kyassa and Bangweolo, a region 
several thousand square miles in extent. 

Beyond the Loangwa, and still in its middle section, 
the Zambesi is joined on the same side by the far more 
extensive Kafue (Kafukwe, Kahowhe), which describes 
a figure of S in its winding southerly course through 
Iramba and the Barotse territory from the Katanga high- 
lands. The Loengwe, as its northern course is called, 
rises at an altitude of 4640 feet at the narrowest point 
of the Congo-Zambesi divide, so that a short cutting 
across the porterage at this point would afford continuous 
waterway through the Congo - Zambesi fluvial systems 
from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. But such a 
waterway would not be continuously navigable, being 
interrupted at many points by the falls and rapids of 
both systems. The Kafue itself, whose sources were 
' Sborpe, lee eit. 

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diacovered by Capello and Ivene in 1885, appears to be 
navigable throughout most of its cours^ being obetmcted 
only by a single cataract about a day's journey &oui the 

The liba, one of whose headstreams has its source in 
the Dilolo lagoon, has been geneially regarded as the 
true upper course of the Zambesi ever since its discovery 
by Livingstone in 1855. Yet Livingstone himself con- 
sidered that this distinction belonged rather to the 
Eabompo, which joins the Liba trom the north - east, 
and which was selected by the Agreement of August 
1890 as the provisional frontier between the British and 
Portuguese spheres of influence in this part of Cent^ul 
Africa, The term Zambesi, that is, the " River " in a 
pre-eminent sense, is first applied to the main stream 
formed by the junction of the Liba and Kabompo in the 
level swampy Lobale plain above Libonta, and is then 
retained by the populations along its banks all the way 
to the delta. 

The Victoria Falls 

Below the Kubango confluence the Upper Zambesi 
loses its fluvial character in the wet season, when it 
assumes the aspect of a vast shallow lagoon, spreading 
far and wide over the level plains with scarcely any 
perceptible current But after the subsidence of the 
flood-waters it is confined to a narrow channel, where it 
has to foi-ce its way over numerous rocky ledges, rapids, 
and even cataracts, such as those of Gony^ and Katima 
Molelo, until at last it seems to disappear bodily in the 
tremendous chasm of the Mosi-oa-Tunya or " Thunder- 
ing Smoke," better known as the Victoria Falls. These 
falls, below which the Zambesi enters on its more placid 
middle course, were discovered and so named in Kovember 

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1855 by LivingetODe, whose graphic description of the 
magnificeut spectacle has not beeD surpassed by that 
of any more recent observer. The dense volumes of 
vapour, risiog above the narrow gorge where the whole 
stream is suddenly contracted to one thirty-sixth of its 
normal breadth, presents from a distance of five or 
six miles the appearance of the clouds of smoke 
caused by an African steppe fire. When first seen 
by Livingstone five columns arose, white below, darker 
higher up, and closely simulating smoke. " The whole 
scene was extremely beautiful ; the banks and islands 
dotted over the river are adorned with sylvan ve^ta- 
tion of great variety of colour and form. At the 
period of our visit several trees were spangled over 
with hlossoiDs. There, towering over all, stands the 
great burly baobab, each of whose enormous arms 
would form the trunk of a lar^ tree, beside a group 
of graceful palms, which, with their feathery - shaped 
leaves depicted on the sky, lend their beauty to the 
scene, ^e falls are bounded on three sides by ridges 
300 or 400 feet in height, which are covered with 
forest, with the red soil appearing among the trees. 
Then about half a mile from the falls, I left the canoe 
by which we had come down thus far and embarked 
in a lighter one, with men well acquainted with the 
rapids, who brought me to an island in the middle of 
the nver and on the edge of the lip over which the 
waters roll. Thoi^h we had reached the island, and 
were within a few yards of the spot a view from 
which would solve the whole problem, I believe that 
00 one could perceive where the vast body of water 
went ; it seemed to lose itself in the earth, the opposite 
lip of the fissure into which it disappeared being only 
80 feet distant. Creeping with awe to the verge, I 

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peered down into a large rent which had been made 
from bank to bank of the broad Zambesi, and saw 
that a stream 1000 yards broad leaped down 100 
feet, and then became suddenly compressed into a 
space of 15 or 20 yards. The entire falls are simply 
a crack made in a hard basalt rock from the right 
to the left bank of the Zambesi, and then prolonged 
from the left bank away through 30 or 40 miles of hills. 
In looking into the fissure on the right side of the 
island, one sees nothing but a dense white cloud, which 
at the time we visited the spot had two bright rain- 
bows on it From this cloud rushed up a great jet 
of vapour exactly like steam, and it mounted 200 or 
300 feet high ; there condensing, it changed its hue 
to that of dark smoke, and came back in a constant 
shower which wetted us to the skin." 

At the Victoria Falls the channel of the Zambesi 
still stands about 2500 feet above the sea, and this 
appears to have heea the normal altitude of the great 
inland sea which formerly occupied most of the region 
stretching south and west of the main stream. So level 
is the bed of the ancient lacustrine basin, that after 
leaving the Angolan uplands, the Ku-Ndo (Chobe), Ku- 
Ito, Ku-Bango, and other western affluents fail to reach 
the Zambesi throughout the year. During the dry 
season they go wandering with uncertain Sow over the 
plains, where they disappear in the shallow saline 
depressions of Lakes Etosha, Ngami, Makarikari, Chobe, 
and Mababe. But in exceptionally wet seasons many 
if not all of these depressions form a continuous sheet of 
water, temporarily restoring the old inland sea and 
sending their overflow through the Chobe and Mababe 
to the Zambesi for the Indian Ocean, and occasionally, 
perhaps, through Etosha to the Cunene for the Atlantic 
TOL. u 2 E 

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Thus the Zambesi would present the rare phenomenon 
of at times intermingling its waters with two other 
fluvial systems, that of the Congo through Lake Dilolo, 
and that of the Cunene through Etosha. 

Including the Ku-Bango (Okovango), which undoubt- 
edly belongs to the Zambesi system, and which rises 
on the east slope of the Benguelan divide within 250 
miles of the Atlantic, the Zambesi has a total length 
of little less than 2000 miles, and a catchment basin 
which cannot be estimated at under 1,000,000 square 
miles. In this estimate is necessarily included the great 
Lake Nyassa, which dischai^s its overflow through the 
Shir^ emissary southwards to the left bank of the Lower 
Zambesi, about 40 miles above the head of the delta, and 
250 from the outlet at the south end of the lake. 

Lale« Nraaaa 

Nyassa appears to have been known by report to the 
Portuguese missionaries on the Lower Zambesi in the 
seventeenth century, and from their accounts d'An^dlle 
was able to indicate it on his maps under the name of 
Lake Mara«.^ Later it was again heard of as the 
Nyanja ' Mucuro ; but it was first discovered by Living- 
stone, who reached it from the Shir^ in September 
1859. Two years later he returned, in company with 
his brother Charles and l)r. Kirk, and succeeded in 
surveying the west coast as far north as the presenl 
station of Bandaw4. During subsequent visits in 1863 
and 1866, he continued the work of exploration, which 

> So named fi'Oiii tbe fierce Uarsvi (Zulu) hordes, who had alrwdj 
peuetrated to tbe Nyassa basiii from the regions Bouth of the Zambesi. 

' Nyassa is the Maagaitja form of the Yao word NjaDJa, which it 
merely a dialectic variety of the Dorthem NyaDU, all meaiUDg a lake, 
large river, or any great expanse of wftt«r. 

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has since been completed by E. D. Young (1875), Elton 
and CotteriU (1877), and, more recently, by James 
Stewart, L. Moir, Dr. Laws, and Eev. W. P. Johnson. 

In form, size, contour lines, and longitudinal disposi- 
tion, Nyassa strikingly resembles Tanganyika, and it 
seems evident that both belong to the same geological 
formation. They occupy deep fissures in the same 
central plateau, where Kyassa extends north and south 
a distance of about 350 miles, with a mean breadth of 
50 to 60 miles, a depth ranging from 50 to over 100 
fathoms, and an area of 14,200 square miles, or rather 
less than Tanganyika. It is nearly destitute of islands 
and safe havens, although a few of the creeks and 
inlets indenting the coast afford good anchorage and 
some little shelter from the fierce squalls that occasion- 
ally sweep down from the surrounding slopes. Vast 
clouds of tiny midges, driving before the wind, settle at 
times on the surface, where they present the appearance 
of a light silvery haze in the bright solar beams. 
The water is quite fresh, and so pure that no sedi- 
ment is formed in the boilers of the Lakes Company's 
steamers which now ply on Nyassa and the Upper 
Shir^. The low-lying margin of rich alluvial or sandy 
and marshy plains between the lake and encircling 
ranges varies from about two to ten miles in width 
everywhere, except on the north - east side, where the 
Livingstone mountains approach close to the waterside. 
Owing to this configuration Kyassa is fed only by a 
few mountain torrents on the east side ; but from the 
west and north - west, where the chains are less con- 
tinuous, it receives several considerable streams, such 
as the Songwe, Kasitu, Loaugwa, Bua, and Nkanda, 
collectively draining a region nearly 20,000 square 
miles in extent. Most of these rivers, however, run 

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out in the dry Beason in the swtunps and sanda before 
reaching the lake, where their mouths are visible only 
dnriug the rains. 

The BUii Basin 

Complete equilibriutn does not seem to be established 
between the contributions from these rivet's and the losses 
sustained by evaporation and the dischai^ through the 
Shir6, Hence, during the brief historic life of Nyassa, 
changes of level in both directions have already been 
recorded, apparently analogous to those of Tanganyika. 
The Shir^, which issues from the southern end in a broad 
sluggish stream, soon expands into the spacious but 
shallow Pamalombe lagoon, whose low reedy banks are 
the haunt of the hippopotamus and of innumerable 
aquatic birds. Farther on, the ShirS becomes entangled 
in a series of rocky gorges where all navigation is 
arrested, and where the stream descends from the plateau 
through the Pampaze Eapids, the Murchison and Namvira 
Falls down to its lower course. Here it also broadens 
out into vast expanses, such as the Elephant Marsh, 
beyond which it is joined from the north-east by the 
romantic Eiver Euo, boundary line of the British and 
Portuguese possessions in thi^ direction. The Euo (Luo), 
which throughout the year is navigable for several miles 
by light draught steamers, is precipitated from the 
Blantyre uplands over the magnificent Zoa Falls, first 
seen and described by Consul John Buchanan in 1891. 
These falls, which lie 25 miles above the confluence, 
take the form of a horse-shoe, and are no less than 200 
feet high. " Above the chasm on the left bank there 
stands a huge mass of rock, from behind which and down 
whose face during the wet season pours a gigantic 
cataract. At the time of my first visit the water from 

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various cbanuels collected into one main stream, which 
thncdered down the chasm, foaming and tossing between 
ita walls, sending heavenwards clouds of vapour, and in 
emerging from its confinement dashes itself ont into & 
breadth of 150 yards, and continues its angry comae 
impinging on nxikB and boulders till reaching Nakale, 
where it composes itself into dark-blue lakelets. The 
face of the falls abounds in several large and many small 
"pot-holes," from 18 inches to 10 feet in diameter, and 
from 1 to 10 feet deep. I was not fortunate enough to 
see the water at its work of forming these boles, bat the 
stones lying at the bottom of them, some in the rough, 
others kidney-shaped, and others almost round, are con- 
clusive evidence of the water's action." ' 

Below the Kuo confluence, the Shir6 winds through 
the great Morambala Marsh and between the j^ged 
peaks and cones of the Finda and Matunda ranges east 
and west to the Zambesi, which it enters through a sort 
of inland delta enclosed between the Ziwe-Ziwe or Sena 
branch and the navigable channel of the Shir^ proper. 

Lake Shirwa 

14'eitber Kukwa nor Shirwa belongs to the NjasBA 
catchment basin, both being, at least at present, littJa 
centres of inland drainage without seaward outflow. It 
seems, however, quite certain that Shirwa was formerly 
connected, not southwards with the Kuo-Shir^, as was at 
one time supposed, but northwards with the Lujenda, 
that is, the southern headstream of the Kovuma. Its 
waters probably still at times communicate over the low 
intervening Cheloinoni ridge (50 feet) with, the chain of 
shallow lagoons — Mpiii, Chinta, Namaramba — where the 
' Proc Roy. Oeo. Soe. May 1891, p. 288. 

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Lajenda has its source. On the south side the divide 
between the Shird basin and Shirwa stands 230 feet 
above the level of the lake, aud from 600 to 700 feet 
above the Shire, so that " there can be no possible con- 
nection between these two water sTStems." ' Shirwa 
(Cbirwa), which is enclosed on the west side by a range 
of lofty peaks, such as Chikala (6000 feet), Chaoni 
(5000), Malosa aud Zomba (both 7000), has considerably 
subsided since 1880, when ite waters reached quite up 
to the Chelomoni divide. At present it is little more 
tban a huge permaoently flooded salt-pan, nearly 40 
miles long by 16 wide, very shallow, and 350 square 
miles in extent, a mere remnant of an extensive lagoon, 
which formerly covered the broad Shirwa plain far to the 
east, and formed a continuous sheet of water with the 
Lujenda lagoons. 

CUmate of Horth Zambeaia 
All that part of the Middle and Upper Zambesi 
valley which was formerly comprised within the limits 
of the inland sea, as well as the river banks thence to 
the coast, belongs distinctly to the characteristic malarious 
African climate. Here the altitude, ranging from sea- 
level to 2500 or at most 3000 feet, is not sufficiently 
elevated to counteract the malignant infiueoces which 
are the inevitable result of tropical heat and a consider- 
able rainfall, combined with extensive swampy tracts 
traversed by sluggish streams and periodically flooded 
by stagnant waters. Hence the Zambesi basin in the 
narrower sense, that is, excluding the uplands comprised 
within its drainage area, is unanimously pronounced a 
hotbed of fever by all unprejudiced observera Thus 
Mr. F. C. Selous, who has a wider experience of South 
■ B«T, A. Hethetwick, Proc Roy. Qco. See. 1888, p. S6. 

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Central Africa than any other living authority, tells ua 
that " the Barotse Valley (Upper Zambesi) is a miserable 
part of the country, and about the beat place to get fever 
in that I know of," adding generally that death " la the 
end of every one who remains long in the terrible climate 
of this part of Africa." * This remark is equally appli* 
cable to the Lower Zambesi and Lower Shir^, as witness 
the graves of Mrs. Livingstone and Bishop Mackenzie, 
the sad tale of British missionary records, and the 
fact that, after 400 years of occupation, the Portuguese 
find it impossible to perpetuate their race beyond a 
single generation at any of their riverain stations. 

Even on the uplands the flat and marshy tracts are 
not exempt, and the free Church had for a time to 
abandon Livingstonla, its first station on the low -lying 
promontory at the south end of Nyassa. But the 
higher parts of Kyassaland, and especially the Shire 
highlemds, enjoy a climate which is said to be suited 
for European settlement. " The Shir^ highlands, with 
their cold bracing air, have proved by the test of many 
years to be well adapted to the conditions of European 
life. Scotch and English ladies have lived there in 
excellent health, and their children are robust and 
healthy." * Even Commissioner Johnston, a very 
cautious writer, thinks that " as life becomes less un- 
comfortable than at present, it would be actually possible 
to found European Colonies on some of the highest 
plateaux, that is to say, in districts which are over 5000 
feet in altitude. In these regions I really believe that 
Europeans might retain good health, and even rear 
children without much, if any, deterioration of race." ' 

' Proc. Hoy. Geo. Soc 1889, pp. 220, 228. 
« CapUin F. D. Lngard, ib. 1888, p. 692. 
* R^ort m Briliih CmiToi Afriea/w 1891-9S, p. 33. 

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The mean daj temperature in Kovember, the hottest 
month, rarely exceeds 86° F., while the night tempera- 
ture in May, the coldest month, is never below 59°, 
showing an annual range of not more than 21°. Aa 
in most tropical lands, two seasons alone can be clearly 
distinguished, — the rainy from December to April, the 
dry for the rest of the year ; the mean annual rainfall 
being about 40 inches at Cape Maclear and nearly 100 
at the more exposed station of Bandaw^ on the west 
coast of Nyassa. The north wind prevails with remark- 
able regularity throughout the wet season, and is followed 
by the south wind in the dry season, when fierce storms 
are frequent especially in September. 

Even some parts of the Nyaasa-Tanganyika plateau, 
such as the Buntali district within 10 degrees of the 
equator, are favoured by a delightful and equable 
climate. " With its red soil, its rounded hills covered 
vrith short green turf, its many rills and rivulets, its cool 
misty climate and rank vegetation, Buntali is an African 
Devonshire perched up at au average height of 5000 
feet above the trough of Lake Nyassa, and certainly fitted 
by its natural advantages to be a healthy home for 
European settlers " (H. H. Johnston). 

Flora and Fuma 

On the whole the Zambesi flora is less exuberant 
than that of the Congo, and far less diversified than that 
of the Cape. The prevailing forms are the same as in 
the equatorial zone, but are here and there intermingled 
with a few intruders from the south, such as the silver- 
tree {Leucadendron argmteum) of Cape Colony. The 
cofiTee shrub appears to be indigenous in the Zambesi 
basin, and in any case it is now successfully cultivated 

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at the European statioDs in Xyassaland, where tea has 
also been lately in- 

Lakb »T1SSA. 

misaiiguti tree, wliich yields incredible quantities of 
scarlet beans, used both as food and for the rich 

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oleaginous or fotty substance obtained by boiling, The 
wood of the misangnti ia hard and durable, while the 
bark supplies an excellent maht^ny dye. Fibrous 
plants, such as the Borassus palm, the plantain, cotton, 
and a hardy species of hemp, grow freely almost eveiy- 
where. The Zambesi botanical zone coincides with the 
southern limit of the gigantic baobab, now rivalled in 
size by the Australian eucalyptus, thousands of which 
have already been planted in the Shir^ uplands. Euro- 
pean cereals, fruits, and vegetables thrive well on the 
uplands, but req^uire artificial irrigation during the dry 
season, when scarcely any mobture is precipitated for 
months together. The Blantyre district " ia a place of 
roses and geraniums, pink - cheeked English chOdren, 
la^e-uddered cattle, and laying hens, riding horses, and 
lawn tennis. You may pick raspberries and strawberries 
in Mr. Moir's garden, enjoy all sorts of English vege- 
tables, and, but for the black inhabitants, really cheat 
yourself into the belief that you are in some agricultural 
TiUage in the Scotch Lowlands " (H, H. Johnston). 

Nearly all the laige African fauna occur in the 
Zambesi region, where even the giratTe was heard of by 
Mr. Sharpe in the Loangwa valley. Both the dry 
savannahs and the marshy tracts about the Upper 
Zambesi and the Nyassa - Shir^ highlands teem with 
animal life. From the steamers plying on the Shir^, the 
observer, provided with a good glass, may distinguish the 
huge forms of large-eared elephants, the gnu, water-buck, 
eland, buffalo, reed-buck, zebra, and pallah. The croco- 
diles, and especially the hippopotamuses, are a . real 
danger to the navigation, and lions have been shot from 
the deck of a passing steamer. Here the marshy 
l^oons are frequented by myriads of aquatic fowl, such 
as pelicans, cranes, ibises, swans, lierona, geese, and duck. 

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In the great Morambala swamp " the air was full of 
screaming birds, some hovering in clouds in the way that 
reminded us of a great rooks' meeting, some swooping 
down to catch fish for theit supper, others again swimming 
placidly on the surface, while the more shallow places 
were occupied by legions of storks, cranes, herons, etc" ' 

Characteristic animals of the Upper Zambesi are the 
kishobo and nakong antelopes, which have become 
amphibious, their broad flat feet being more adapted for 
swimming than for bounding over the steppes. In this 
r^on Br. Holub describes no less than seven varieties of 
rhinoceros, four of lions. And three of elephants. But, as 
in Mashonaland, the inoffensive white rhinoceros has 
almost disappeared, while the savage black variety still 
infests the less frequented districts. A noteworthy fish 
in the Middle Zambesi is the mosheba, which, like the 
marine flying-fish, uses its pectoral fins as wings, rising 
into the air and sustaining a Sight of several yards. 
Here also the iish-eagle often snatches his prey, not from 
the water, but from the capacious mandibles of the 
pelican paralysed with fear by the sudden flap of his 
wings. In the same region, the widespread Farm 
a/ricana has developed such broad feet that he is enabled 
to walk on the expanded foliage of the lotus fioating on 
the surface of the stream. Unfortunately all the low- 
lying and marshy tracts throughout the Zambesi valley 
are infested by voracious mosquitoes and the deadly 
tsetse fly, whose bite is fatal to so many domestic 

Inhabitants of North Zaubesla 

Here the ethnical relations are far more complicated 
than in South Zambesia. Doubtless all the innumerable 

' Mrs. Pringle, op. cU. p. 142. 

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tribes appear, as far as is known, to belong, at least in 
speech, to the Bantu family. But the whole region has 
been in remote and recent times the theatre of so many 
peaceful or warlike migrations, devastating elave-hunting 
expeditions, and political convulsions that the national 
and tribal groups have everywhere been displaced, dia- 
iutegrated, and i-e-formed, often luider new names and 
changed social conditions. Fierce conquering hordes 
have swept like a fiery tempest over the land, leaving 
in their wake widespread havoc, and have themselves 
more than once disappeared amid the ruins of cruel 
despotisms or peaceful agricultural communities. Twice 
during the present century the Upper Zambesi has 
witnessed the fouadatloa and overthrow of empires 
created and destroyed, and again restored by intruding 
Bechuauas and Basntos from beyond the Limpopo and 
the Vaal. 

The Kyassa lands, especially, hare for generations been 
sorely afflicted by the conflicts of local Mohammedan 
(Yao) and Pagan (A-lfyanja) peoples, by incessant Zulu 
Invasions, and above all by the organised razzias of Arab 
and half-caste Portuguese slave-hunters. Recently the 
Arabs, thwarted and baffled at so many points in the 
interior, have even dared to turn their arms against the 
■whites, and but for the heroic defence of Karonga and 
neighbouring stations by a handful of brave Englishmen 
against apparently hopeless odds, the shores of Nyassa 
would be again overrun, and the surrounding r^ions 
still a prey to their ruthless depredations. For two 
years (1887-89) these men — Consul O'Neill, Captain 
Lugard, Br. Cross, L. Monteith Fotheringham, Agent 
of the Lakes Company, and historian of the episode,' 
and half a dozen others — held these almost defenceless 

' Advaiiurea in Hyattaland, London, 1891, 

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outposts with & scanty supply of ammunitdoD, until 
relieved by the cessation of hostilities brought about by 
Consul H. H. Johnatoii's skilful diplomacy. After the 
appoiDtment of Commissioner Johnston to the adminis- 
tratiou of North Zambesia (British Central Africa) in 
1891, the Yaoa in alliance with the Arab slavera con- 
tinued to give great trouble until the crushing defeat and 
submission of their most powerful chief, Makanjira, in 
March 1894. This event puts an end for the present to 
all slave-trading in Nyassaland, and gives promise of the 
establishment of permanent peace in that distracted region. 

In the Shii6 highlands a fruitful source of confusion 
are the lai^e number of captives rescued from the Arab 
gangers on their way down to the coast, and now settled 
about Blantyre and the other missionary stations between 
Nyassa and the Zambesi. The process has been going 
on ever since 1861, when Bishop Mackenzie and the 
other pioneers of the Universities Mission reached the 
Upper Shir^, under the guidance of Livingstone, and 
began at once to liberate the gangs of slaves passing 
through the district " As we had begun, it was no use 
to do things by halves," was the trenchant remark of the 
great explorer,^ The captives were of course told they 
were free to stay or go as they pleased. But their 
homes had been destroyed, their villages burnt, their 
kinsfolk butchered or dispersed, they were alone in the 
world, and they invariably preferred to stay. Thus were 
gathered tc^ether in this region representatives of in- 
numerable tribes from every part of the interior, and 
these, amalgamating with the Mauganja (A - Nyanja) 
aborigines, have little in common except the Chi-Nyanja 
language, which is necessarily adopted by alL 

Other conditions have brought about other results 
' A Popular Account of the ^jiediiUm to lit ZamJ/ai, p. 218. 

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on the NyasBa-Tanganyika plateau, and on the alluvial 
Kkonde plains, between the escarpments of the plateau 
and the north end of Nyassa. Here the deeds of violence 
and cruelty perpetrated by the Arab and Swahili slaves 
with their Mohammedan Wanyamwesi allies have been 
novrhere exceeded in any part of the continent. " For 
fifty miles we came across no tokens of native prosperity, 
thongh there were abundant signs of Arab cruelty and 
csm^e. The blackened ruins of the villages, and the 
bleached bones of human beings on the grass, told their 
own tale. ' "Who has been here ? ' I inquired of my 
carriers. ' Kabunda,' said they, and they pronounced the 
name with evident terror. Kabunda was a wealthy Arab, 
who had settled in the valley of the Lofu some ten years 
ago." ^ Having picked a quarrel with the local chief, 
here is how " this dignified and cultured Arab, full of 
courtesy in his dealings with Europeans," set about his 
work of extermination. After seizing all the chiefs 
cattle, he " oiganised a sudden raid throughout all the 
valley, and every man, woman, and child who could be 
found was seized and tied up. Very few managed to 
escape him or his keen hunters, and a caravan was made 
for the coast ; but the smiling valley, that had been 
known as the garden of Tanganyika, from the fertihty 
and industry of its people, now silent and desolate, was 
added to that already long stretch of hungry wilderness 
through which we had passed." ' Elsewhere we read of 
the natives about the Kambwe lagoon, north of Nyassa, 
being suddenly set upon, when " those who did not 
perish by the rifle and the spear were either burnt to 
death or devoured by the innumerable crocodiles that 
infest the lagoon " (ib. p. 81). 

• Advmiurea in Nyasaaland, p. 15. 
* Fr. Moir, quoted bj Fotheringham, p. 16. 

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Driven to desperation by these incessant atrocities, 

the fragments of various broken tribes took refuge 
in the somewhat inaccessible Songwe valley, where the 
Free Ohurch had founded the station of Chirenje. But 
the missionaries being powerless to protect them against 
the Awemba confederates of the Arabs, the refugees did 

not here merge in one community as on the Shin5 uplands, 
but each remnant of a tribe continued to occupy some 
remote and isolated village, fortified by stockades against 
the common enemy. Hence each retains its own dialect, 
and " one might almost imagine that it was in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chirenje that the confusion of tongues took 
place. Fii'st of all there is Jlwiniwanda, who is recog- 
nised as the chief of the country, simply on account of 
his being the first settler in the locality. His people 

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Speak a language of their own. Next cornea Titima's 
village, with its distinct inhabitants and distinct dialect. 
£ight miles distant is Cbitipa's — a people using a unique 
speech, which an Admirable Crichton might despair of 
acquiring. Then there is Nyondo's, the people there also 
talking in an uncouth tong^ia Were they all huddled 
together round a tower, the traveller might fancy he 
had discovered Babel." ' 

Amid all these elements of confusion in a r^on a 
large portion of which still remains to be explored, it 
would be premature to attempt any scientific classifica- 
tion of the inhabitants, hence little more than a geograph- 
ical grouping is attempted in the subjoined 

Tablb of the Chief Tbibes and Nations ih Nortb Zanbesia. 
Ganodella, Upper Enbango valley ; a bnDcb of the Angolan Gongaallas. 
Ahboklla, Knbuigo and Kws-Ndo (Chobe) Talle;& 
liVSBAzt, Upper Kwo-Ndo valley. 

tf A-His, Kwa-Ndo valley from Lmyanti to 6° south latitude. 
BaViko -, 

MuKosso f ^^"""^ Kubango and neighbonring laonatrine plains. 
Dahico ' 

Ba-Lvnda, Libo and Lobale valleyB (Upper Zambesi head-waters). 
Maeololo, Baanto intruders iu the Upper Zambesi : extinct. 

{Beobnana intruders in the Upper and Middle Zambesi ; the 
present dominant people in the Barotse Empire. 
{Gnoko, Loinbe, and Lol rivers ; dominant people in the 
Ma-Nchoia, north-east of the Barotse. 
Ma-Totola, north of Shesheke, are the Ba-Myati of some writers. 

{aouth-east of the Barotse, from Sekhoai to within 30 miles 
of the Chobe- Zambesi conSuence. 
Makkob, north of the Mam bunds State. 

! north-east of the Mambunda, both banks of the Liba to ite 

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Ba-Rahba, Iramba district, and North Manica, Upper Ksfaa bisin. 


Ba-Shckclumbwe, lelt side o( Middle and Loner Kefue. 

Makal*Xa, Zambesi, below Victoria Falls. 

Mako I '"^ htrnk Lower Loangwa, thence to the Zambeai. 
Badbma, Zambesi, cast of Ba-Senga. 
Ba-Ktunowb, Zambcei, about Tate, and thenoe to the Lower Shiii. 

Mttaii ! ^^^^^ ^^° LoangwB and Lake N<^aBBa. 
Wa-Nkohde, north end Kyaasa. 
A-WizA, A-Kdntdnba, A-ManooohIjI 

wizA, A-Kdntdnba, A-Manooohi,i ,, ,, 

A-Bamda, A-To«oa. A.Kamakoa T"' "*** ^y"»- 

(A.Nvania) r ****''"*'** "^ Nyaasa, and ShW valley. 

.•C-. Yaol ( ^"'^ Tallsy, and thenoe north-eaattoand beyond Lake 8hirwB. 

MAOHINOA AMA8AJ.IN0A, j ^^ ,y^ jj 

Anoclw (Wa-Jenga) J ' 

Maviti 1 

Mahoohi The ZuId intrnden in tiie Nyaasa region, chiefly oa the 
(Angoni) \ Eouth-weat aide, coUectiiely called Landina b; the 
Ma RAVI FortQguese. 


Uarololo, Lower Shire, between the falla and Ruo river. 

a'S ( Awankonde 

llkonde plnin and wrathern elopea of the Njkasa. 
Tanganyika plateau. 

' § AwaniakyuK 
1^ •£ i Awakukwe 
< a Awabundali 
^ C lAwamewko 


AWA^IKA, AwanyamwIhba, Awbmba P ''^■^8"?** 
Awapipa, west $ide Lake Klkwa, 
AwAKHONONQO, east side Lake RIkwa. 
AwAVNon, south aide I^e Rikna. 

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The B&-Limda; Barotas; Hamlnmda 

Dr. Holiib, who visited the Barotse country in 1875, 
givee a long list of about eighty tribes subject to that 
state,' Bnt the Jesuit missionary, Pfere Depelchin, who 
has more recently spent some years amongst the people, 
finds that many if not most of those so-called " tribes " 
are merely trading communities, not distinguishable in an 
ethnical sense from the mass of the population.* In this 
region the really important nations, politically, are the 
Ba-Lunda, the Barotse, the Mambuuda, the Ba-Shuku- 
lumbwe, and the Ba-Toka (Ba-Tonga). 

The Ba-Lunda, who occupy both slopes of the Congo- 
Zambesi divide, appear to be a division, probably the 
original stock, of the powerful Ka-Lunda nation, dominant 
in the Huata Tamvo's territoiy. Like them they file 
their teeth, practise tattooing, and smear their bodies with 
vegetable oils. The Ba-Lunda are extremely ceremoriouB, 
and to the native forms of salutation they have added both 
tha Mohammedan " Allah " and the Portuguese " Ave-ria " 
(Ave Maria). They are a mild inoffensive people, friendly 
towards strangers, addicted neither to cannibalism nor 
to any cruel practices, and showing marked deference to 
their women. Some of the Lunda tribes are governed by 
"queens," at whose death the settlement is abandoned, 
and a fresh start made in a new district From the 
Londa forests comes most of the bees-wax exported from 
the west coast. The cleared lands are fertile and well 
watered, and yield abundant produce to tiie industrious 
Ba-Lunda husbandmen. 

It has been seen (p. 385) that the ruling race in the 
" Marotse Mambunda Empire," as it is designated by 
' In MitteiluQgen of the Vienna Gec^^phical Society, 31st Jan. 187B. 
* PrieU hiaUn-iquM, BruB»eb, Feb. 1883. 

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Holub, are a branch of the Barotse Bechuanas, though 
now speaking the Se-Suto language, imposed on tbem 
during the temporary supremacy of the Makololos. Ther 
were probably driven north by Umsilikatzi's impis about 
the year 1835, when the Zulus overran the western parts 
of the region now known as Transvaal, Soon after the 
overthrow of the Makololos, the Luinas, as the Barot^ 
are called by their neighbours, reduced the extensive 
territory of the Mambunda (Ma-Buada) nation, at that 
time ruled by a queen. Their system of administration is 
to a large extent inherited from the Makololos, and is 
specially noted for its Draconic penal code, which has 
given rise to the local saying that nobody grows old in 
Barotseland. It is understood that, since his acceptance 
of the British protectorate, the present king, Lumanika. 
has undertaken to modify the rigours of this drastic code. 
Other reforms are in progress, and, through the influence 
of the traders and missionaries, the bulk of the population 
have already substituted European clothes for the oM 
national costume of tanned skins and flowing cotton 

The Mambundaa, living farther north on the p1at«aa 
enclosing the alluvial plains of the fluvial valley, have 
been brought less in contact with Europeans, and still 
practise the old superstitious rites. They worship the 
sun and moon, and believe in the transmigration of souls, 
not from animals to man, but from man to animals ; man 
himself apparently possessing the power to control his 
future destiny, by eating the flesh and rehearsing the 
voice and attitudes of the lion, buffalo, rhinoceros, or anv 
other beast of his choice. The Mambunda chiefs stil! 
retain a certain degree of independence, some of them 
even sharing jointly with the Barotee notables in the i 
general administration of the empire. 

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The Ba-Shnknlnmlme 

The Ba - ShukiUumbwe aayages are even still more 
independent, constituting a numerous nation under man? 
separate chiefs, who have never been reduced by conquest, 
but who have in many instances recently acknowledged 
the supremacy of the paramount Barotse ruler. The 
Ba-Shukulumbwe (Ukulombwe) territory, occupying most 
of the Kafufi basin, is one of the least known regions in 
Zambesia, having hitherto been visited only by three 
Europeans, Silva Porto, and Holub with his wifa Mrs. 
Holub was regarded by the natives as a supernatural 
being, and by one tribe chosen aa their queen. These 
people are distinguished almost above all African tribes 
for the extraordinary care lavished on their head-dresses, 
which often assume the most astounding forms, towering 
tiara-fashion two or three feet above their heads. 

Farther east and north, the Manica and Iramba terri- 
tories are inhabited by Waramba tribes, who, at the time of 
Capello and Ivens's visit (1885), were ruled by Licuco, 
brother of Msidi, late king of Garenganze. Licuco is 
described by the Portuguese travellers as a ferocious 
tyrant and " monster, whose atrocities exceed human 
imagination." ' Some of his underlings appear to be no 
better, and of one Iramba petty chief we are told that 
he "chopped up a woman with bis own hand, and put 
her in a huge flesh-pot, which was at once placed on the 
fire," all because she had cooked his supper badly (t&.) 
Certainly there is ample scope for the exercise of 
humanising influences in this part of the new British 

^ De Anijola i Coiitra-Cosla, IL p. 171, 

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The BvTonKa 

South of the Ba-Shukuliimbwe domain follows that 
of the Ea-Tonga (Ba-Toka), who, though now reduced 
almost to servitude by the Barotse, were formerly a 
powerful and numerous nation. They may even almost 
claim to rank aa an historical people, having migrated 
from the auriferoua Manicaland, which, three hundred 
years ago, was ruled by the Monomotapa, and which is 
still inhabited by the Batoka race. Another branch has 
moved southwards beyond the Lower Limpopo to the dis- 
trict from them now known as Amatongaland. All Ba- 
Tongas of both aexes extract the upper incisors, as they 
say, to make themselves look like oxen. It is noteworthy 
that the same custom, based on the same motive, prevails 
amongst some of the western Damaras, whose traditions 
point to the north-east as the quarter whence they reached 
their present homes on the south-western seaboard. Thus 
it might almost seem as if, during their migrationa, the 
Ba-Tongas had made the complete circuit of the Austral 

The Mangasja and Makololo 

In Nyassaland, by far the most important indigenous 
element are the A-Nyanja, that is, " Lake People," who, 
however, call themselves Manganja. During the last 
quarter of a century their domain has been greatly en- 
croached upon by the Wa-Yao from the north-east, and 
by the Angoni (Zulus) from the south-west, while those 
dwelling along the Shir^ have been reduced by the 
Mackingaa and the Makololo usurpers to a state little 
differing from absolute slaverj-. But formerly they 
occupied the whole region from Lake Shirwa westwards 

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to Cbipata, and from the Zambesi-Shir^ confluence north- 
wards to about the latitude of Bandaw^, on the west side 
of Nyaasa, They thus held a territory of about 40,000 
square miles, and their Bantu language (Chi-Nyanja, 
reduced to written form by the Eev, Alexander Riddel) 
is still current throughout the whole of this region. It 
appears to be intermediate between the Ki-Swahili of 
Zanzibar and the Zulu-Eaflr of the south-east coast, 
and it is of considerable historic importance, for by ito 
means may beat be interpreted the Bantu terms, such as 
Benomotapa, Zimbabye, etc, occurring in the early Portu- 
guese writers. 

No people could have offered a finer field for evan- 
gelical labour than the Manganja, who, despite the com- 
bined efforts of the Universities, Free Church, and Scotch 
Established Church Missions, are in some places still a 
prey to the gross superstitions and barbarous practices 
specially characteristic of the African populations. Witch- 
craft here assumes its most repulsive forms, ordeals by the 
poisoned cup are universal, while the punishments inflicted 
on the wretched natives for trivial or imaginary offences 
would appear incredible were they not attested by unim- 
peachable evidence. The Makololo chiefs on the Lower 
Shir^, who rose suddenly from obscurity to the position 
of rulers, look on their Manganja subjects as mere slaves, 
and treat them with atrocious cruelty. "The Makololo 
prepare mwai (the poison cup), call their people in great 
numbers, and command them to drink it. Several die in 
one day, who were therefore bewitchers, and deserved 
their fate. . . . Investigation by tortura is one of the saddest 
things that the Makololo practisa It is often employed 
in cases of alleged adultery. When a Makololo suspects 
his wives, he places a stone in a jar of boiling water or 
oil, and orders them to fetch it up with their bare arms. 

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He then judges of their guilt by the amount of injury 
they sustain. When a woman is thus convicted, he 
makes her confess who seduced her. Kotwithstanding 
that her arm is severely scalded, she is subjected to the 
most cruel torture by a kind of ' thumbscrew ' (mbanilo), 
which is applied to her head. A small tree is partly 
divided along the middle, the skull of the poor woman 
is inserted as if it were a wedge for splitting the tree still 
farther. Great pressure is exerted by forcing the halves 
of the tree together with the aid of pulleys. The instru- 
ment works like a gigantic nut-cracker, and during its 
operation the chief and his assistants look on wi^i calm 
satisfaction, and surest the name of her seducer. When 
the woman, under this torture, indicates that the man is 
guilty, he is put to death without a trial Perhaps tits 
woman herself is quite guiltless, and has been convicted 
solely by the ordeal , , . Petty theft, as of a fowl, is 
punished among the Makololo by flogging with whipe 
of elephant hide. There is no formal trial. Cropping 
a thief B ears, and cutting off his Bngers, are also practised. 
For theft of anything more valuable the punishment is 
death. A man that steals a sheep or a goat is stabbed 
and thrown into the river. On other occasions he is flogged 
to death with wliips of elephant hide." ^ Since their arrival 
in Nyassaland, under the auspices of Livingstone (see 
p. 387), these Makololo chiefs have always professed great 
friendship for the English, and from the first were looked 
upon by the natives as our prot^gfe. But their harsh 
rule, and wholesale practice of domestic slaveiy, for it 
came to that, had compromised the English name before 
orderly government was established in the Lower ShirS 
valley under British administrators. 

' Rev. DulT Uocdonold, Afncana, i pp. 200-202. 

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The Awamwamba and Awawandia 

Tq the region of plains and plateaux between Nyassa 
and Tanganyika, the construction of the Stevenson Eoad , the 
treaties with the Arabs following their repulse at Karonga, 
and the foundation of missionary stations and military 
posts between the two lakes, have already brought about 
a great improvement in the social relations. Here the 
Nkonde plains are occupied by various branches of the 
industrious Awamwamba (Wa-Nkonde) people, who had 
lived happy contented hves before the Arab invasion of 
1887. They are a stalwart, muscular, well-proportioned 
race, who raise large quantities of bananas, plantains, 
yams, pnlse, maize and millet, and are also excellent 
stock-breedeis. " Their language is wonderfully rich in 
terms descriptive of cattle. Cattle diseases are known 
and healed so perfectly that the veterinary surgeon of 
Europe might here learn something of them. To look 
across the plain or down the valley and see two or three 
herds of these beautiful animals browsing in the long 
grass, and to hear the rude tinkle of the iron bells (for each 
cow has a bell), convinces oue of the peacefulness and 
happiness of these primitive people. Or to look in upon 
one of these vill^es, hidden among the banana trees, in 
the sultry afternoon, to see the men stretched at full 
length, lying on mats or banana leaves, the women grind- 
ing the flour for the evening meal, and the cattle standing 
in the smoke of the dry cow-dung fires chewing the cud, 
unmolested by flies, is a picture of primitive happiness 
that may even make us envy the black man's lot," ^ 

The Awawandia and other closely-allied tribes on the 
Kyassa-Tauganyika plateau, being still more exposed to 
' D. Kerr Cross, Pmc Say. Qto. Soc Fell. 1891, p. 87. 

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the Arab and Wa-Nyamwezi raiders, usually dwell with 
their cattle and other domestic animals in strongly- 
palisaded villages. They are very industrious, and are 
noted for their skill as weavers, potters, and blacksmiths, 
manufacturing various iron implements, and weaving 
cotton fabrics in pretty patterns from the bush and tree 
varieties which grow wild in the district. 

Ths SterenAon Soad 

The Stevenson Boad, of which so much has lately 
been heard, traverses this district in an oblique direction 
irom south-east to north-west It takes its name from 
Mr. James Stevenson, Chaii-man of the African Lakes 
Company, who in 1881 contributed £4000 to its con- 
struction and maintenance. So far as completed, that 
is, for 70 miles from Earonga on Nyassa to a point 10 
miles beyond Mwiniwanda station on the plateau, it is a 
creditable piece of engineering work, running for several 
miles through primeval forest and involving some heavy 
cuttings in the ascent from the Nkond^ plains to the 
plateau. " With the exception of some nine miles it is 
practically terraced out on the hillsides from Nkond4 to 
the mission station." ' From the present inland terminus 
to Lake Tanganyika there still remain 180 miles to 
be completed ; but the worst obstacles have already 
been surmounted, the route thenceforth lying across the 
tolerably level plateau. 

' Fotheringbam, op. cU. p. &. 

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Boimdaries, Extent, Divisions, Popalation^Portugaesa MaUdmmistia- 
tion — Hiatorid Betroapect ; Prsaent Relstions — Physical Features ; 
Tha NainoJi HigUands— Birers ; Zambed D«1U— The Sabi, Pung- 
«e, and SovTuns Biren — Climate^Floro— Fairna — Natarsl Products 
— Inhabitants of Oazaland : Tongai ; Ba-Lempaa; Banyaos ; The 
Portogaese Half-breeds—Inhabitants of Mozambique: Wa-Vao ; 
Makoa— Table of the Chief Tribes and Nations in Portuguese East 
Aftica— Towns and Stations : Lourenfo Marques ; Delogoa Bay ; 
Inhambane ; Sofal* ; Qnilimane ; Mozambique ; Aogosha ; FeruSo 
TeUozo ; Ibo ; Zmnbo ; Tete ; Sena. 

Boundaries, Extent, Divisions, Population 

As partly settled by the Agreement of June 1891, 
the Portuguese sphere of influence on the eastern sea- 
board extends from the conventional line at Kosi Bay, 
separating it from Zululand for about 1400 miles nortli- 
eastwards to the Rovuma river separating it from 
German East Africa. It is divided into two neariy 
equal sections ty the lower course of the Zambesi, the 
southern stretching from the coast for an average distance 
of some 200 miles inland to the already described 
eastern frontiers of Transvaal and British Central Africa, 

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the northern extending also from the coast for an average 
distance of 300 mites to Lakes Nyassa and Shirwa and 
the Kiver Euo, where it is again coaterminoua with 
British territory. But along both banks of the Zambesi 
a narrow Portuguese zone is also wedged in between 
North and South British Zambesia as far aa Zumbo, 500 
miles above the delta. The southern and northern 
sections, which roughly correspond to the r^ons com- 
monly designated respectively as Gazalaud and Iklozam- 
bique, have a collective area of about 620,000 square 
miles, with an estimated population (1S94) of 1,500,000. 
Till recently the term MozaTnbique ofBcially comprised 
the whole region, being synonymous with the expression 
Portuguese Hast Africa. But in 1891 the colony was 
constituted the " State of East Africa " (Estado (€A/rica 
Oriental), and divided into two provinces — Mozambique 
and Loaren^ Marques, coinciding with the above-described 
northern and southern sections. The State is adminis- 
tered by a Eoyal Commissioner appointed for three years, 
and residing alternately in the respective capitals, 
Mozambique and Louren^o Marques. 

PortngiUBe Haladministration 

Hitherto a thin bordering of green on the eastern 
seaboard has been more ihan sufficient to indicate the 
nature and extent of Portuguese power in East Africa. 
For nearly foxir hundred years, since the occupation of 
Sofala, Quilimane, Mozambique, Sena, Tete, and a few 
other stations along the coast and on the banks of the 
Zambesi, the authority of the Crown of Portugal has 
been mainly confined to the vicinity of those stations. 
At one or two points farther inland, such as Massara 
(Gouveia's) in the Gorongoza district, and Massi-Kessi 

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in East Manica, a certain jurisdiction has at times been 
exercised at least indirectly through the missionaries, the 
agents of the Mozambique and earlier mining companies, 
or the so - called Capitaos M6r3 {" Captains major "), 
generally half-caste chiefs or headmen supported and 
supplied with firearms and tire-water by the ofticials of 
the maritime or riverain districts. The green bordering 
must now, however, be extended into the interior, so as 
to embrace the sphere of influence assigned to Portugal 
by the Agreement of June 1891. But despite diplo- 
matic arrangements, the actual conditions remain un- 
changed, and are well expressed by Lord Salisbury in 
his speech at Glasgow on 20th May 1891 in reference 
to the recent negotiations : " 'llie territory we shall recog- 
nise as belonging to South Africa is high land, on which 
white men can work and settle. All the land on the 
banks of the Zambesi which we have offered to Portugal 
in exchange, and to which we think she has some 
historical claim, is land which can only be dealt with by 
those born in the country. And I think the melancholy 
peculiarity of the rule of Portugal is that she does not 
pour her own people into the country and people it with 
her own blood,^ but is satisfied with ruling the natives 
whom she finds there. It is therefore fitting that the 
territory which can only be cultivated by the natives 
should fall under her rule, and it is fitting that the 
territory on which white men can work should fall to 
the more active and robust Anglo-Saxon race." 

How entirely Portuguese influence has been confined 
to the coast is shown by the fact that the route from 
' Efforts, hoveTer, vere in former tiines iDsde to introduce PorCugucae 
women into Hozuobiqae, aod thus kt least develop h race in 
that Tsgion. But the attempt was mainly a failnre, and the Mestizoes 
spmng &om nnions between Portnguese men and native women are, as a 
rale, Uttle better than tike natives themselves. 

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Matabililaad eastwards to Sofala, consisting of a waggon- 
road to a point on the Lundi river 80 miles short of the 
Sabi, and thence of a mere track for 260 miles through 
Gazaland to the coast, haa never yet been used by 
traders, though " tihere appears to be no obstacle to pre- 
vent a waggon travelling tiom Umzila's (Gnnguuyana's) 
to tlie coast " (Lieutenant C £. Haynes). But even on 
the coast communications are so irregular that in 1880 
the people of Sofala had not yet heard of the Franco 
German War ; and when the Governor of Louren^o 
Marques was killed and the fort destroyed by the Zulus 
in 1842, it took a whole year for the news to reach 
Mozambique by the roundabout way of Brazil ! Mozam- 
bique itself, capital of all the Portuguese East Afirican 
possessions, is still at times dependent on the goodwill of 
the neighbouring tribes for its supply of provisions. It 
exercises scarcely any control beyond the reach of its 
guns and gun-boats, and the coast populations are prac- 
tically as independent as they were before the arrival of 
the Forti^uese nearly four centuries ago. Till the late 
explorations of Consuls O'Neill, Johnston, and last, the 
surrounding country had remained almost a terra 
incognita, for this station " had never been utilised as a 
starting-point for exploring expeditions in the interior, 
and the Portuguese continued to occupy it for three 
hundred years without collecting any information regard- 
ing the neighbouring lands and peoples that might, 
nevertheless, have easUy been visited." ^ 

The same picture of apathy and helplessness in the 
presence of the native and half-caste populations la pre- 
sented by all the riverain stations from Quilimane to 
Zumbo. Quilimane, hitherto wrongly supposed to be the 
indispensable gateway of the Zambesi, is mainly inhabited 
' Keane's Aosliu, xtiL p. 281. 

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by a few dozen whites, mostly convicts or descendante 
of convicts, and a few thousand blacks, mostly descend- 
ants of slaves or still virtually slaves. When the Eev, 
Duff Macdonald passed through the place in 1878, one 
of the sigbta he beheld was a number of natives " em- 
ployed in carrying enormous trees, each of which required 
about thirty bearers. Every party was accompanied by 
a man with a whip, who seemed to have as hard work 
as any of them." ' 

In fact these stations were chie&y maintained as 
centres of the slave trade long after the traffic had been 
abolished by most other Christian Statea When the 
Universities Mission, under Bishop Mackenzie, began 
operations in the Shir6 valley in 1861, it was discovered 
that the Portuguese officials and traders were everywhere 
carrying on the traffic to such an extent that a clause 
was inserted in the treaty with the A-Nyassa (Manganja) 
people to the effect that " if any Portuguese or other 
foreign slavers came Into the land, they (the A-Nyassa) 
would drive them away, or at once let us know of their 

While the slave trade flourished, the Zambesi stations 
enjoyed a degree of murky prosperity. When the traffic 
was at last suppressed under pressure of European 
public opinion, the stations fell into a state of hopeless 
decay. Zumbo, where a few crumbling ruins mark the 
extreme limits of Portuguese influence on the east side of 
the continent, was entirely abandoned till 1881, when 
nominal possession was resumed under a CapitSu Mor. 
But desolation reigns supreme both here and lower down 
at Tete, where the old Eoman Catholic Church is a 
picturesque forest-grown ruin worshipped by the natives 

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as a kind of fetish. But despite the abolition of the | 
traffic, domestic slavery is still rife, and the worsi 
atrocities are practised by the local chiefs, who regard 
their subjects as slaves and often treat them with fiend- 
ish cruelty. When Montagu Kerr visited Tete (1885), 
the people were at the mercy of a capricious polygamisi 
kinglet, who put his wives to death on the slightest pre- 
text. " Executions are carried out sometimes in the 
presence of the woman's father, who, through fear of 
giving offence to the king, will exhibit satisfaction rather 
than sorrow. Any appearance of grief would be fatal to 
liim. Occasionally the king may order the father to be I 
the executioner, and even then the horribly unnatural I 
command is obeyed with apparent satisfaction." * 

The Portuguese do not themselves perpetrate these 
horrors, but they are fain to tolerate, because helpless to 
prevent them. Were they to attempt to enforce orderly 
government, they would soon be swept from the Zambesi 
valley, where they are at the mercy of their Capitaos 
M6rs, that is, of their own native and half-caste ofGcials. 
Hence, even in Portugal, impartial observers are beginning 
to see that the Portuguese rule is a curse to the natives 
themselves, as well as a burden to the mother countiy. 
In 1894 the total revenue of the Colony was only 
£260,000, and the expenditure £520,000, while the 
exports, chiefly to Great Britain, scarcely exceeded 
£12,000. Many true patriots have openly declared 
that the alienation of the whole of Mozambique would 
be a wise step, and in the autumn of 1891 informal 
negotiations were actually opened by the Lisbon Govern- 
ment for the cession of Delf^oa Bay to England, which, 
according to the Agreement of June 1891, has a pre- 
ferential right of purchase. 

' The Far Imerior, ii. p. B2. 

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Historic BetrOBpect — Present Selatloag 

The foundation of Portuguese power in the eaatem 
seas dates from the year 1497, when Yasco de Gama 
douHed the Cape, coasted the African seaboard as far 
north as Malindi (Melluda), and then, under the guidance 
of local pilots, sailed across the Arabian Sea straight for 
India. Within a decade of that date the whole of the . 
east coast from Natal to Cape Guardafui was visited, and 
nearly all the present Portuguese stations — Inbambaae, 
Sofala, Quilimaue, Angosba, Mozambique, Ibo — were per- 
manently occupied, with the single exception of Louren^o 
Marques on Delt^oa Bay, where a factory was first estab- 
lished by a trader of that name in the year 1545. Sofala, 
which had already been visited by the Portuguese captain, 
Peroda Covilhams, in 1480, that is, seventeen years before 
Vasco de Gama had opened the route to India, was cap- 
tared in 1505, and here was erected the Fort Ophir, the 
ruins of which still e:tist. It was so named because Sofala, 
the Safar of the Arabs, had from time immemorial been 
the outport of the gold brought down from the Manica 
mines, and was consequently identified with the Ophir of 
Solomon. For the same reason the Eiver Sabi, which 
reaches the coast a little farther south, was associated 
with the name of the Queen of Saba (Sheba), whose 
linei^e was supposed by many to be perpetuated in the 
powerful Monomotapa, at that time pammount lord 
of the kingdom of Sofala, with all its auriferous 
dependencies in the interior. Farther up, Quilimane, 
despite its unhealthy climate, was occupied, at first in 
vassalage to the neighbouring chief, and afterwards in 
absolute tenure, because it was supposed to stand at the 
mouth of the chief branch of the Quama (Zambesi), and 
VOL. n 2 o 

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many years passed before it was discovered that this 
branch Ecarcely belonged to the Zambesi system at all, 
and, io any case, only communicated with the main 

stream during exceptional flooda Already, in Barbosa's 
time (1514), the Portuguese bad a fort at Angosha. 
which, Uke the neighbouring Mozambique, and all the 

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other seaports as far south as Sofala, had a king subject 
to the powerful Sultan of Quiloa.^ The island of Mozam- 
bique itself, which had long been a famous Arab mart, 
trading with Zanzibar and India, waa permanently occupied 
in 1507, and exactly a hundred years later chosen instead 
of Sofala as the capital of all the Portuguese East African 
possessions. These possessions extended along the coast 
from Delagoa Bay to Cape Guardafui till the close of the 
seventeenth century, when the Arabs of Mombasa, aided 
by the Sultan of Omin, succeeded in driving the Portu- 
guese from all their northern stations as far south as 
Mikindani. Since that time Cape De^aJo, at the mouth 
of the £oTuma, has marked the extreme northern limit 
of the jurisdiction exercised by the Governor-General of 

There can be no doubt that Portuguese traders and 
missionaries visited various parts of the interior from 
their stations on the seaboard. But no scientific ex- 
peditions were despatched inland before that of Lacerda, 
at the close of the eighteenth century. Hence the 
whole country beyond the coast-line remained unknown 
till the recent journeys of Erskine, Wood, Browne, 
Kuss, CDonnel, and Daly in Gazaland; and those of 
Eoscher, Johnston, Last, and especially O'Neill * in 

Gazaland takes its name from the Zulu, or, rather, 

» ■ ' When the King of Portugal diacovered this land, ths Moora of Sofala 
and Zuama (Qnama, i.t. Qailimane), and Angnoz (ADgosba), and Mozam- 
biqne, ven all under olMdience to the King of Qniloa, who waa a great 
king amoiigst them " (Stanley's Barbam], 

3 Xhe fiiBt tnutworthj map of the country north of the Lovrsr Zambesi 
dates onlj &om 1SS6, and in due to Mr. Eeuiy O'Neill, who had long 
been British Gonial at Mozambique. Ths whole country woe, in fact, 
first opened up by this indefatigable explorer, who completed the hydro- 
graphio surreys of the British Admiralty between Cape Delgado and 
Uoiambiqae Island, and thence to Angosha ; explored tiio ooone of the 

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Swazi chief, Gaza, who, accordlDg to the national traditions, 
was a contemporary and rival of Cbaka, King of Zuloland 
Gaza, however, does not appear to have made aoy per- 
manent conquests in the r^on north of the Limpopo, 
which was first overrun and reduced by his son Maniktls 
(Manikosa, Manulcuza), about the year 1833. Manikils 
had been sent by Cbaka's successor, Qingaan, to drive 
the Portuguese from Delagoa Bay, but, having failed in 
the attempt, he escaped the tyrant's vengeance by passing 
with all bis impis to the coastlaods north of the Limpopo. 
Here he established his military kraal at Chamachama 
(Xodvengu), in the hilly district about the source of the 
Bosi, 3650 feet above the sea, and 120 miles inland 
from Sofala (Erskine). From this commanding position 
his impis rapidly overran the whole land, taking Inbam- 
bane in 1834, plundering Sofala itself in 1836, and 
almost driving the Portnguese completely out of the 
country. At the same time some of his Zulu followers, 
known as Maviti, or Landins, that is, " Couriers," swept 
like a storm-clond right up to the Zambesi, where thev 
levied tribute on Tete and Sena, and where their descend- 
ants are now settled on both banks of the main stream, 
and in the Shir^ basin. 

Manikfts, the real founder of the Gaza Kingdom, was 
succeeded in the north by his son Umzila, a renowned 
chief, from whom the country often takes the name of 
Umzilaland ; and he by his brother Umdugaza about 
1882, In the sonth, Umzila's brother, Guzana, better 
known as Gungunyana,' for a time exercised a joint 

Rovnuoa ; visited Lake Shinrii, lud determiiied the water-partuig between 
the Shiri basin asd the IndUn Ocean. [Froe. Bey. Om. Soc 1SS3-18SS 
fosrim.) Hu work was continued chiefly by Cardoso dowD to 18S6, and 
since then by H. H. Jobueton, Lngard, and Keane. 

^ TTsually written Gungunhaua ; but this is PortDgneM orthognphy, io 
which nA = English ny. 

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authority with Umdugaza, but has in recent years 
assumed tbe supreme control, and has at the same time 
removed his headquarters from near Umzdla's kraal south- 
wards to a place Dot far from Delagoa Bay. Despite 
semi-official Portuguese assertions to the contrary, no 
member of Gaza's dynasty has ever acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the Crown of Portugal, and in 1891 
Gungimyana sent two indunas to England for the pur- 
pose of placing his kingdom under the British pro- 
tectorate. But meantime the Lisbon Cortes bad ratified 
the Agreement of June 1891, which includes Gazaland 
■within the sphere of Portuguese iofluenca Consequently, 
the mission ended in failure, and the Portuguese, officially 
masters of Gungunyana's country, continne to be de facto 
at the mercy of, as they have at times been tributary to, 
that state. In 1892 Gungunyana was with difficulty 
restrained from driving them out of the country. 

The descendants of ManikHs's warhke hordes " appear 
not to have degenerated from the Ama-Swazi type, 
and in Matablliland the women of Umzila's kraal 
are noted for their size and beauty " (Lt. Haynes), 
Their general attitude towards the aborigines of the 
country has been much the same as that of the 
Matabili conquerors. The plundering expeditions have 
perhaps been less systematic and less frequent, because 
there has been less to plunder on the more sparsely 
inhabited marshy plains of Gazaland than on the 
Matabili plateau. But here, as elsewhere, the Zula 
military system has been attended by the same disastrous 
results — the arrest of all social progress, the dispersion 
of peaceful settled communities, the suspension of all 
industrial pursuits, such as the mining industry in the 
Massi-Eessi district, Manica, where the gold mines were 
closed and the miners dispersed by Umzila's impis. Daring 

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their remarkable jouroey of 740 miles through Gaza- 
land in 1891, Dr. Jameson, Messrs. Doyle and Moodie 
found " a great part of the country uninhabited," and for 
a distance of at least 150 miles the route lay through 
swamps. The northern tribes, such as the Ba-Rue and 
Ba-Tokas of East Manica, still entertain snch a dread of 
the Zulus that, when they were visited in the spring 
of 1891 by some of the South Africa Company's agents, 
" their cry everywhere was the same : ' Take our conntiy ; 
only protect us from Gungunyana ' ; and again : ' Do not 
talk of the Portuguese protecting us ; they cannot save us 
from Gungunyana. Come, and leave us only room to save 
our crops.' " ^ 

Little had been done to open up the country till the 
year 1892, when, in accordance with the provisions of 
the Anglo- Portuguese Agreement of 1891, a b^aning 
was made with the " Beira Railway," which runs from 
Fontesvilla on the Pungwe above Beira north-westwards 
in the direction of Massi-Kessi near the British frontier. 
In 1894 about 90 miles of this line had been constructed 
as far as Chimoya, within five days' journey of Fort 
Salisbury. A junction will eventually be effected with 
the British South African system, thus giving the capital 
of British Central Africa access by rail southwards to 
the Cape, and eastwards through Portuguese territory to 
the Indian Ocean. 

Plans have also been prepared for the construction of 
other railways from Quilimane to the Lower Sbir^ river, 
with estensioQS at both ends, the object being to avoid 
the intricacies of the delta navigation, and to turn the 
rapids on the main stream above the delta.* But the 

^ Times Correspondent, 26th Jaoe 1991. 

* A. de Moraea Sarmeoto, Carta do delta do Zanbexe e Terrmot Adja- 
eenUt, Lisbon laei. 

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deficient local revenue, and the aerioua financial em- 
banaasment of the home government, must prevent the 
execution of these works, unless fore^n capital can be 
attracted by an improved and more vigorous adminis- 

Pliyslcal Featnres 

From Delagoa Bay the coast-line trends in a series of 
curves north-eastwards to Mozambique Island, and thence 
due north to Oape Delgado. But the escarpments of the 
continental plateau continue to follow a northerly direc- 
tion from Swaziland to the Tfyassa highlands, broken 
only by the broad valley of the Lower Zambesi, The 
result of thia conformation ia that the whole of the coaat- 
lands are mainly level, and often awampy, alluvial plains, 
broadening out northwarda, and interrupted here and 
there either by isolated mountain masses, such as the 
Namuli Mountains in Mozambique, or by a few eastern 
spurs and offshoots of the plateau, such as the foot-hills 
of the Gorongoza district (Mounts Zangwe and Miranga), 
and of the TJbiri district (Mounts Sipumgambili and 
Silindi) in Gazaland. 

All the lowlands may thus be regarded as so much 
land reclaimed from the sea by the continuous action 
of the running waters — Limpopo, Sabi, Bosi, Pungwe, 
Zambesi, Lukugu, Lurio, Mtepwesi, Hovimia, and others 
— which, with the sedimentary matter washed down 
from the uplands, gradually formed banks, islanda, and 
continuous land in the shallows of the Indian Ocean. 
Then the new coast-line thus projected seawards was 
again attacked in the north by the full force of the 
Mozambique current setting westwards from the high 
aeaa, and deflected aouthwards between Madagascar and 
the mainland. Hence the northern section of the sea- 

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board is carved into numerous capes and headlands, which 
here and there enclose well-sheltered creeks, inlets, and 
even unf^ificent havens, such as Mwambi, Memha, Con- 
ducia, Mokambo, and especially FemSo Vellozo — ^havens 
crowded with shipping before the advent of the Poitn- 
guese, since then mainly silent and lifeless. Lower 
down the marine stream flows southwards, parallel witli 
the coast, which is, moreover, somewhat protected by the 
advanced breakwater of Madagascar. Consequently the 
section of the seaboard south of the Zambesi delta is 
almost destitute of good harbours, until it again becomes 
exposed at Louren^o Marques, where has been developed 
the spacious harbour of Delagoa Bay. 

In Gazaland the ground slopes from the coast throi^ 
marshy, wooded, or grassy tracts up to the Matabili and 
Mashoua escarpments. Here the porphyry and basalt 
Silindi, Sipumgambili, and- Ubiri peaks rise to a height 
of some 4000 feet above the banks of the Upper Sahi 
river. Northwards follows the Sita Tonga range, where 
the Gundi-Inyanga ("Moon-shaver") and some other crests 
attain ao altitude of about 5000 feet Still farthor 
north this rugged region about the Anglo - Portuguese 
frontier, which forms the divide beween the Pungwe, 
Busi, and Sabi basins, culminates in the many-peaked 
Panga (6970 feet), west of the Inyamkarara valley.' 
Eastwards this valley is enclosed by the precipitous 
slopes of Gorongoe (Gorongozo), terminating in a remark- 
able sugar-loaf peak 5690 feet high. Other lofty summits 
in this highland region are Mount Lunji, a conspicuous 
pyramid rising to a height of 5960 feet ; the doma- 
shaped Mount Do^ (6725 feet), formerly supposed to be 
the highest point between the Zambesi and Limpopo ; 
lastly, the wooded granite Miranga Peak (6700 feet ?). 
I Mkjor J. J. LeTerson, Oto. Jow. 1S93, p. S12. 

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The Namnli Highlands 

North of the Zambesi the chief physical features are 
the magDificent Kamuli highlands, in every respect one 
of the finest upland districts in the whole of Africa. 
This delightful region, recently revealed to the outer 
world by the explorations of O'Neill and Ijist, lies in the 
south - western part of Mozambique, where have their ' 
rise the numerous headstreams of the Lukugu, Ligonya, 
Lurio, and other rivers flowing in varioas directions to 
the Indian Ocean. The whole group of peaks, cones, 
and crests, standing on a pedestal 2000 feet above sea- 
level, culminates in the precipitous and quite inaccessible 
twin -peaked Namuli, which is at least 8000 feet high, 
but not snow- clad, as was formerly supposed. This 
majestic summit is flanked by several other lofty heights, 
such as Malisani, Mruli, Pilani, Mresi, Likilakwa, and 
Kwiani, ranging from 6000 to nearly V 500 feet Mr. 
Last, who spent three months in the country in the 
year 1866, speaks in enthusiastic language of its wild 
romantic scenery, fertile and well-watered upland valleys, 
healthy temperate climate, and luxuriant vegetation. 
" The slopes of Namuli are clothed with verdure, in 
which large trees, india-rubber and other vines, tree- 
ferns, palms, bamboos, and a great variety of shrubs and 
boshes all combine to add beauty to the scene. In some 
places deep gorges have been cut away by the ever- 
mshing torrent, and small streams come skipping and 
sprinkling down on all sides. In one place there is a 
beautiful double waterfall of some 500 feet over Uie 
clean rock, and on each side of it laige beds of gently 
waving maidenhair ferns. On reaching the top of the 
mountain mass one sees a large extent of deeply -undulating 

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country, gentle valleys, mountain ridges gradually rising 
and culminating in abrupt peaks, very deep gorges caused 
by some enormooa foice and the continual flowing of the 
larger streams. Nature seems to have especially exerted 
beiself in the formation of this mountain mass. On all 
sides high conical peaks may be seen raising their heada 
from 1000 to 3000 feet high above the common level 
Look a little away and you see gently-rising ridges with 
one or both sides forming fearful precipices from 1000 
to 2000 feet deep. Along the depths of these gorges 
and precipices the rivers may be seen, like so many 
silvery lines, wending their way to the green valleys 
beyond." ' The scenery of the Volo, and especially of 
the Malema valley, is quite enchanting. " Here you mar 
see a large plot of soft green grass as smooth as a lawn, 
there a bed of aloes in full flower ; a little farther on 
a belt of tall trees covered with creeping plants and 
parasites, orchids and ferns in great variety. Undemea^ 
there is the clear sparkling brook, gaily rushing along to 
add its quota to the main stream. Nature here seems 
to have used all her power to make the place a lovely 
spot— a feast for human eyes " (ift.) 

Biven — Zambesi Delta — The Sabi, Pnngwo, Boruma 

The whole of Portuguese East Africa belongs to the 
maritime slope of the continental plateau, drainiDg either 
indirectly through a few tributaries of the Limpopo and 
Zambesi, or directly through the Sabi, Eosi, Pungwe, 
Lukngu, Ligonya, Mluli {Angoaha), Lurio, Mtepwesi, 
Lujenda-Eovuma, and a few smaller coast streams to the 
Indian Ocean. None of these rivers have much com- 

' Proe. Soy. Oto. Soe. 1887, p. 471. 

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mercial value, being oavigable either not at all or only to 
a very limited extent Even the Zambesi ia accessible 
only for sea-going vessels as far as the Shir^ confluence 
through the Chinde branch of the delta The other 
broad channels traced on the maps are either sluggish, 
shallow streams, obstructed by bars at their mouths and 
higher np by shifting banks, islands, and mangrove 
forests, OT else are intermittent branches connected only 
during the floods with the main stream. To the former 
class belong the Inyamissengo, Melambe, Kongooi, and 
Masulo ; to the latter, the Luasse and Qua-Qua, or " Eiver 
of Quilimane," all converging near Mopea, at the head of 
the delta, about 40 miles from the coast, and enclosing a 
marshy triangular space, with a seaward base of nearly 
60 miles, and a total area of perliaps 2000 square 

But at a former epoch, when the Zambesi was not 
only a great continental artery, but the emissary of a vast 
inland sea, the delta was much more extensive than at 
present. Even still its waters are intermingled during 
the floods not only with the Qua-Qua and Bio Mutu on 
the north side, hut also southwards with the Pungwe 
through the Sio Zangue, and a continuous chain of 
marshes or lagoons, collectively known as Lake Tandora 
Sungue. After the inland waters had been drawn off 
the old delta gradually contracted in size, and most of 
it is now represented only by numerous backwaters, 
stf^uant pools, false or erratic rivers scattered over the 
seaboard between the Pungwe and Lukugu estuaries. 
Meantime the main stream has itself been recently 
shifted several miles northwards, that is, nearer to the 
Qua-Qua; and should the tendency continue, the two 
branches will probably become merged in a single, deep, 
and navigable channel, accessible to large vessels far 

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beyond the Mopea poppy-fields at the head of the pre- 
sent delta. 

South of the Zambesi, Gazalaud is watered by three 
coDsiderable streams, the Piingwe, Bosi, and Sabi, all of 
which have Bome of their farthest sources on the slopes 
of Mount Do^ in Manicalaad. But the Sabi, by fax the 
largest river between the Limpopo and ^lambeai, draws 
some of its supplies horn Mount Hampden in Mashona- 
land, while its great tributary, the Lunda, flows with 
numerous branches from the eastern watershed of the 
Matoppo divide in the very heart of Matabililand. Yet 
this extensive fluvial system, with a catchment basin of 
many thousand square miles, is absolutely useless for 
navigation purposes. Many of the headstreams travers- 
ing the somewhat arid districta of South Matabililand 
run dry for a great part of the year, while the main 
stream loses much of its volume by evaporation and 
infiltration on the hot marshy plains of Gazalaud. 

Becently the Fungwe has been much spoken of as 
oSeriug probably the best means of access from the coast 
to the South Africa Company's settlements in Mashona- 
land. But it is to be feared that the prospective advan* 
tages of this river, 'which has a total length of nearly 
300 miles, have been somewhat overrated. It has been 
described as navigable by small steamers for a distance 
of 100 miles from Beira, at its mouth, to Mpanda (Mu- 
panda's). But Mr. Xeville H. Davies, late hydrographer 
to the Queensland Government, who visited it in 1890, 
speaks of 50 miles as the limit of its navigation for 
" vessels drawing between 5 and 6 feet of water." * Ha 
adds that the Fungwe flows through low, muddy, and 
malarious flats, which are flooded to a vast extent during 
the rainy season from February to April, the swampy 
' Paper ooatributed to K. W. Munaj'a &mA Africa, p. 218. 

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land extending all the way to Mpanda. Hence be con- 
clades tbat even the proposed raUway by tbia ronte from 
the coast to Masbonaland would prove to be a tremen- 
dously costly undertaking. Nevertheless, a steamer 
service from the Cape to Masbonaland, via Beira, was 
oi^nised in 1891, the Pungwe having been declared 
free by the Anglo-Portuguese Agreement of that year. 

North of the Zambesi the chief watercourse is the 
Bovuma, which rises on the east slope of the Livingstone 
Mountains, and which receives on its right bank the 
Lujendft, flowing from Lake Amaramba, north of Lake 
Shirwa (see p. 422). Although much the larger of the 
two forks, and about a mile wide at the confiuence, the 
Lujenda is quite unnavigable, being obstructed by rapids 
along its whole course. It is thickly studded with 
beautifully wooded islands, some of which are three or 
four miles long, and covered with fine trees, whose 
branches are festooned with graceful creepers. Below 
the confluence, the Eovuma, which here forma the political 
frontier between the Portuguese and German spheres of 
influence, overflows its right bank into the temporary 
Lidedi and Nagandi lagoons during the rainy aeaaon. 
At this time the Eovuma, which forms no delta, and is 
obstructed by no bar at ita mouth, is navigable at least 
to the confiuence for riverain craft of considerable size. 
The Eovuma (Lovuma) is intimately associated with the 
early explorations of Livingstone, who surveyed its 
channel during the low-water season for a distance of 
180 miles in a small boat. 

Next in size to the Bovuma is the Lukugu, whose 
source west of Namuli, at the north foot of Mount 
Pilani, was discovered by Mr. Last in 1886. It flows 
through a well-watered and fertile, but sparsely inhabited 
country, nearly due south to the coast, a few miles north 

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of Quilimaue. Although sending down a considerable 
volume, and swollen by a large affluent from the noitli- 
west, the Lukugu is unnavigable even by canoes. Its 
mouth is closed to coajsUng vessels by a formidable bar, 
while its middle and upper reaches are obstructed by a 
long series of rapids and waterfalls. 

Equally nseless is the Mtepwesi, which flows from 
near the Changwari hills north-eastwards to the coast at 
Ibo. None of the other Mozambique streams — Msalu, 
Lurio, Mkubure, Mikati, Mluli, Ligonya — have yet been 
surveyed for any distance from their mouths. But this 
is partly due to the fact that they are inaccessible to the 
smallest craft, while their course lies mainly through the 
fever-stricken coastlands. 


There can be no doubt that most of the uplands, both 
in Gazaland and Mozambique, are salubrious, and suitable 
to form health resorts and permanent settlements for 
Europeans. During his residence in the Namuli hills, 
Mr. Last found the normal temperature ranging from 
55° to 75° Eahr., with a maximum of 95°, and a mini- 
mum of 26°, when water froze at night towards the end 
of the austral spring. Here very strong frosts appear 
to prevail in the cold months ; so that on the Namuli 
uplands, within 1 6 degrees of the equator, there seems to 
be a regular succession of four seasons, as marked as in 
the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. 

But, on the other hand, all the coastlands from Dela- 
goa Bay to the mouth of the Bovuma, low-lying, marshy 
plains, in many places overgrown with mangrove, lie well 
within the zone of endemic African fever. Hence such 
places as Sofala, Quilimane, and Mozambique are notori- 

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OQsly unhealthy, while the whole of the Zambesi delta is 
a hot-bed of malarious exhalations. Delagoa Bay, with 
the district between the coast and the foot-hills, now 
traveiaed by the railway to the Transvaal frontier, is not 
much better, and here, as well as along the lower course 
of the limpopo and Zambesi, the country is infested by 
the tsetse fly. On the Gazaland seaboard the mean 
summer temperature is 90° Fabr. in the shade, and 72° 
in winter, and this, combined with the miasma rising 
from the decaying vegetation on the low, muddy, and 
periodically flooded plains, supplies all the elements of a 
climate as murderous as any in the tropical world. 

Owing to the disturbing influence of Madagascar, the 
normal south-east trade winds, which in Gazaland aie 
sometimes followed by heavy downpours, are little felt in 
Mozambique. After sweeping round the south end of 
the great island, the atmospheric currents, prevailing from 
April to September, are deflected northwards in the direc- 
tion of Zanzibar. During the rest of the year their course 
is reversed, and then the Mozambique marine current, 
under the influence of the northern winds, runs at an 
accelerated velocity of 3 or 4 miles an hour. Here 
the conditions are favourable for the coral builders, which 
have constructed a series of barrier reefe and islands &om 
12 to 20 miles &om the coast, all the way fix)m the 
Zambesi delta to Cape Delgado, In these waters cyclones 
are rai'e, none having occurred since the disastrous hurri- 
canes which visited the Mozambique seaboard during the 
summer of 1841, and again the two following years. 

Flora — Fauna — Natural Products 

In Gazaland most of the moisture from the Indian 
Ocean is precipitated on the terraces and escarpments of 

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tbe plateau, which are consequently clothed with a fine 
forest vegetation. Here are found a gteat variety of 
fbrms, including the curions odoriferous mopaiie, a large 
tree with its leaves disposed vertically, like those of so 
many Australian plants ; and the valuable imbanga, an 
india-rubber creeper whose fruit serves, lite the " travellei's 
tree" of Madc^ascar, to quench the wayfarer's thirst 
Owing to the deficient rainfall, the low-lying plains are 
covered with a scanty vegetation of herbage, alternating 
with scrub and thorny plant«i, and on the coast mostly 
replaced by arid sands. 

Mozambique, where the rainfall is more uniformly 
distributed, almost everywhere abounds in tropical forms, 
and the Namuli uplands are especially remarkable for 
their rich and varied flora. The plantations, which suffer 
&om the want of capital, yield a little coffee, tobacco, 
rice, and sugar, besides rhubarb, jalap, and other medicinal 
plants. Recently the cultivation of opium has been in- 
troduced, with some success, on the left bank of the 
Zambesi, near the head of the delta. 

But the chief articles of export continue to be timber, 
drugs, oleaginous seeds, gold dust, ivory, cotton, coffee, 
mbber, gum copal, cereals, tobacco, rice, indigo, skins, 
honey, beeswax, and salt, all in small quantities. These 
items may at present be regarded rather as samples of 
what the country is capable of producing under a vigorons 
administration, than of its actual contributions to the 
commerce of the world. 

Inliabitaiits of Oazaland: Tongas, Ba-Lempos, Banyans 
Before the arrival of Manikosa with his Zulu (Swazi)' 

' These Zulu9, constituting the militar; and politicsllj dominuit cUs> 
in Oazaland, are called LaadinB or "Courien" bj the Fortugneae, mi 

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following, the dominaDt people in Gazaland were 
the Tongas, who appear to be the aborigines of this 
region. They are still found everywhere, and the term 
Tonga ia commonly applied collectively to all the natives 
except those claiming Zulu descent. Judging from their 
langaage, appearance, and customs, the Tongas are more 
closely related to the Ba-Sutos, or eastern Bechuanas, 
than to any other branch of the Banta race. For Tonga, 
a term of contempt applied by the Zulus to all inferior 
races, some writers have substituted Gwamba, which 
appears to be the national name of one of their leading 
tribes about the Transvaal fiontier. Here are also several 
other groups belonging to the same connection, euch as 
the Ba-Hlengwe (Hlenga), who are the " Knob-noses " of 
the Dutch and English settlers ; the Chobi (" Bowmen ") 
of the Lower Limpopo, with a branch in the Inhambane 
district ; the Ma-Kwakwa, north-west of the same district ; 
the Bila-£ulu, near the Sabi delta ; and the Ba-Tevi and 
Ba-Kue, of East Manicaland. 

Most of these tribes recc^nise the Zulu king, Gun- 
gunyana, as their suzerain lord, whereas the Mutandi, 
Chacondas, Valenghi, Varendi, Atavaras, and other frag- 
mentAry groups about the Zambesi, between Zumbo and 
Tete, have long been subjected to direct Portuguese in- 
fluences, and are ruled either by CapitKos M.6n, or by 
Ba-Nyungwi, that is, chiefs from the reduced Nyungwi 
people, between Tete and the Lower Shir4. They all 
understand the Se-Shona language, and appear to belong 

Umgoni 1^ the southern populadona. TJmgoni is the same word aa 
A.Dgoiu (Hangoni), applied to the kindred Zulu people of South Nyassa- 
land, who formed part ot Uauikosa'a conquering hordM. But while the 
UmgoDi or Qazalaud h&TO preserved their racial purity, the northern 
AngODi have become intermingled with the surrounding aborigines, re- 
Csiniiig of their Zulu nationality little more than the name, language, and 

VOL n 2 H 

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to the same stock as the MashoDa nation, though now 
differing from them " in customs, appearance, and mode 
of living." ' Within the Portuguese sphere of influence, 
as extended north of the Zambesi by the Agreement of 
1891, are also the Ba-Dema, Ba-Senga, Achewas, Mano, 
and others, of whom little is- known beyond their tribal 
names. The Ba-Senga (A-Senga), formerly a numerous 
people about the Lower Loangwa, have been almost 
exterminated by the Portuguese half-castes of Zumbo, 
under their chief Matakenya (Alfred Sharpe). 

Amongst the Ba-Tevi of the East Manica miniug 
district (Massi-Kessi) dwell some scattered communities 
of the so-called Ba-Lempas, who are mentioned by Maucb 
as practising circumcision, and resembling the Jews in 
appearance and usages. Many, like the Polish Jews, are 
noted for their red eyes and fiery eyebrows. It is cer- 
tainly curious to find apparent traces of a Semitic element 
in this region, where the latest researches seem to shov 
that the Zimbabye and other ruins are most probably of 
Arabian origin. 

Another foreign element are the Banyans, Hindoos of 
the trading caste, who have for generations almost mono- 
polised the export trafiic of the east coast from Sofala to 
Somaliland. They were first attracted to Africa by the 
Portuguese edict of 1686 granting to a Banyan company 
the exclusive r^ht of tradii^ between Diu and Mozam- 
bique. Although deprived of their monopoly and other 
privileges in 1777, the Banyans continued to prospeT, 
and the field of their operations has been steadily enlarged 
during the past century. " The feeling of antagonism 
with which these traders are regarded arises chiefly &om 
the fact that the profits made by them are neither in- 
vested in, nor serve any useful purpose to this country. 

> Biibop Enight Bnice, Prot. Ray. Ota. Soe. June 1S90, p. 360. 

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India IB the laud of their nativity, and out of it the 
law of their race does not permit them to permanently 
settle, or even to carry their women. Besideace abroad 
ia therefore to them but a temporary sojourn, and the 
wealth they gain is naturally remitted to the only coantry 
custom allows them to call their owtl" ^ 

The Half-Broeds 

A race of Portuguese mulattos has sprung up in this 
region under somewhat peculiar circumstances. Early 
in the eighteenth century the home government organised 
a scheme of colonisation on quite an original plan. A 
number of Lusitanian women were sent to Mozambique, 
where they received grante of land in their own right, on 
the sole condition of marrying Europeans. These Ciown 
lands (Pnuos da Corva) were settled for three generations 
on the female line, that is, from mother to daughter, to 
the exclusion of all male iasua But the scheme soon 
broke down, owing to the excessive mortality, and the 
return of the immigrants or their failure to comply with 
the terms of the concessions. 

These terms had then to be modified, and free grants 
of land were made to the " daughters of Africans or 
Asiatics," in other words to any half-breeds of Portuguese 
descent on the mother's side. Several of the estates 
were also mei^d in one, and thus arose a number of 
powerful half-caste planters, who surrounded themselves 
-with harems of female slaves, indulged in the worst vices 
of European and African culture, and found themselves 
at times strong enough to defy the government itselt 
The edicts of 1836 and 1854, abolishing this strange 
feudal system, remained a dead letter, owing to the lack 
> Contnl H. E. O'Neill, A<ii«. S«y. Oto. Soe. Ootober 1SS2. 

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of military force to give them effect ; and matters had to 
be compromised by coQciliating the potent mestizo lords 
of those vast domains, who enjoyed the status of semi- 
indepeudsDt princelings. From their number have in 
recent times been selected many of the CapitSos Mors, 
whose black Negroid features, high-sounding Poituguese 
names, and truculent ways are so frequently referred to 
by travellers in the Portuguese East African possessions. 
A typical official of this class was a certain Goaveia, 
who lately occupied the natural stronghold of Messara, 
in the mountainous Gorongoza district, and who appeals 
to have been a prime mover in the troubles that arose 
between the Portuguese and the British South Africa 
Company's Agents in the Massi-Eessi district in 1891. 
This local potentate resided in the village of Inyangu, 
from him called " Villa Gouveia," where he kept a 
garrison of Landins (Zulus), who, like the native troops 
at Tete, were armed by the Portuguese Government, and 
and who, like them also, were a terror to the surrounding 
peaceful populations. 

The BCosamblqne Tribes j Wa-Tao, Hakna 

North of the Zambesi nearly all the aborigines belons 
either to the Makua or to the Yao branch of the eastern 
Bantu peoples. Many, doubtless, call themselves Maviti, 
i.e. Zulus, for this region has also been overrun by that 
warlike nation. But they are Zulus only in name and 
customs, which, after being reduced, they have adopted, 
proud to identify themselves with the fierce warriore 
who, in recent times, have spread the terror of their | 
arms throughout East Central Africa, from Natal to 
Victoria Nyanza. Such are the Ma - Nindi and the 
kindred Ma-Gwangwara, both iierce predatory tribes, 

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whose original homea are on the eastern slopes of the 
Livingstone Mountains, and about the head -waters of 
the Eovuma and Kufiji rivers. The Ma-Nindi have con- 
verted most of the Lower Kovuma valley into a howling 
wilderness, sweeping the timid Ma-Tambwe and Ma- 
Nyanja natives into slavery, or driving them to seek 
refuge in the islands and the more inaccessible wooded 
recesses about the Lujenda confluence. " All the country 
along the Bovuma, from near Newala to Ngomano, was 
formerly well populated, as the sites of the old villages 
show; but now there is not a house to be seen, the 
district having been overrun by the Makwangara (Ma- 
Gwangara) and other -marauding tribes, and is now 
become the home of a great variety of game." ' 

The Wa-Yao, or Wa-Hiyao, the Ajawa of Livingstone, 
occupy the region between the Upper Rovuma and the 
Lujenda, whence, during the present century, they have 
advanced south-westwards into the Shir^ highlands. 
Fonneriy they were a very aggressive people, much 
addict«d to slave-hunting, and in this respect acting as 
a sort of middlemen between the inland populations and 
the Arab dealers on the seaboard. Here many acquired 
a certain degree of culture from long contact with the 
Mussulman peoples, and some have even put on a veneer 
of Mohammedanism. But the gi-eat bulk of the nation 
still adhere to the old pagan practices, and at the funeral 
of chiefs a few women and slaves are said to be still 
secretly sacrificed, or buried alive. Mr. Last states that 
even cannibalism is still to some extent indulged in by 
the great chiefs. " I have been frequently told by Yao 
men, who are well acquainted with the habits of the 
chiefs, that feasts of human flesh are frequently made in 
secret by the chiefs, and partaken of by them. Mtarika 
1 Last, Proa. Sog. Oeo. Sac 1887, p. 4S8. 

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has beeu known to make feasts of this kind, and then to 
invite Mohammedaus and other strangers to partake of 
it, telling them that it is goat's flesh, of which the coast 
people are very fond " (iS.) Nevertheless the Wa-Tao 
are undoubtedly the most intelligent, industrioua, and 
enterprising people in Mozambique. They acquire the 
political predominance wherever they penetrate, as 
amongst the A-Nyanjas of the Upper Shir^ basia 
Here they have been studied by Mr. John Buchanan, 
who compares them favourably with the Mang&nja (A- 
Nyanja) aborigines. " In comparing the Wa-Tao with 
the Manganja, I have always maintained that the people 
of the former tribe are Buperior, The Wa-Tao seem fo 
me to be a more manly and independent set of blacks 
than the Manganja. Amongst the Manganja there are 
a number of fine, intelligent old men, quiet and civil, 
whom one admires when they assemble to arrange a 
milandv, (council) ; but many have a hang - dog look 
about them which you do not meet with so frequently 
amongst the Wa-Tao. The Wa-Tao are absolutely free 
when not slaves, and will not stand being curbed to the 
same extent as the Manganja. At the same time it 
must be admitted that the Wa-Yao have been a slavii^ 
tribe, and are so still whenever an opportunity affords 
itself." * Chuma, Livingstone's faithful attendant, was 
an Ajawa. 

With perhaps the doubtful exception of the Ma-Yiba 
(Ma-Hiba) coast tribe and the Lombwe * (Lomwe) of Uie 
Upper Lurio valley, all the rest of the Mozambique 
populations may be grouped as Makuas (Ma-Kna, Ma- 

■ The Shiri Highlanda, 1885, p. 103. 

' CoDBul O'NoiU regarda tlie Lombire as undoubtedly Hsknas, though 
they tliemselveB repudiate the connection. Anybow the language seenu 

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Kwa). Already meotioiied by the early Portwguese 
writers, the Makuas may almoet be r^rded as an 
historical people. But their history chiefly resolves 
itself into' a series of bickerings with the Portuguese 
authorities on the seaboard, and with endless inter- 
tribal feuds, by which the whole nation has been dis- 
integrated. Hence a great diversity of usages, and while 
some have acquired a moderate degree of culture, others 
are still plunged in the depths of savagery, practising 
barbarous rites, wearing the hideous itdomya or pdde 
(lip-ornament),' common also to some of the Shlr^ peoples, 
and even addicted to cannibalism. Thus the Ma-Wa 
(Maua), who occupy the southern slopes of the Namuli 
hills, about the beadstreams of the Lukugu, are pro- 
nounced anthropopbagists, eating their slaves, those killed 
in war, and even their own dead. " A common practice 
was that wbeu it had been privately determined to kill 
a certain person, a public beer-drinking would be con- 
vened, and the intended victim invited to the festival. 
As soon as he was fairly intoxicated, the men told off 
for the purpose would seize and carry bim off to the 
bush and spear him, then a feast would be got up, of 
which all would partake " (Last, ib^ 

None of the Makua people have founded any power- 
ful states, though Mweli and Mtarika, between the 
Namuli hills and the coast, are spoken of as " great 
chiefs." The Portuguese profess to have lately made 
treaties with these, thus acquiring a right over all their 

' "At Ukwai's I uw a woman with an enormous ndomya, or lip-ring, 
qnitc 8^ inches in diameter. This is the common ornament of the nomen 
in atl th«M districts. In addition to this some of then vteu a brass or 
iron nail from 4 to 7 inches in length. It ia passed through a hole in the 
lower lip, and left hanging in front of the chin. When the lady cannot 
afford a metal ornament of this kind she utilises a piece of stick, which 
aha corera with baoda " (Laat, Proc. Soy. Geo. Sue. 1887, p. 41). 

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lands. But Mweli assured Mr. Last that lie had never 
made any treaty with them, while Mtaiika had refused 
to place himself undet the protection of the Portuguese 
Government. In any case, it is beyond doubt that none 
of the inland populations have ever been reduced, and 
even the coast tribes have even in quite recent times 
often defied the authority of the Portuguese officials. 
Subjoined is a table of the 

Chief Tbibes and Natiovb in PoxToaiiBSB Soitth Avbioa. 

I" the dammaiit military cUsa in Qualuid, efai«B; in the hilly 
ZuLOB -I dtBtricU about tbe head-watera of the Boei, here ealled Umgoni 
\ and Landint ; an moatl; of Swazi deic«ut 
■Chobi, left bank Lower Limpopo. 
Mindong (northern Chabi), lohambana district. 
MaSvxikuia, the pUins north-west of Inhunbue. 
„ Ma-Qioaiaa, left bank Middle Limpopo and afflaeuta. 
3 Ma-Longiea (Ma'SoDf^wi), north of the Ma-Qwanza. 
' Bo'Blvnigmt (" Knob-nose "], inland ploina between LJmpopo and Sabi 

— 1 Bila-Kutu, towards the 3abi delta. 

i Majidouia f'''''""ipl"''»™"t'i"'i""tl'-e'''o^ the Zulu*. 

^ Aba-Ttvi -j 

Ba-R\K VEant Manicaland. 

'^Ba-T<dca, north of the Ba-Rue. 



Chaoomsa broken or scattered tribes, between ri(cht bank Zambesi and 

Valknohi the northern escarpments of Mashonaland. 



Ba-Ntunowi, between Tete and the Lower Shirt 

BA-DElfA . 

Ba-Senoa I left bank Zambesi, between Zumbo and Tete, and thenoe 
Mano r northwards in the direction of the Loangwa rirer. 


Ma-Gwa:«qwara \ so-called " Maviti," aboat head-waters of the Eoruma 
Ma-Nikw / and Rufiji rivers. 

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Ma-Taubwi Y the ialands and right haok of th« BoTama, and about the 

Ha'Nxakia / Lujenda confliieQce. 

Wa-Yao (Ajawa), the region betvreoD the Lnjenda asd Upper RoTTiino. 

Illa-Wa (Jfaua), sODthem slopes Namuli HillB. 
AhU, Moont Cbeia dUtdet 
Ma-Hivmi, bttweeo the forks of the Lnkugn rirer. 
niAHVA-i Mtdo, Up|>er Lorio valle;. 

AtoJcmeni, between the Lower Zambesi and the Lnkngu. 
I BoroTo, north of the Zambeai delta. 
'^LoTniwt (I), Upper and Middle Lorio baain. 
Ma- Visa {Ma-Hiba), cosatlands, south from the fiovuma river. 
Bahiaim, Hindn tiadera in the seaports. 

Tovns And BtkUons: Lonr«nco Uamnes, Dela<oa Bay 

iowrenfo Marques, ou the north-west side of Delagou 
Bay, has the distinction of being the only Portuguese 
settlement on the east side of the continent. All the 
other towns and seaports occupied by them between that 
point and Cape Guaidafui are historical places, most of 
which were already nourishing marts long before the 
Portuguese " buist into the Indian Ocean like a pack of 
hungry wolves upon a well-stocked sheep-walk" (Sir 
George Birdwood). Louren^o Marques, founded by a 
trader of that name in 1545, was too far removed from 
the centre of authority ever to become a thriving settle- 
ment, even if it could have overcome the drawbacks of a 
pestilential climate and the neighbourhood of the fierce 
Zulu tribes. It was a mere factory, engaged almost 
exclusively in the slave-trade, and after the emancipation 
it sank even to a lower depth of obscurity, being for a 
time almost cut off from cominunieation with the outer 
world. Eecently, however, Lourenijo Marques has acquired 
considerable commercial and political importance as the 
terminus of the railway to Transvaal, and the natural 
outlet of the Boer Bepublic. The harbour, where three 

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streams enter the bay through a common estnaiy, gives 
access to ships drawing 16 or 16 feet; while the bay 
it«e1f, 12 miles wide, and over 50 feet deep at the 
entrance, affords well-sheltered anchorage for the lai^est 
vessels, in depths of from 40 to 120 feet. The railway, 
51 miles long, enters Transvaal tenitoiy at Komati 
Poort, where a junction is made with the South African 

lubEinlNuw — So&Ia 

On the monotonous low-lying Gaza coast follow the 
ports of Infiavibane, just above Cape Correutes ; So/ala, in 
the swampy district between the Sabi and Pangwe 
estuaries ; and £eira, at the mouth of the Pungwe. In- 
hambane,' on a spacious inlet over 1 2 feet deep, has a 
mixed population of about 3000 natives, Arabs, Banyan 
and Parsee traders, with a few Portuguese officials. 
Here the Mohammedans have a mosque, being the 
southernmost centre of Moslem propaganda on the east 
coast. Mrs. Pringle, who visited the place in 1884, 
describes it as the most beautiful town she had seen in 
Africa. " As we approached our anchorage, the broad 
river became blocked with wooded islands. Everywhere 
we looted there were forest (cocoa-nut groves) and low- 
spreading bushes. The town, nestling under wooded 
hills, is situated at the head of a deep bay about 14 
miles from the mouth of the river. . . . Then the sunset, 
though short, was exquisite. The whole sky was full ot 
fleecy clouds, a mass of red and yellow, while the bay 
looked as brilliant as a rainbow under the evening sun, 

' Inha, occurring in the nameB of bo man; places in Fortoguese EisC 
Africa, answara to the Spanish &, translitented in English by «g ; hcnc< 
lHKambane = Nga tniiDi e. 

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which alanted across its waves, lightiog them up with 
the conataQtly-i'ftryiDg tints of green and gold." ^ 

Sofala, formerly capital of a flourisbing Dative state 
and centre of the Portuguese administration till the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, appears to have been 
from remote times one of the great trading places of the 
Indian Ocean. Here the Arabs had a permanent settle- 
ment ; and long before their advent, Sofala, possibly the 
Ophir of the Phcenioians, was the ontlet for the produce 
of the aurrounding regions, — " amber," that is, gum copal, 
ivory, and especially gold from the historical mines of 
Manica, and the other auriferous districts of the interior. 
Barbosa calls it "a town of the Moois" (Arabs), who 
" established themselves there a long time ago on account 
of the great trade in gold which they carry on with the 
Gentiles of the mainland. And the mode of their trade 
is, that they come by sea in small barks, which they call 
xanbucs {lavOnik), from the kingdoms of Quiloa and 
Mombaza and Melindi ; and they bring much cotton 
cloth of many colours, and white and blue, and some silk, 
and grey and red and yellow beads, which come to the 
said kingdoms in other larger ships from the great king- 
dom of Cambay. . . . And the said Moors sell these 
cloths to the Gentiles of the kingdom of (the) Benama- 
tapa, who come there laden with gold, which gold they 
give in exchange for the before-mentioned cloths without 
weighing, and so much in quantity that these Moors 
usually gain one hundred for one." ~ 

But Sofala now belongs to the past almost as much as 
Tyre itself The harbour, never very commodious, has 
silted up, and has already been to a large extent replaced 
by the far mors convenient port of Beira, which lies a 
little farther north, and which gives more easy and more 

' Op. eil. p. 68. ' Stanley's Barhoaa. 

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direct access to the gold districts of M&nica and Masbona- 

Qn tl jin ^m l^-^ '^f Mam >it qn « — AngOSllA 

A similar fate threatens Quilimane, at the moutb of 
the Qua-Qua branch of the Zambesi delta, which is greatly 
inferior as a waterway to the neigbbottnng Chinde 
branch. Quilimane ' suffers both from its malarious 
climate, and from the bar at the mouth of the estuary, 
which has scarcely more than 12 feet of water, though 
the inner port affords excellent anchorage all the way to 
the town, some 12 miles up the river. Till recently it 
also languished from the vexatious harbour r^ulations 
and customs, which have now been modified in accord- 
ance with the terms of the Anglo-Portuguese Agree- 
ment of 1890, throwing open the Zambesi to Uie free 
trade of the world. 

Much of the ivory, formerly conveyed to Mozamhigue 
by the slave caravans, is now brought down by steamer, 
and shipped at Quilimane. All the trade lately developed 
by the African Lakes Company between Nyassaland aDd 
the coast also necessarily follows the Zambesi-Shir^ route. 
Hence Quilimane, or some more convenient future seaport 
in the delta, seems destined to completely eclipse the 
ancient emporium of Mozambique, which has been the 
administrative centre of the Portuguese East African 
possessions since the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
Mozambique stands, not on the mainland, but on an 
adjacent coralline islet 2 miles long, which forms a 
natural breakwater to the spacious harbour of Mossoril 
Bay, where large vessels find good anchorage and shelter 
from the south-east monsoons in depths of from 25 to 50 
feet. This bay is enclosed on the north side by the 

' Pronouuood, and often written, Kilimane. 

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Cabeceiia headland, which in its turn eervea to protect 
the eqiially comniodious harbour of Conducia Bay. A 
little lower down ia developed a third haveo, the port 
of Mokambo, an almost landlocked circular basin over 
30 feet deep, forming with the others a group of 
magnificent harbours with little trade or shipping, and 
DO communications witii the interior except the grass- 
grown tracks of the former slave-routes. Thus, here, as 
elsewhere, the flag of Portugal waves over acenea of decay 
and desolation ; for before the arrival of Vasco de Gama 
in 1498, the famous island of Mozambique was the 
centre of commercial relations which radiated in all 
directions, south to Sofala, north to Zanzibar and the 
fied Sea, east to Cambay and Malabar. 

At the mouth of the Mluli river, a few miles lower 
down, stands the scarcely less renowned port of Angaxa 
(Angosha), now a mere fishing village with a little local 
traffic, but formerly a royal residence, where the Moorish 
tradera dealt in " gold, ivory, silk, and cotton stuffs and 
beads of Cambay, the same as do those of Sofala. And 
the Moors bring these goods from Quiloa and Mombaza 
and Melynde in small vessels, hidden from the Portuguese 
ships ; and they carry from there a great quantity of ivory 
and much gold. And in this town of Angos there are 
plenty of provisions of millet, rice, and some kinds of 
meat." ^ 

Femlo VellozQ— Ibo 

Still nearer to Mozambique, but on the north side, are 
the almost deserted bays of Memba aiid Masasima (FernSo 
Vellozo), the latter penetrating like a Norwegian fjord six 
miles inland, and then bratiching off north and south to 
form the secondary inlets of Belmore and Nkala, both 

' BsrbosB, op. cA. 

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protected from every quarter, and spacious enough to 
accommodate whole navies. Thus Masasima, that is, in 
the Makua language, " Complete Shelter," forms a group 
of splendid landlocked basins, ranking with Milford Haven, 
the Cove of Cork, Eio de Janeiro, and Port Jacksoo, 
amongst the supremely excellent harbouts of the world. 
The surrounding district also is both healthy and fertile, 
but it has been so entirely neglected by the Portuguese 
that a neighbouring Makua chief was allowed in 1870 
to waste the whole country, which is now entirely un- 

Farther north follow the httle port of Ibo, at the 
mouth of the Mtepwesi river, and Tunghi Bay, at Gape 
Delgado, wrested by a Portuguese gunboat from the 
Sultan of Zanzibar in 1886, but never settled. The fine 
inlet of Mwambi (Pemba) -Bay, south of Ibo, was the 
scene of another abortive attempt at colonisation in 1857. 
A number of Portuguese emigrants were indnced to settle 
in the district by the oEfer of free lands, live-stock, pro- 
visions, and even firearms, to defend themselves against 
the neighbouring predatory tribes. But they were, at the 
same time, subjected to such a rigorous system of " paternal 
government," that they lost all personal initiative, and the 
colony, after languishing a Httle while, rapidly died out. 

Zombo — Tete— Sena 

In the Zambesi valley, almost the only centres of 
Portuguese authority are Sena, Tete, and Zumho, the last 
mentioned occupied intermittently since the middle of die 
eighteenth century, the two former more permanently held 
since the early period of colonisation. Zumho, about 500 
miles from the coast, was never anything more than a 
trading station, visited now and then during the local fairs 

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bj the so-called " Canaiese " dealers, that is, pedlars from 
the province of CaDara, od the west coast of India. Full- 
blood Portuguese officials are seldom seen in the place, 
which, since its reoccupation in 1881, continues to be 
admmistered by a half-caste Capitfto M6r, a kinsman oi 
the local chief, and at about the same level of culture. 

Tete, on the light bank between the Kebrabasa and 
Lupata rapids, commands the easiest route between the 
British territories of Mashona and Nyassa lands, which 
in fact are here practically separated b; the strip of 
Forti^uese territory extending along both banks of the 
Zambesi. The district, being hilly, is comparatively 
healthy, and enjoys the great advantage of being free 
from the tsetse scoui^e. It is the centre of a vast 
mineral region, occupying both sides of the main stream, 
and including extensive coalfields, as well as gold and 
iron ores. Yet Tete, formerly a flourishing place, trading 
in gold, ivory, cereals, indigo, and slaves, is now a picture 
of desolation, where little is to be seen beyond a cluster 
of wretched native hovels grouped round a crumbling 
Portuguese fort 

A similar picture is presented by Sejui, " SOo-Marfol, 
the Moribund," as the Portuguese themselves call it. It 
stands also on the right bank, opposite the navigable 
Ziwe-Ziwe branch of the Shir^ delta; but, despite its 
relative proximity to thecoast,it has frequently been entirely 
cut off froia commuuication with the outer world, paying 
tribute to the neighbouring Zulu tribes, and even " barri- 
cading itself at night against the lions." The climate 
also is deteriorating, owing to the stagnant waters left by 
the Zambesi, which at this point is slowly shifting its 
channel northwards, and threatening to leave Sena a prey 
to marsh-fever and the beasts of the jungle. 

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Hiitorio BetiMpMt — Boundaries ; Extent ; PTcapeota— Oeogiaiplunl Bx- 
plontioa — Fbysicsl Futurea — Ttilitn.njjM — Bivera >nd Lakes; 
Sources of the Nile — I^ea Manyan, Eiassi, Victoria Nyuiza, aod 
Rukira — Climate — Flora and Fauna — InLabitanta — Wa-Zambara : 
Wa-Zegaha— Wa-Sagan; Ws-Hehe; Ha-Eondd; Wa-3w*hili ; 
Wa-TaTsita : Wa-Qweso ; Kaiagve ; Wa-Huma Migrations — T&ble 
of the Chief Tribes and Nationa in German East A&ica— Towns i 
Stations— KUoa ; Dares-Salaam ; Bagamojo ; Mpwapwa ; Taborah j 

HlBtoiic BetroBpect 

While the history of Portuguese rule on the eastern 
seaboard extends over centuries, that of the Germans in 
the same region is covered by only a decade. Their 
sudden intrusion dales only from the autumn of the year 
1884, when three Ma - Duchi {" German ") political 
agents,^ in the undignified disguise of needy travellers, 
passed over from th& island of Zanzibar to the mainland 
at Saadani, and at once proceeded to make treaties of 
annexation with the local chiefs. Some of these treaties 

' Tbe7 vsre ealled " excursionists," and their names were Dr. Fatera, 
afterwards distinguished as an explorer. Dr. Jiihlke, and Connt PfeC. 
Their unconveiitional action was supported by th» ramoos Sohutzbrief 
( " Letter of Protection ") of 27tli Februarj 168C, a new devioa of inter* 
national diplamnc;. 

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■were absolute fictions, while ail the chiefs had hitherto 
been recognised as vassals or subjects of the Sultan ot 
Zanzibar. The Sultan himself was virtually a prot^g^ 
of Great Britain, though no formal protectorate had ever 
been declared, and his name and authority were acknow- 
ledged by all the Mohammedan and many of the native 
communities between the coast and Lake Tanganyika. 
Nevertheless, the treaties were at once endorsed by the 
Imperial Government as " accomplished facts," and forced 
on the acceptance of the Sultan by the appearance of a 
German fleet in the Zanzibar waters. Events now 
followed rapidly, and by the two Anglo-German Con- 
ventions of 1886 and 1890, the Sultan was successively 
relieved of all his possessions on the mainland as well as 
of all the contiguous islands except Zanzibar and Pemba. 
Lastly, the Sultanate itself, thus reduced to two islets 
■with a joint area of scarcely 1000 miles, was, in the 
same year, 1890, declared a British protectorate. 

Thus was extinguished the last semblance of political 
independence enjoyed by the later representatives of the 
ancient Zang empire, whose rulers claimed the proud 
title of " Sovereigns of the Sea," and whose dominions, 
before the advent of the Portuguese, embraced the whole 
seaboard from Cape Guardafui to Sofala. The Persian 
term ZaTtg ' had reference to the dark colour of the 
dominant race, who are '^oken of by the early Arab 
writers as Mohammedan Negroes, and who are stilt 
represented by the Wa-Swahili, that is, "coast people,"* 

' Zan^, aotlmtd in Arabic to Zenj, eipUinB the double forms : Zangue- 
bar, fonnerly applied to the coaatlanda, and Zanzibar, an IndiHO cornip- 
tioD of the uniG word, now netrioted to the neighbouring island. In 
Arabic, bar memu " laud " aa opposed to water ; hence Zatigui-bar, the 
"land of tbe Zaug people," anawcrs to Hinda-bor, the "land of the 
Hinda " (India) on the opposite side of tlie Arabian S«a. 

' From J>.^1_3 3ahil = coast. 
VOL. II 2 I 

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the mixed Arabo-Bnntu Mohammedans of Zanzibar and 
the adjaceot mainlaDd. By the Portuguese writers they 
were grouped with the Arabs under the general designa- 
tion of " Moors," ' and were carefully distinguished 
from the " Caffres," who were always pagans. In 
Edrisi's map (1154) a lai^e section of the seaboard, 
including Melinde and Manisa (Mombasa ?), is already 
comprised in the Zenj State, whose sultan at the arrival 
of the Portuguese had his residence as far south as 
Qoiloa. At that time this famous capital, with its " 300 
mosques" (Ibn Batuta), was a flourishing emporium, 
" built of handsome liouses of stone and lime, and very 
lofty, with their windows like those of the Christians ; in 
the same way it has streets, and these houses have got 
terraces, and the wood worked in with the masonry, with 
plenty of gardens, in which there are many fruit trees 
and much water " (Barbosa). But then came Francisco 
d'Almeida, who captured the place after a ruinous siege 
(1505), and then "the King of Portugal ordered a 
fortress to be built, and thus he holds under his com- 
mand and government those who continued to dwell 
there " (ib.) But these were not many, and Quiloa, 
abandoned by commerce, which witliered under the 
blighting rule of Portugal, soon decayed. The same fate 
rapidly overtook Mombasa, Melinde, Brava, Magdosho, 
aud most of the other seaports as far north as Cape 
Guardafui, where the Portuguese stationed a fleet to lie in 
wait for the Arab vessels plyuig between India and the 
Bed Sea, " and lake them with all their riches " {U>.) 

Thus was destroyed the powerful Zenj empire, of 
which nothing now survives except the name, banished 

' This fact ia well broaght out by the language of Barbou, who 
<lescribes the Moors as " of a dusky colour, and some of them are black 
(Z«iy) and Bome white " (Arabs). 

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from the mainland to the neighbouring island of Zanzibar. 
But on ita ruins rose another Mohammedan state, that 
of the so-called "iinims" (properly "sayyids") of Mascat, 
who ruled over a great part of South Arabia, and 
early in the eighteenth century drove the Portuguese 
from all their stations on the African seaboard as far 
south as Cape Delgado. This maritime state, however, 
was too unwieldy to hold together, and at the death of 
the Sayyid Said, in 1856, a dispute about the succession 
was settled by the friendly interference of the Indian 
Government, which awarded the Asiatic section to his 
son, Thowayni, and the African to Thowayni's brother, 
Sayyid Majid. Majid, who had selected the city of 
Zanzibar for his capital, and thus became commonly 
known as the " Sultan of Zanzibar," was succeeded at his 
death in 1870 by his younger brother, Bargash ibn Said. 
Under these rulers, both of whom were guided by the 
wise counsel of the British political agent. Sir John Kirk, 
Zanzibar rose to a considerable degree of commercial 
and social prosperity ; the island became the centre of 
far-reaching humanising influences, the headquarters of 
the Universities and other Protestant missions, and the 
starting - point of nearly all the famous geographical ex- 
peditions which have filled up so many of the blank 
spaces on the map of equatorial Africa. Nevertheless, 
Baigash, who had visited England in 1882, lived to see 
the dismemberment of his dominions by a process of 
acquiring colonies, wliich for cynical disregard of inter 
national rights has not been surpassed in modern times 
His brother, £halifu, who had ascended the throne in 
1888, survived only till February 1890, when he 
was succeeded by Sayyid Ali, also a son of Said, 
on whose death in March 1893 the present ruler, 
his nephew Hamed ibn Thwain, was appointed by 

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the British Grovemment as the most suitable of several 

BonndATlea— Extent— Prospecta 

As definitely settled by the two above-mentioned 
Conventions and the Agreement ot December 1886 with 
Portugal, the portion of East Central Africa assigned to 
Germany forms a compact territory with a base line on 
the Indian Ocean, extending &om Cape Delgado nearly 
due north for about 480 miles to the mouth of the 
Umba. From this coast-line it extends inland along the 
course of the Eovuma to Lake Nyassa, and thence along 
the north-east side of the Stevenson Eoad to Lake Tan- 
ganyika, which with a conventional line running from its 
northern extremity northwards to 1° S, lat. foinis the 
western frontier towards the Congo State. ITie northern 
frontier is extremely irregular and also purely conven- 
tional. It runs from the Umba estuary north-westwards 
to Lake Victoria Nyanza, making a loop round the north 
side of Kilimanjaro, so as to enclose that mountain. 
Then the line crosses Victoria Nyanza at 1° S. lat., 
and continues along the same parallel westwards to 30° 
E. long., but making another loop to the south so as to 
exclude Mount Mfumbiro. German East Africa is thus 
conterminous north with British East Africa, west with 
the Congo State, south with British Zambesia and Portu- 
gnese East Africa, comprising altogether an area of 
400,000 square miles and a population vaguely esti- 
mated (1894) at 2,900,000. 

But only a small part of this vast domain is 
actually administered under an Imperial Commissioner 
by the German East Africa Company, which was 
chartered in 1885, and which received a concession of 
the TJsagara uplands, in all respects the finest district in 

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the whole region. The country had hitherto been 
exploited almost exclusively by Arab dealers in slaves 
and ivory, and the attempt of the German Company to 
interfere with their privileges brought about a serious 
outbreak of hostilities in 1889. This caused the ruin 
or abandonment of nearly all the fifteen stations that 
had already been founded. But the rising was ultimately 
quelled by imperial aid in 1890, though a military 
element was thus introduced which has led to further 
troubles, such as the disastrous collision in September 
1891 with the Wa-Hehe people south of the Bua-Ha 
river, involving the total destruction of a large expe- 
ditionary force under the command of Captain von 

Meantime the Company has received substantial sup- 
port in divers ways from the Government, including 
heavy subsidies for railways, steamers, and public works. 
Nothing but good can accrue to the native populations 
by this policy, which, however, could scarcely be inde- 
finitely continued unless some return were made besides 
empty prestige for the continual drain on the imperial 
treasury. Hence it is satisfactory to note that, despite 
the political troubles and the efforts to suppress the slave 
traffic, there has been a steady increase in the general 
trade of the country, the imports and exports having 
risen from about £350,000 in 1889 to £665,000 in 
1894. At present the most important exports are 
ivory, cocoa-nuts, copra, gum copal, rubber, and sesame 
seed. But much other local produce, such as timber, 
cereals, drugs, tobacco, cotton, sugar, coffee, vanilla, will 
doubtless be raised for the foreign market, according 
as orderly government is established, the communications- 
with the interior developed, and more capital attracted to 
the plantations on the rich alluvial coastlands, and on 

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the still richer southern slopes of Kilimanjaro. But the 
hope at one time entertained that this region can ever 
become a home for German settlers, or even a great 
storehouse of colonial produce, such as Java, Cuba, and 
parts of British India, must be abandoned. It lies 
close under the equator, a position not counteracted by 
any great extent of highlands or of lofty plateaux. 
Hence, " for the present at all events, the white man 
must be content to settle there temporarily to teach the 
natives the dignity of labour, and to lead them on to a 
higher plane of civilisation." ' 

The extent of ground capable of profitable tillage is 
also relatively very limited. According to Dr. Hans 
Meyer, an excellent authority on this point and quite 
above the suspicion of prejudice, the German East 
African Protectorate consists of eighty per cent "of 
barren, almost uninhabited steppe, savannah, and bush." ' 
Dr. Wissmann is also quoted as declaring that " one-fifth 
of German East Africa is good land, the rest is a barren 
waste," where " good land " includes both pasturage and 
arable soil. Altt^ther there are probably not more 
than 30,000 square miles available for plantations and 
other branches of husbandry, most of which lies in a 
decidedly insalubrious climate. These are the data on 
which must be based all calculations as to the future 
prospects of the protectorate. 

Oeographical Exploration 

The exploration of this region was originally under- 
taken not so much for its own sake aa for what lay 
■ beyond it. Curiosity had long been excited by the 

' E. O. Rsvenstein, Proc Roy. Geo. Sae. Januarj' 1881, p. 31, 
' Aemn Sail African aiaeicn, 1861, p. 327. 

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natire reports of great lakes in the interior, reports which 
seemed to confirm the vague traditioiia handed down from 
remote antiq[uity. It was to verify these reports that 
Speke and Burton started from Zanzibar on their event- 
ful expedition of 1857-58, the first fruit of which 
was the discovery of TaDganyika. On the return 
jouniay Speke took advantage of a delay, caused by the 
state of Burton's health, to make an excnision to the 
DOrth-eaSt, where be had heard of a still larger basin, 
and where be reached the south side of Kerewe,* renamed 
by him Victoria NyaDza, on 30th July 1858. In Sep- 
tember 1860, Speke, now accompanied by Grant, i^in 
set out from Zanzibar, and passiDg as before through 
B^amoyo westwards to Taborab, here struck north to 
the Victoria XysDza. After surveying the west side of 
Victoria, and visiting the native states of Karagwe and 
Buganda, the explorers continued their northern journey 
dowD the Kile valley to the Mediterranean. Meanwhile 
Nyassa had been discovered by Livingstone, and thus the 
vast inland sea, still figuring under the name of Lake 
U-Nyamezi on Erhardt and Eebmann's map of 1856, 
was at last dissolved into its constituent elements — 
Tanganyika, Nyassa, and Victoria. 

Somewhat differeut routes across the Eingani and 
through Taborah westwards to Ujiji on Tanganyika, and 
northwards to Victoria, were followed by Stanley on his 
quest for Livingstone in 1871, and on his great expedi- 
' Karewe (U-Kerewe) wai properly the name of the Urge istind at the 
Mnth-eut uanier of Victoria, though the term w&a geaetally applied by 
the natives of that district to the lake itself. There was no generally 
accepted native name beyond the term Nyania, applied to any large body 
of water, whether Uke or river ; hence Spoke was fully jastiGed in retain- 
ing thil word, and giving it a more definite sense by the addition of the 
epithet Victoria. The same principle vas followed by Baker and Stanley 
in designating the other menibera of the equatorial group : Albert, Albert 
Edward, and Alexandra Nyanza. 

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tion of 1874-77, rouud Victoria, and down the Congo to 
the Atlantic. Hence these otherwise memorable journeys 
already added considerably to out actual knowledge of 
the region between the Indian Ocean and the great lakea 
The northern districts also, comprising the KiUmanjaro 
and Kenia highlands, had already been traversed so early 
as 1848-49 by the missionaries Krapf and Kehmann. 
Kilimanjaro had doubtless been heard of by the Portu- 
guese during their occupation of Mombasa (1507-1700), 
and is already referred to by the Spanish pilot and 
gei^rapher Enciso in 1519 as the " Ethiopian Mount 
Olympus," correctly placed by him " west of Mombasa," 
and described as " very high, and farther off are the 
Mountains of the Moon (Euwenzori ?), in which are the 
sources of the Nile." ' Tlie two German pioneers were 
followed in 1861 by R Thornton and Baron von der 
Decken, and they by the Rev. Charles New in 1871, the 
survey of this African giant being completed by Mr. 
Joseph Thomson (1883), H. H. Johnston (1884), and 
Dr. Hans Meyer (1889). 

Meanwhile the caravan routes running from Baganioyo 
through Usagara, Ugogo, and Unyamwezi to Tanganyika 
had become beaten tracks, from which Livingstone, 
Cameron, Thomson, Price, Kaiser, Mackay, "Wilson, 
Cambier, Heichardt, and Trivier had diverged right and 
left, and their itineraries have become gradually con- 
nected with those of Elton, Cotterill, and others advanc- 
ing from Lake Nyassa northwards to the Kuliji valley, 
and north-westwards to Lakes Rikwa and Tanganyika. 
Lastly, the various military and commercial expeditions 
undertaken by Wissmann, Emiu Pasha, Baumann, and 
other German officials have now completed the survey, 

> Soma de Ocographia, Seville, 1619, fol. G7, quoted b; G. K RireD- 
itMD ind H. H. Johnston in Tlie Kilimat^jaro S^itdilion, IS80, p. 7. 

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at least in all its essential features, of the rugged table- 
land, Btretcbing over 500 miles nortb and south between 
Nyanza and Kyassa, and 600 miles west and east between 
Tanganyika and the Indian Ocean. 

Physical reatnrei 

Captain Burton, who had a keen eye for the pro- 
minent characteristics of the lands explored by him, 
distinguishes five physical zones in the region traversed 
by the route from Bagamoyo to Ujiji, First come the 
low-lying coastlands, reaching from the sea to the Usagara 
Mountains, which bear somewhat the same relation to 
the eastern seaboard that the Ghftts do to the west coast 
of India. The second zone comprises the Ust^ra Moun- 
tains themselves, which are not merely the escarpments 
of the continental plateau, but veritable highlands which, 
even on the landward side, rise to considerable elevations 
above the normal level of the surrounding tablelands, 
and which have an absolute altitude of about 6500 feet. 
They form an irregular orographic system of granites, 
diorites, schists, and sandstones, disposed mainly in two 
parallel chains, running south-west and north-east, but 
nowhere very clearly defined, owing to the numerous 
transverse ridges branching off in all directions. The 
Usagara Mountains are evidently a mere fragment of 
a mighty range which, before its reduction by weathering 
and denudation, was probably connected south-westwards 
with the Livingstone system, and northwards through the 
I'ar^ foothills with Kilimanjaro. 

Beyond Usagara follows the third zone, the Ugogo 
plateau, a dry and barren region, extending some 150 
miles inland, at a mean elevation of from 3500 to 4000 
feet, and forming the divide between the streams flowing 

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north to Nyanza, weat to Tangaayika, and east to the 
ladJao Ocean. Westwards Ugogo becomes continually 
more arid, merging at last in the dreaded Mganda 
Mkhali (" Land of Fire "), a dreary waterless plain, partly 
covered with scrub, partly with shingle washed down 
by long dried-up torrents, and here and there broken by 
isolated masses of syenite or granite, piled up in chaotic 
disorder, or affecting tlie fantastic outlines of towers, 
gateways, or frowning citadels. Nevertheless the terrors 
of the Mgunda Mkhali would appear to have been some- 
what exaggerated by the early explorers. Mrs, Hore 
speaks of it as " really one of the most beautiful parts 
of the route, abounding in game, and affording ample 
water for travellers about nine months of the year. It 
must have acquired its name rather from the effects of 
long marches and heavy loads, to which porters are 
necessarily subject in crossing it, than from any unusual 
natural condition," ' 

After crossing this inhospitable tract the traveller 
enters the fourth zone, the hOly tableland of Unyamwezi, 
a land of comparative plenty, fertile and well watered 
by the numerous headstreams of the Malagarazi, eastern- 
most affluent of the Tanganyika - Congo basin. In 
Unyamwezi the most fertile and populous district is 
Unyanyembt^, where is situated the flourishing Arab 
and missionary station of Taborah (Kazeh). Unyan- 
yemb4, the " Land of Hoes," i.e. the " Tilled Land," is 
intersected in the south by numerous rocky ridges, but 
in the north ia more level, and is here thickly dotted over 
with villages, surrounded by impenetrable hedges of the 
milk-bush. Before the troubles caused by the revolt of 
the native cliief, Mirambo, the Arabs of Taborah lived in 
comparative luxury', occupying spacious, well-built liouses, 
' To LcUee TaitganvOea in a Bath Chair, 1888, p. 127. 

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with gardens and fields, where they raised wheat, onions, 
cucumbers, and fruits. From the coast they drew their 
supplies of tea, cofTee, sugar, and other comforts, and the 
station was guarded fay a thousand Baluchis, in the pay 
of the Sultan of Zanzibar. But although reinforced by 
other troops from the coast, they were unable to prevent 
the country hum being ravaged by Mirambo, who was 
originally the headman of a small district in Unyamwezi, 
traversed by the trade route to Tanganyika. Having in 
vain appealed to the Taborah Arabs against a trader who 
had defrauded him of some ivory, Mirambo closed the 
caravan route, fell on the Arab settlements, compelled 
the natives to join hia bands, and for many years main- 
tained a desultory and determined warfare in Unyamwezi. 
Hence Stanley, Cameron, Livingstone, and other travellers 
passing to and fro between the coast and Tanganyika 
during the seventies were always compelled to make a 
long detour to the south in order to avoid the disturbed 
district. After Mirambo's death in 1887, the ephemeral 
state founded by him dissolved into its primitive hetero- 
geneous elements, 

Unyamwezi, the " Land of the Moon," * absurdly 
identified by some historical geographers with Ptolemy's 
"Mountains of the Moon," extends for about 140 miles 
westwards to the alluvial plains of the Lower Malagarazi, 
which form the fifth zone, corresponding on the shores 
of Tanganyika to the first zone on the shores of the 
Indian Ocean. 

The coast zone rises somewhat abruptly north-west- 
wards to the Usambsra escarpments of the continental 
plateau. Beyond these escarpments the rise is con- 
tinuous still north-westwards to the Pan^ range, which is 
continued in the same direction by the Ugweno uplands 
' ilaexi = " moon " in idbdj Bantu dialecU. 

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south of Kilimanjaro, and west of Lake Jipd. This depres- 
sion stands at an elevation of nearly 2400 feet, while 
some of the Ugweuo crests rise to heights of 5500 
and 6000 feet, culminating in Mount Ciamualla (6560 

feet), ascended in 1889 by Hans Meyer. The bare 
rounded peak of Gamtialla stands like the highest islaad 
of an arcliipclago in a sea of emerald green, commanding 
a superb prospect of the neiglibouring lake and of tlie 
distant Par^' Idlls away to the south, while to the nortli, 

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high above all, and moaarch of all, is the twin-crested 
Kilimanjaro, " towering skyward zone above zone, its 
crown now frosted white as silver with freshly-fallen 
snow," ' 


Kilimanjaro, also for the fii-st time scaled by Meyer 
in 1889, attains in the Mawenzi and Kibo peaks the 
respective altitudes of 17,570 and 19,720 feet It thus 
appears to be loftier than its noithero rival, Eeuia, and 
is consequently the culminating point of the African 
continent, unless it is to be dethroned from its pre- 
eminence by future surveys of Stanley's Ruwenzori. It 
is a huge, long-extinct volcanic cone, standing on a 
pedestal itself over 8000 feet high, nearly midway 
between the coast and Victoria ^yanza, three degrees 
south of the equator, and just within the conventional 
frontier line of German East Africa. The two peaks 
really represent two distinct volcanoes, connected by a 
saddleback like that of Ararat, but higher (14,400 feet), 
the whole forming an enormous igneous mass nearly 60 
miles long both ways, with a total periphery of about 
170 miles. A marked contrast is presented by the 
arid northern and fertile southern slopes, which are 
exposed to the wet south-eastern monsoons, and are 
consequently clothed with luxuriant vegetation, belonging 
in ascending order to the tropical, temperate, and arctic 
botanical zones. The highest slopes, where all vegetation 
ceases, are snow-clad for a great part of the year, and 
some of the deeper crevasses are permanently streaked 
with white. The natives, to whom snow is elsewhere 
an unknown phenomenon, suppose these glittering crests 
' Hans Ueyer, op. cit. p. 211. 

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to be covered with molteu silver, and attempts have ev«n 
been made to reach the top in quest of the precious melal. 
Kibo terminates in a vast crater 6500 feet in circuit 
and 600 feet deep; numerous well-preserved parasitic 
cones,' from 60 to 500 feet high, also occur all along the 
southern foot of Kilimanjaro, while the western horizon 
is bounded by the isolated Mount Meru, 16,000 feet 
high. Meru lies within the great trough or volcanic 
fault, which is indicated by the chain of land-locke<i 
lakes, the chief links of which are Samburu (Hudolf) 
in the north, Bariugo, Elmcteita, and Naivasha in the 
centre, the Natron Lake and Manyara in the south. 
The long, rocky wall rising abruptly on the west side 
of the trough is not a mountain range, but merely 
the scarp of the central plateau, which extends from 
Meru westwards to the far larger depressions flooded 
bj' Lakes Eiassi and Victoria Nyanza. Beyond Nyanst 
the plateau stretches still westwards to the Xaragwe 
and Ankori uplands, culminating north-westwards in 
lluwenzori, possibly the highest land in Africa (19,000 
to 20,000 feet?). Here another great fault, parallel 
with the Sarahuru-Manyais trough, seems to be in- 
dicated by another and far larger lacustrine chaiu, 
formed by Albert Nyanza, Albert Edward Nyanza, 
Kivu, Tanganyika, and Nyassa Such appears, roughly, 
to be the geological structure of these equatorial 
uplands and depressions, flanked on the east side by 
Kilimanjaro and Kenia, on the west by Euwenzori 
and Mfumbiro. But much of this region is included 
in the sphere of British influence, and its descriptioo 
■ When vistW by ihs. French Sbeldou in 1891, one of these craUn 
at the south-east foot of Kilimanjaro was found to be flooded b; Lak« 
ChaliL, n little tarn enanning with crocodiles, and encircleJ bj denseljr 
wooded I'ocky walls. Chala bad already been sighted bj- H. R. Johnstou 
in 1884 {Kilimanjaro Erptdition, p. 290). 

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must therefore Le reserved for the next chapter. It may 
here be remarked that the conventional line draicn by 
diplomatists between the two political spheres violates 
the physical unity of the land almost at every step. 

Thus Kilimanjaro is separated from Kenia, the eastern 
and western troughs are cut in two, and even Victoria 
Nyauza is divided into a British and a German section. 

Bivers and Lakes ; Sources of the Nile 

Thanks to this eccentric jiolitical arrangement, the 
German protectorate belongs to tliiee distinct hydro- 
graphic systems. From the central plateaux its surface 
waters How tlirough the Malagarazi (see p. fl4\ west to 

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Tanganyika and tie Congo tor the Atlantic, through the 
Kagera, Shiiniyu, and some other southern afSuents of 
Victoria Nyanza, north to the Nile for the Mediterranean, 
through the Boruma, Hiifiji, Kingsoi, Wami, Fangani, 
Uniba, and a few smaller coast streams, eastwards to 
the Indian Ocean. None of the coast streams north of 
the Eovuma are navigable, except the Rufiji (Xufiji),' 
which reaches the sea opposite the island of Mafia 
(Monfia), and which is chiefly remarkable for its vast 
delta, out ot all proportion to the extent of its basin. 
This intricate system of shifting channels and backwaters 
has a coast-Hue of over 50 miles, and an area of no less 
than 600 square miles, or about one-tenth of the whole 
drainage area. In the same proportion the Nile or 
Mississippi delta would cover a space of some hundred 
thousand square miles. One or two of the branches are 
accessible to small coasters at high water; and above 
the delta the main stream is navigable by %ht river 
craft for 120 miles to the Pangani Falls. The Bufiji is 
formed by the junction of the Luwego (Luvu), rising on 
the eastern slope of the Livingstone Mountains, and of 
the Uranga, descending from the Unyamwezi plateau. 
Below the confluence it is joined by the Buaha, a Urge 
tributary from the south. 

The Kingani or Eufu, flowing from the Usagara up- 
lands to the coast near Bagamoyo, may be ascended by 
boats for a considerable distance at high water. The 
name of this river constantly recurs in the records of the 
early explorers, who, soon after leaving Bagamoyo, had 
to cross it on the caravan route leading to the interior. 

' The liquids I itnd r are not ftlns^ clearly diatiugnished in prooimcu- 
tioD, aad constantly iateichaDge in the different Bantu idioms ; hence lu 
and ru, la and ro, Iva and ma, all meaning river, ai in Rufiji, Liifijij 
Bovuma, LoTuma, etc. 

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The Wami, which leaches the coast a little farther Dorth, 
drains a much larger area, hut is equally useless for 
oavigation. Beyond the Wami follows the Pangani (Buvn), 
which drains the southern slopes of Kilimanjaro, and 
collects the running waters from Ugweno and the west 
side of the Taxi range. Lastly, the Umba (Wanga), an 
insignificant coast stream, has acquired some importance 
since it has been chosen as the frontier line between the 
German and British East African possessions. 

On his route to Victoria Kyanza in 1874-75, Stanley 
came upon a stream variously known as the Liwumba, 
Luwamb^, and Mwaru, which had a northern trend, and 
which he supposed to be the upper course of the Shimiyu, 
another stream soon after struck by him, and followed 
along its lower course to Speke Gulf, at the south-east 
comer of iNyanza. He therefore concluded that the 
Liwumba, which rises about 5° S. lat., on the northern 
slope of the Unyamwezi plateau, must be the sonthem- 
most affluent of Nyanza, and consequently the farthest 
headstream of the Nile. Since then the Bev. Mr. Pearson 
has shown that the Liwumba has no connection with 
the Shimiyu, that it flows at a lower level than Nyanza, 
and that it is cut off from Tanganyika by ridges 500 
feet high ; consequently it cannot possibly belong to 
either the Nile or Congo systems, and in all probability 
it is the upper course of the Wembere, which is reported 
to fiow to the great Lake Eiassi (Nyanza ya Nyalaya). 

This important addition to the great equatorial lakes 
was unexpectedly discovered by Dr. Oscar Baumaun in 
March 1892 during his expedition from Lower Arusha 
on the Upper Buvu river to Speke Gulf at the south-east 
comer of Victoria Nyanza. After tracing from south to 
north the western shore of Lake Manyara, which he 
found to be 74 miles loug, with a mean breadth of 19 

VOL. n 2 E 

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or 20 miles, thk explorer struck north-west to the little 
salt lake Ngorongoro, west of the NatroD Lake. Then 
turning westwards lie soon reached a vast sheet of water 
called Lake Eiaasi, and marched along ite nortbera shore 
without anywhere sighting the opposite extremity. " I 
was exceedingly surprised," he writes, " by thia diacoveiy, 
as no information, even from beoisay, is possessed abont 
the existence of so extensive a basin. The Masai, whose 
raids extend along its shores, informed me that it reached 
as far as Iramba, in which cose it must be over 93 miles 
long, its breadth in the northern portion varying hx>m 
18 to 30 miles. The Masai follow the eastern shore in 
their expeditions, because the route on the west side is 
obstructed by a river which must be the Wembere, about 
whose course little has been hitherto known." ' 

The farthest absolute headstream of the Nile is 
probably the Eagera (Eitangnla), the lower course of 
which was surveyed by Stanley in 1876, and ^hich 
was traced to its source by Dr. Baumann in 1893. 
Here, according to this explorer, is the " Caput Nili," the 
true source of the Nile, and here also ia a Missozi ya 
Mwezi (" Mountain of the Moon "), where the ancients 
supposed the Kile to take its rise. From this point it 
flows north-eastwards between the Ruanda and Karagwe 
countries to the west coast of Nyanza, receiving on jt£ 
left bank the Kuvuvu and the Mworongo, a considerable 
stream descending from the southern slopes of Mount 

> Btport la Ou aermat* AiUi-Slavery jtaodation, 13tb April 18K. I| 
is, howaver, U be noted that whan Dr. Fbcber crowed the liwumba in 
1885 hs «M told thmt it ran out in the Wembere Steppe, where it formed 
a small lake in the rain;r ■euon. Is this "small lake" Dr. Banniaon'! 
Kiaad, a broad but shallow ivampy deprewion, occaaiooallj flooded after 
exceptionally iret leasonBl It is certunly remarkable that a permaneat 
lacosttine basin of such rut dimeiuion) ehanld never hare be«n beard ol 
bj any pnTioiu explorer. 

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Mfumbiro. Beyond Uie conflueoca the Eagera floods 
the long lacustrine depression between the Kuanda and 
Karagwe uplands, and, after receiving the overflow from 
Lakes Windermere and Uriji on its right bank, enters 
Victoria Nyanza in an imposing stream, which is cer- 
tainly far more entitled to be regarded as the true upper 
course of the Kile than is the Shimiyu, which, by 
Pearson's discovery, has been reduced to quite an insig- 
nificant watercourse. 

The E!agera, or Tengure, wrongly named Kitangula by 
its discoverer, Speke (1862), from a place on ita hanks, 
and re-named the Alexandra Nile by Stanley in 1875, is 
in any case the most copious of all the Victoria Nyanza 
affluents. Where it was crossed by Stanley during his 
second expedition (1889), at the point where it turns 
sharply east to the lake, " it was about 125 yards wide, with 
an average depth of 9 fe^t, flowing 3 knots per hour 
io the centre." ' Higher up it flows for 60 miles along 
the east frontier of Karagwe, in a series of marshy lagoons, 
varying from 5 to 14 miles in width, covered witli 
floating fields of papyri, large masses or islands of which 
drift to and fro. At the northern outlet of this lagoon 
the Kagera contracts, becomes tumultuous and noisy, and 
dashes in foam and spray against the opposing rocks, till 
it finally rolls over a rocky ledge 10 or 1 2 feet deep with 
tremendous uproar ; hence its native name Morongo, the 
"Noisy Falls." From this point the river ti-enda east- 
ward to the Victoria in a somewhat narrow bed 150 feet 
wide and no less tlian 50 feet deep. The Lake Akenyara 
(Alexandra Nyanza) spoken of both by Speke and 
Stanley as traversed by the Kagera, appears to have 
no existence. 

Lake Windermere, so named by its discoverer, Speke, 
1 In Dartat Africa, iL p. 363. 

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from its resemblance to the Westmoreland lake, lies 
embedded in one of the most romantic spots in Africa. 
Baveru, as the natives call it, stands at an altitude of 
4300 feet, but is not an alpine lake, its depth nowhere 
exceeding 45 or 46 feet. Farther east lies the still 
shallower basin of Lake Uriji, a sheet of water 23 
miles long by 1 to 3 broad, which at present sends 

accessible to boats all 

the way from Victoria Nyanza. " Its receding waters 
have left great extents of flat plain on the sides and 
around the bays running far inland into valleys. Its 
shores and waters are favourite haunts of birds, from 
cranes, herons, and pelicans, to the small black Parra 
A/ricana, egrets, and waders, which find excellent 
feeding over the large spaces near the extremities and 
shore-line of bays, covered with closely -packed growths 

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of Pistia stratioies plants, until they resemble green 
lawns irom a little distance off. Hippos abound, and, 
unfortunately, armies of black moaquitoes. A large 
supply of fish is found in the lake, but they are infested 
with guinea-worm — at least those wbicli we purchased 
were deemed quite uneatable from that cause." ' 

Lakes Victoria Nyanza and Bnkwa 

Victoria Nyanza, Speke's great discovery (1858), was 
first revealed in the fulness of ita magnificent proportions 
by Stanley's circumnavigation in 1875. It fills a vast 
cavity at least 600 feet deep, and some 27,000 square 
miles in extent,* on the central plateau, midway between 
the Indian Ocean and the Congo, 3800 feet above sea- 
level, and almost exactly the same number of miles from 
the mouths of the Nile, of which it is the main reservoir. 
Its shores, nearly 800 miles round, are generally some- 
what low-lying, but rise t« considerable heights at the 
Majita headlaod (3000 feet), and some other pointo, 
especially on the east and north-east sides. They are 
also nearly everywhere diversified by numerous bays and 
inlets, such as Speke Gulf and E!avirondo Bay, also ou 
the east side, while the expanse of blue waters is broken 
by several little clusters of verdant islets, and even large 
islands, such as Sesse in the north-west, Usuguri and 
Ugingo in the north-east, Bambir^ off the west coast, 
Ukerewe and Ukara in the south-east comer. Some of 
the small islands are occupied by berda of fierce hippo- 
potami, who ward off aU intruders; and the shallow 

> In Darkest Africa, iL p. 381. 

* Nyaiiza, the" Lake "w "3ea,"Mit isoallad by thenstivM iiikpTs- 
emiuent mqm, thoa ranks next to Superior (31,000 square milee), u the 
largest fi^hwater basin in the world. It appears even to exceed the Aral 
Sea bj a few bnndred square miles. 

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iDlete, especially Speke Gulf, are infested by crocodiles 
of enormous siza Sease, wMch, with the neighbouring 
islets, forms an extensive archipelago, is noted for its 
cbaiming scenery ; Battle Cove, in Bambir^, commemor- 
ates tiie punishment inflicted on the treacherous natives 
by Stanley during bis first expedition ; and Bridge- Island, 
in the north-east, consists of two basalt columns connected 
by a natural arch vi& a 24-feet span, so ove^rown with 
v^etatioD that nothing is visible but two columnar masses 
of verdure gracefully festooned with lianas. Basalts, 
granites, and gneiss crop out everywhere round the coast 
except where the mai^tn spreads out in level treeless 
plains. The Nyanza catchment basin is almost every- 
where contracted, so that the only large afBuenta- are the 
Kagera and Katonga, on the west side. The overflow 
is discharged through the Somerset Ktle, north to the 

The mysterious Lake Bukwa (Lukwa, Bikwa, Leopold), 
heard of by Speke and Burton, first sighted by Joseph 
Thomson in 1879, visited by Dr. Kaiser in 1882, and 
^ain in 1889 by the Kev. D. £err Cross and H. H. 
Johnston, occupies a deep depression between the Nyassa- 
Tangaoyika and TJnyamwezi plateaux, near the north-east 
frontier of British Zambesia. Formerly supposed to be 
merely a natron lagoon, it was found by Mr. Cross to be 
a salt lake from 80 to 100 miles long and 30 to 40 
broad, fed by the Nkanna-Saisi river from the southern 
plateau, and without any outlet It stands 2900 feet 
above eea-level, in an arid almost rainless district, where 
Qo rain had fallen for two years before 1889, but where 
there had formerly been an abundant rainfall "Its 
waters are dark in colour, very brackish, very muddy, 
and quite undrinkable. Several trees were pointed out 
to me as having been, a few years ago, at the water's edge, 

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but which would now be some miles from the water. 
Fish are numerous, but are not much sought after bj tha 
nativeB. I saw no hippopotami, nor crocodiles, nor caDoes 
in its dark, uainviting waters. . . . The lake is sldited 
on its east shore by a range, a high range, of mountains 
that rise as a jagged wall of several thousands of feet, in 
some places as sheer precipices from the water. ... Its 
shores are perhaps the most uninviting we have evet 
seen, its country the poorest, its rainfall nil, and its tem- 
perature in the shade at noon stood about 98° F." ' 


A region of alternating low alluvial plains, grassy d 
scrubby plateaux, wooded uplands and alpine heights, 
naturally presents a great diversity of climates. Never- 
theless, the Protectorate, part of which lies about the 
equator, is essentially a tropical land, where low latitudes 
are but slightly counteracted here and there by favoni- 
able local conditions. Fever, not merely cbilla and 
agues caught by overwork or exposure to wet and 
draughte, but real bilious fever, from which no pre- 
cautions will purchase exemption, is prevalent on all the 
low-lying tracts and even on the plateaux. It has made 
fearful ravages amongst the German ofBctals and tJie 
English missionaries, and its character is well brought 
out in the graphic account given by the late Mr. A. M. 
Mackay (himself a victim) of the death of Bishop Parker 
and Mr. Blackburn in the Usambiro country in 18S8. 
" Blackburn lay a week in a semi-conscious state. The 
bishop was only one day ill, and quite delirious most of 
the time. Both bad become perfectly yellow with 
jaundice. Bile seems a terrible poison to the blood and 
> Rev. D. E. Cron, Proe. S. <ho. Soe. F«b. 1861, p. S6. 

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braia, rendering one dead to all outside, and the other 
'wild with delirium." * It may be remarked that when 
introduced into the New World this African bilious fever 
developed into yellow fever, the two differing little &om 
one another, except that the latter alone is infectious. 

The marked contrast observed between the well- 
watered coastlands and the somewhat arid inland 
plateaux is mainly due to the Usagara mountains, and 
farther north to the Far^, TTgweno, and Kilimanjaro 
uplands, which intercept the moisture-bearing clouds from 
the Indian Ocean. It is noteworthy that the aerial 
currents set normally in the direction of the coast-line, 
whether these are due to the south-eastern monsoons, 
which prevail during most of the year, or to the return- 
ing north-eastern trade winds of January and February. 
Thus the clouds drift mainly either south and north 
or north and south between t^e coast and the highlands, 
beyond which very little moisture reaches the inner 
districts, especially between EUimanjaro and Nyanza, 
between Usagara and Unyamwezi, and between the 
livings tone range and Tanganyika. Thus are to be 
explained the distinctly arid tracts extending west from 
Mount Meru, the Marenga Mkbali desert of Ugogo, and 
the almost rainless region of Lake Eukwa. But there 
are no very lofty ranges between the Livingstone and 
Usagara uplands, and a free passage is thus left for some 
of the rain-bearing clouds driving before the south-eastern 
gales over Mozambique in the direction of the elevated 
Unyamwezi plateau, which consequently receives a sufiB- 
cient supply to feed the numerous perennial headstreams 
of the Mali^arazi basin. Here the annual rainfall 
probably exceeds 40 inches, falling to less than 20 in 
TTgogo, and again rising to nearly 180 on the coast {IVO 
■ A. M. Maekttg, Pioneer MittUmary, eto., bj hie aisUr, 1S90, p. 883. 

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at Zanzibar in 1859). But the contrasts of tempeiatiire 
are much slighter, and the range of the thermometer, 
especially in the arid districts, is relatively far greater 
between day and night than between one season and 
another. Thus at Zanzibar the glass falls only aboat 
seven degrees between March the hottest and July the 
coldest month, 82° and 77° F, respectively ; whereas, on 
the dry plateaux, sultry days are followed as in the 
Sahara by cold nights, often visiting the unwary 
traveller with chills and f^e.^ 

Flora and Fanna 

The irregular distribution of the rainfall fully explains 
the enormous contrasts in the character of the v^etadon 
observed in the various zones between the coast and 
Tanganyika, ea well as between the southern and noithem 
slopes of Kilimanjaro. H. H. Johnston, who encamped 
for six months in 1884 on the south side of this moun- 
tain, found himself in the midst of a rich and endlessly 
diversified flora, while the opposite side was almost bare 
of v^etation. Continuous forest growths are mainly 
confined to the coastlands, the Usagara and Eilimanjaro 
uplands, though isolated clumps or solitary specimens of 
such African giants as the baobab, euphorbia, tamarind, 
sycamore, or calabash tree are still met on the open 
savannahs. The copal (msandarusi), yielding the best of 
all gums, abounds on the banks of the Lower Rufiji ; 

' In the open pUius, H. H. Johnston recorded 81° F. in the earlj 
■ftenioon and 68° before dawn, a range of no less than SS° iritbin the 
twenty-four honrs. At Ids higher coUecting slstioiu (10,000 to 11,000 
feet) ou Eilimanjaro he found the lowest night temperature 29°, the highest 
at 3 P.M. 65' ; at TaveltA S0° and 80° teepectiTely, whila " the highett 
temperature ever recorded on the plains between Eilimaqjato and ths 
coast was 81°" (,Tfie KilimaT^aro ^ptdilun, 18S6, p. 82S). 

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dense jungles of reeds and grasses, 14 feet high, grow 
with rank exuberance in the low-lying swampy districts ; 
a tangle of scrub and brushwood impedes progress on the 
dryer terraced escarpments, and are replaced in the 
favoured upland valleys of TJsagara by flowering and 

fruit - bearing arborescent growths. Plantation culture . 
has already been introduced on the alluvial coastlands, 
which are specially suited for the cultivation of sugar, 
cotton, rice, vanilla, and other colonial produc& 

The Taveita district at the south-east foot of Kili- 
manjaro, watered by the romantic Kiver Lumi, and 
everywhere clothed with a glorious tropical vegetation, 

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seemed to Mr. Johnston " one of the loveliest spots on 
the earth's surface. Imagine first a charming river, of 
crj'Stal clearness, winding in curves and loops through 
tropical forest of such an imposing grandeur that it 
rather recalls to one's imagination the vegetation of some 
more lusty epoch of the earth's youth than the present 
degenerate days of exuberant growth. The river flows 
Bometimes between high banks^little cliffs of red soil — 
Greeted with gigantic trees, whose enormous roots, 
detached from the crumbling earth, stretch out like 
grey sprawling fingers high in air above the rushing 
water; sometimes curls itself wantonly in loops, cutting 
out sweet little peninsulas of forest - clad mounds and 
hillocks, on which one longs to go and build a little hut 
and live for ever ; sometimes flows solemnly and slowly, 
with glassy look, amid windii^ avenues of palms, acacias, 
albizzias, sterculias, parinariums, sycamores, and wild 
bananas, through the stately architectuite of a vegetable 
Venice . . . Here and there amid the lofty aisles of the 
Taveitan forest are little clearings, pretty homesteads of 
yellow bee -hive huts, neat plots of cultivated ground, 
groves of emerald-green bananas, which are the habita- 
tions of the happy Arcadians who have made this 
tropical paradise their home." ^ 

The neighbouring Lake Jip^ is as remarkable for its 
fauna as is Taveita for its flora. The vicinity is much 
frequented by game, and its waters teem with big flsb, 
" principally siluroids and cyprinoids. Hippopotami and 
crocodiles are plentiful. Kumbers of water-birds haunt 
the reedy shores — storks, egrets, pelicans, spur-winged 
plovers, ducks, and Egyptian geese" * Elephants and 
bnflaloes range as high as 12,000 or 14,000 feet on 
Kilimanjaro, where A. K Meyer came upon a dead 

' The KUinuuyaTo ExpeditUm, p. 20S. * Op. eU. f. 29S. 

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gazelle near the summit Here is the native home of 
the lovely black and white long-haired Colobus Cftuveza ; 
and on the plains the large red hartebeeste mimics the 
outlines of the tall red ant - hills, so that at a little 
distance it is difficult to know which is the baitebeest« 
and which the ant - hill.' The plateaux are still fre- 

quented by the giraffe, rhinoceros, bufi^o, elephant, and 
ostrich, where they are still pureued by the lion and 
leopard. The tsetse ily infests many districts, and a few 
years ago proved fatal to the tame elephants that had 
been introduced as an experiment from India. This 
winged pest is now believed to be a parasite of the large 
African game ; if so, the much-maligned British sports- 
' Op. cit. p. 96. 

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men, who are gradually ezterminatiiig these animals, 
may after all prove to be the true piooeers of civilisation 
in the Dark Continent 

Inhabitants — Wo-Zarambo, Wa-2egnha 

The whole of the Protectorate belonged, till compara- 
tively recent times, exclusively to the Bantu domain, in 
which it is still mainly comprised. But for centuries 
the populations between the seaboard and the great 
lakes have been subject to Arab influences from the 
coast, and to Zulu incursions from the south ; while on 
the north side their territory has been encroached upon 
by Nilotic Negro peoples, such as the Kavirondo and 
especially the Masai, who have wedged themselves in 
between Victoria Nyanza on the west and Eenia and 
Kilimanjaro on the east. Owing to these disintegrating 
forces, by which territory has been lost in the north, and 
whole communities largely Arabised on the coast (Wa- 
Swahili) and even far inland (Vua-Nyamwezi), the tribes 
have nowhere been fused together in large nationalities ; 
nor have any powerful native states been constituted, 
unless the late ephemeral " empire " of the " black 
Napoleon," Mirambo, be regarded as such. 

On the other hand, Arab civilising influences have 
not penetrated very deeply into the seething mass of 
heathendom, gross superstition and utter savagery being 
fltiU or till quite recently prevalent among the Bantu 
populations between the Kovuma and Kilimanjaro. Hence 
the startling contrasts observed by Speke, Burton, and 
other early explorers between contiguous peoples, such as 
the Mohammedan Wa-Swahili, differing little from the 
Arabs in general culture, and their western neighbours, 
the Wa-Zarambo north of the Rufiji river, who still go 

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naked but for a fringe of grassy fibre, slasb their cheeks 
with deep gashes, knead their hair with clay and grease 
into towering head-dresses, use poisoned arrows, bum the 
wizard and all his family, throw twins to the bush or 
children born on unlucky days. 

Wa-S>«ua ; Wa-Eetae ; Kft-EouM 

North of the Wa - Zarambo, the Wa - Zeguha of the 
Lower Wami are at constant feud over the succession to 
their petty chieftaincies. In one of these conflicts the 
ferocious Wa-Doe cannibals, dwelling almost within 
sight of Zanzibar, were nearly exterminated, the sur- 
vivors escaping north to the vicinity of Eenia, where a 
few are stUl found. Inland from all these coast peoples 
follow along the main caravan route betweeu Zanzibar 
and Tanganyika the three more powerful nations, or 
rather tribal groups, of the Wa-Sf^ra, Wa-Gc^o, and 
Wa-Nyamwezi, who give their names to their reapeclave 
territories. All are broken into numerous independent 
communities, having little in common except a faintly 
developed national sentiment, their Bantu speech, and, till 
lately, their concerted action in upholding the traditional 
vexatious system of blackmail levied on aU travellers 
and traders passing through their country. 

The Wa-Sagara are a widespread people, whose lan- 
guage extends as far north as Mombasa, and whose 
various branches show every transition from extreme 
barbarism to a certain degree of culture due to contact 
with the Arabs, and, in recent years, with Europeans. 
They occupy all the Usagara highlands, and one of their 
chief divisions are the Wa-Hehe, south of the Ruaha 
affluent of the Eufiji, who, in September 1691, cut off a 
powerful German expeditionaryforce. They are fierce monn- 

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taineers, occupying a hilly plateau over 6000 feet above 
sea-level, and, owing to their marauding practices, are 
much dreaded by the surrounding tribes. Like so many 

other peoples of this region, such as the Ma-Gwangwara of 
the Upper Eovuma (see p. 468), and the Ma-Kond^, who 
hold the north bank of the Lower Eovuma, the Wa-Hehe 
VOL. II 2 L 

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claim Zulu affinities, and pretend to have come originally 
from the south. But their language closely resembles 
Ki-Swahili, while that of the Ma-Kond4 is one of the few 
Bantu tongues which still preserve all the sixteen class 
prefixes of the primitive Bantu speech. 

The Ma-Kond^, who are related to the Ma-Viha, on 
the opposite side of the Rovuma (see p. 470), are still a 
savage people, who acariiy face and body with " high 
relief " tattoo scorings, and whose women wear the pelele 
(see p. 471) in their upper lip. They were first visited 
in 1877 by Chauncy Maples, who was taken for a ghost, 
but nevertheless supplied with food. Their Masasi, 
Wa-Mwera, and Wa-Ngindo neighbours are all probably 
branches of the Makua nation (see p. 471), which for- 
merly occupied all the coastlands from the Zambesi delta 
north to the vicinity of Zanzibar. In fact, the whole 
seaboard from near the equator south to Algoa Bay has 
during the historic period been mainly occupied by three 
Bantu groups of Ki-Swahili speech in the north, Makiu 
in the middle, and Zulu-Eafir in the south. 


The Wa-Swahili, that is, "Coast People," although 
numbering scarcely a million altogether, have in recent 
years acquired almost greater prominence than any other 
Bantu group. For this position they are not indebted to 
any special quality, such as the martial spirit of the 
Zulus, but simply to the fact that they have adopted the 
Mohammedan religion, and identified themselves with the 
Arabs, whose traders and raiders have overrun half the 
continent The result is that not Arabic but Ki-Swahili 
has become the lingua franca, the great medium of inter- 
couiBe throughout West Central Africsa (see p. 148). 

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Sat, like the people tfiemaelTes, Uie language is the most 
corrupt, or at least the most afTected hy foreign elements, 
chiefly Arabic, of all Bantu idioms. About half of its 
vocabulary, including most abstract terms, is Arabic, 
although the grammatical structure remains strictly 
Santu ; aod it was formerly written with the Arabic 
characters. But in their Ki-Swahili writings (diction- 
aries, grammars, translations of scripture, religious 
treatises) Bishop Steer and other missionaries have 
wisely substituted the Boman system, which is in every 
way better adapted for expressing the sounds of all 
Bantu languages. The Wa-Swahili, whose domain on 
the mainland is coafined to the strip of seaboard extend- 
ing from the neighbourhood of Dar-es-Salaam north to 
Yitu, are not a tribe, nor yet a nation, having no common 
political aspirations, but rather an amalgam of the most 
diverse ethnical elements, possessing regions and lin- 
guistic unity, and linked tc^ther by a highly-developed 
commercial spirit 

Wa-Tavelta, Wa-Chreno 

As a rule the Bantu populations in the extreme north 
(Par^ and Gweno uplands, Taveita, Teita, and Chf^, on 
the southern slopes of Kilimanjaro) are of a milder dis- 
position, and, if not less superstitious, at all events less 
cruel and ferocious than those of the central and southern 
districtfl. Travellers speak in the highest terms of the 
Wa-Taveita, who live in friendly association with the 
Wa-Kwavi, that is, the settled agricultural section of the 
Masai nation, as well as with their numerous other 
guests or visitors from all parts of the country ; for 
Taveita, like Stanley Pool on the Congo, or Khartum on 
the Nile, is a great trysting-place of " tribes, tongnes, 

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peoples, and nations. You may sit here in the porch of 
yoar comfortable thatched house, and receive visits ^m 
representatives of most of the nations found in East 
Central Africa. Arabs, Gallas, Masai, A-Eamba, Wa- 
Chaga, Wa-Par^, Wa-Teita, Wa-Gweno, Wa-Swahili, Wa- 
Sambara, the people of Kavirondo on the Victoria Nyanza 
of Bugauda and Bunyoro, of Njemps and Zambuni, all 
find their way to Taveita somehow, whether as slaves, 
traders, tramps, criminals, or refugees. You may hear 
about twenty African languages talked aroand you, and 
by searching among the slave caravans, which stop here 
for repose, a list of hundreds of East African tongnes 
might be composed." ^ Yet good order prevails in Uiis 
rejugiwm. peccatorum, which is ruled by the Wazee, or 
elders, whose " gentle behaviour and kindly manners were 
at all times charming." 

Nor was there much to complain of the Wa-Chaga, 
who have long been at feud amongst themselves, and 
harassed by the marauding incursioDS of the Masai 
nomads. Mandara and other chiefs are consequently 
well disposed towards Europeans, to whom they look for 
protection against neighbouring tribes, and especially 
against the common enemy, the Masai raiders. 

The Wa-Gweno of the Ugweno uplands, first visited 
by Hans Meyer in 1889, are a branch of the Wa-Mbugu 
of Central TTsambara, whose tribal mark, a round spot in 
the middle of the forehead, is, however, replaced by a 
black streak running from the middle of the forehead to 
the nose. All the upper part of the body is also scored 
with hundreds of small incisions, partly charms, partly 
ornamental. From the Masai the young warriors have 
borrowed the practice of plastering themselves with a 
coating of grease and red ochre. A common way of 
' TA* Kiliauayaro Ei^edition, p. 311. 

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dressing the hair is to twist it ioto thin strings, which 
hang down all round the bead, and are cut away above 
the eyes in a regular fringe. " Here and there a dandy 
of the tribe screws up the strings into rows of rigid love- 
locks, while another draws a handful down either cheek, 
and ties them together under his chin, finishing off the 
elaborate coiffure with a sprinkling of coloured beads." * 
The Wa-Gweno are an industrious agricultural people, 
possessing some skill in iron smelting and forging, and 
raising good crops of bananas, pulse, maize, millet, manioc 
and sweet potatoes in the southern and eastern districts, 
which are less exposed to the raids of the Masai aud 

Katagwe, Wa-Huma Uigntlona 

Apart from the Kavirondos of the north-east coast, 
who were first visited by Joseph Thomson in 1882, and 
who appear to be an outlying branch of the Shilluk 
Negroes from the White Nile, Victoria Nyanza is every- 
where encircled by peoples of Bantu speech. In the 
German section the most important tribes are the Wa- 
Suknma, Yua-Zinza, and Vua-Tuzi on tiie south side, and 
the inhabitants of Karagwe on the west When first 
explored by Speke, and afterwards hj Stanley, Karagwe 
formed a large kingdom, being one of those powerful 
equatorial states which, like Buganda and Bunyoro, had 
been constituted after the dismemberment of the ancient 
empire of Kitwara. At that time it was ruled by the 
gentle and intelligent King Kumanika, who was later 
exposed to attacks from Bugamla and Bunyoro, and from 
the Arab slavers, who had established themselves at 
Kafnro, in the heart of the country. Eumanika was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Kyensi, who, however, 
' Hans U^«r, op. eit, p. 223. 

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reigned only nine months, when the throne was nBtirped 
by his brother Kakoko. This sanguinary tyrant held his 
ground for three years, during which he slew seventeen 
brothers, and put out the eyes of his youngest brother, 
Luiyumba. Then Eakoko, while stupefied by drink, was 
speared by Ka-Chikonju; and, when Stanley passed 
through la 1889, the rightful heir to the Uirone was 
Kyensi's son Ndf^ara, called also Uny^^umbwa, a youth 
at that time in his sixteenth year. 

It does not appear that the Earagwe rulers have ever 
acknowlei^d the German proteetotate. Here the bulk 
of the people are Bantus ; but, as in the other equatorial 
states, the nobles and ruling class are Wa-Hnma (" NortJi- 
men "), a conquering pastoral people, originally from 
Qallaland, who have penetrated as far south as Unyam- 
wezi. In different places they bear difTereut names — 
Wa-Tuai (Ba-Tushi), Wa-Nyambu, Wa-Ima, Wa-Witu, 
Wa-Chwezi, — but everywhere present the same Hamttic 
features, like those of the Galla and Somali Hamites in 
the north-east. Besides the local Bantu dialects, titey 
also still speak Galla amongst themselves ; and their Galla 
origin, first conjectured by Speke, has since been thoroughly 
established by Stanley and other recent explorers. They 
are essentially herdsmen, who despise the surrounding 
Bantu husbandmen, from whom they mosUy keep aloof, 
and are then almost white, or, at all events, very fair, as 
in Torn (Gambaragara). Traditionally they fought their 
way through Somaliland southwards U) Mombasa, and 
passed thence westwards to the equatorial lake region, 
where they founded the Empire of Eitwara, and afterwards 
moved gradually southwards to UnyamwezL It is note- 
worthy that their most common national name, Wa-Witu, 
points to the territory of Witu (Vita), on the east coast 
above Mombasa, as the district whence they b^an to 

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posh inland np the Tana valley, that is, the line of least 
resistance in thia direction. Mutesa, King of Buganda, 
Kaba fiega of Bunyoro, and Rumanika of Karagwe, were 
all Wa-Huma, representing various branches of the old 
Eitwara dynasty. 

The Masai, whose true home lies north of Kilimanjaro, 
will be described in the next chapter. 

In the subjoined table are comprised all the chief 

Tbibis and Nations of Oxkmah Eabt Atrioa. 

UA-Nyanja 1 Wa-Yao tr 

Ha-Tombwk/ fluBDoe. 

r below the L^jenda t 

HA-SA£I ■> 

Wa-Likdi |-HaknA tribes, north aide Upper Rovuma beam. 

Ma-Qwahowaka, pretended Znliu, eaet dope Livingstone range. 
Wa-Noiiom or \ North and north-vest of the Ma-Eondjj called also 

Wa-Oikdo J" Wali-Hnha. 
Ha-Hehoe, Bd^I basiii between Uranga and Boaha riTers. 
Wa-Ntaxahyaxa, eeib of the Ma-Henge. 

Wa-Hdoitcib or Wa-Donse, Rnliji basin, east of the Ua-Henge tenitorj. 
Wa-Zabamo, between the Rn^i, the Eisgani, and the Swahill Coast 
Wa Eahi {.^'^ tribes chiefly about head-waters of the Kingani ; akin 
W.'aimri '••'•W.-Zmmo. 
Wa-Zbodha or Wa-Zboura, Middle and Lower Wami basin. 

. / Cannibak formerly in Wami baain, now scattered in small 
I groups northwarda to Mssailand. 
Wa-Saoara, the chief nation in the Usagara highlands. 
Wa-Hbhb I Southern branobes of the Wa-Sagara, between the Euahaand 
Wa-Bbna { Urauga affluents of the FanganL 

Wa-Koodeu 1^"^^™ branches of the Wa-Ssgara, chiefly about the 
_ _ f upper affluents of the Wami. 

r Widespread nation on the plateau between the Uaagara high- 
WA-Goao| lands and Unyamwezi. 

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, The domiiuiit nation in Unjsniweii ; munarona tribtl 
W* Ntahwret ) snbdinrioiw, auoh aa the W«-E«mbo, W»-Tni, Wi- 

1 Njambembe, Ynk-GollA, and in the extreme aonth 

' Ytu-Eanongo. 
Vua-Bha, uid other Tuiganjika tribee, for whioh see p. ISl. 

VuA-ZiNSA t-Soatheni abona of Viotoria Nysnik. 
TFA-Tua ) 

VTa-Bbmuzi or Wa-Bokdii, Lower Pangitni and «c(JMeiit ooMUknda. 
.„ „ rifameroiu nation, Usuabu* hiehUndB, irestuid north of 

Wx-KimT (" Bivar People "), cbieflj in the ulande of the Lower Pangmni 
Wa-Parx, the Pui range, Dorth-w«et of VBambam. 
Wa-Owxho, the Ugweno highlands, north of the Wa-Paii. 
Wa-Tuta, hiUf diftriot east of Tavaits, witltin the Btitiih frontieT. 

f The wooded diatriot between Lake Jip4 and Kilimanjaro, 
Wa-Tavwta I ^tMa the Brltiah frontier. 

{Northwnmcet branch of the Wa-Samban, on the BoatheRi 
■lopM of Kilimanjaro, with nnmerona sabdivieioBi : 
Shiro, Eibonto, Urn, Mashame, Eibotho, Hpohimo, 
Hoehi, EirtM, Eilema, Marana, Hamba, Hwika, Naai, 
Bombo, Uaeri, Eimangelia. 

Towns, aeapoits, Statloiu— Klloa 

TiU comparatively I'ecent times all the civilised popu- 
lations were confined to the coastlands ; hence here alooe 
are found towns, in the strict sense of the word. Some 
of these are historical places, which, like moat of the 
seaports on the eastern seaboard, have never recovered 
from the ruin brought on tbem by the early Portognase 
filibusters. Such is Kiloa, on the islet of the same 
name, midway between the Ukeredi and Eufiji estuaries, 
hence called KHoa Kmioani, or " Insular £iloa," in contra- 
distinction to the modem KUoa Eivinfi, or " Continental 
Eiloa," founded 1 8 miles farther north. The island forma, 
with the opposite shore, a sheltered inlet, which penetrates 
12 miles inland, and which was frequented by Persian 

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shipping BO early as the tenth century. Later it became 
the capital and chief emporium of the Zenj empire, and 
at one time was said to contain as many aa 300 mosques. 
"When the King of Porti^^ discovered this land," 
writes Batbosa, " the Moors of Sofala, and Znama, and 
Anguos (Angosha), and Mozambique were all under 
obedience to the King of Quiloa,^ who was a great king 
amongst them." But " this king, for his great pride, 
and for not being willing to obey the King of Portugal, 
had this town taken from him by force, and in it they 
killed and captured many people, and the king fled from 
the island, in which the King of Portugal ordered a 
fortress to be built." This refers to the siege and capture 
of the place by Francisco d'Almeida in 1505, soon after 
which the Portuguese had themselves to fly from the 
malarious climate, and now little remains except the 
houses of a few Banyan and Arab traders, grouped beneath 
the crumbling walls of the Portuguese fortress. 

The new Kiloa, though possessing a far leas com- 
modious harbour, and perhaps even more insalubrious, 
owing to the neighbouring swamps, rose to great pros- 
perity during the flourishing days of the slave trade. 
Now, however, it is almost as deserted as its neighbour, 
and the only seaports on the whole coast south of the 
fioTuma are Lmdi, at the mouth of the Ukeredi, 
which does a considerable export trade in rubber, and 
AfiJandani, farther south, which, despite its fine, well- 
sheltered harbour, is little frequented. 

Dai-es-Balaam, Bagamoyo 
Along the coral-fringed coast, between Kiloa and 
Par-es -Salaam, no settlements occur except at Ckdbe, on 

' Id PortoguesB qv,=k, hence Qailo&s Kiloa, often writteu and pro- 
nooucod Eilwft. 

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the adjacent island of Mafia (Monfia). This coralline 
lock, some 200 square miles in extent, and ntostlj 
covered with cocoa-nut groves, is already mentioned by 
Barbosa, who, however, wrongly places it with Zanzibu 
and Fenda (Pemba), between St Lawrence (Madagascar) 
and the mainland. At low water Chobe is inaccessible 
even to small craft, which have to anchor some miles to 
the south-west awaiting the turn of the tide. 

Dar-es-Salaam, the " Place of Peace" is a popular 
Arab et^miology for the Ki-SwahiE SaH-Satama, " Safe 
Soof." It stands on one of the finest harboutB along 
the whole seaboard, formed by a deep Qotd-Iike cieek, 
which runs 5 miles inland, but which is approached 
from the sea through a narrow channel winding ita way 
through the fringing reefs. Since the German occupa- 
tion, efforts have been made to make this place a com- 
mercial rival of Zanzibar, and for this purpose a beginning 
has been made with a fine highway to the interior, ulti- 
mately to be replaced or supplemented with a railway. 
After traversing the low-lying coastlands the road ascends 
the escarpments of the plateau, and has already reached 
Kda, some 30 miles from Dar-es-Salaam, on the divide 
towards the Kinganl valley. 

Should this project be fully carried out, Bagamoyo, 
hitherto the gateway of the continent, will necessarily 
lose much of its Importance, for it enjoys no natural 
advantages beyond its greater proximity to Zanzibar, and 
part of the scheme is to cut out Zanzibar itself. At 
Bagamoyo there is no harbour, nothing but an open road- 
stead, which shoals so gradually that vessels of any 
draught have to ride at anchor in exposed waters some 
2 miles off the coast. Fierce hurricanes occasionally 
sweep in between the island and the mainland, strewing 
the shores with wreckage, and levelling the frail habita- 

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bv Google 

524 coHPENBnw or GBOGKAPHT asd teatzl 

tions of the natives in B^ambyo itself Here are still 
equipped most of the caravans starting for the interior ; 
several houses in the European style have already spmng 
up ; the bazaar has become a busy mart, vheie tuavellers 
complete their outfits before plunging into the wilds of 
equatorial Africa, and the neighbouring rising ground is 
crowned with the extensive buildings of the Boman 
Catholic Mission, which, in ecclesiastical language, ranks 
aa the metropolis of all the chorches in East Central 
Africa. These missions had hitherto been administered 
chiefly by French p^es, but the policy of the German 
Government, warned by their atUtude in Uganda and else- 
where, has aimed at gradually replacing them by sealous 
pastors from the Fatherland. 

The English Mission is stationed 30 miles farther 
north, at the seaport of Saadani, which lies a little north 
of the Wami estnary, about the same distance, 26 miles 
to the west, that Bagamoyo does to the south-west of 
Zanzibar. Beyond it are the two equally unimportant 
ports of Pangani, at the mouth of the Knvn, or Fangani 
river, and Wanga, at the mouth of the frontier river 
Umba, also from ite port often called the Wanga. 

Upwapwa, Taboiah, ITJlji 

In the interior the moat noteworthy Arab and 
European stations going westwards are Mpwapwa and 
TaioToh, both near the main caravan route, of which 
Ujiji is the terminus on Lake Tanganyika. Mpvapwa, 
220 miles from the coast, about the frontiers of the fertile 
Usagara uplands and the arid Ugogo plateau, occupies 
one of those sites which seem prepared by the hand of 
nature to become great centres of population. Here 
many highways meet, and here travellers find a con- 

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veniect resting-place, either after traversing or before 
facing the dreaded Marenga Mkhali. At present it is 
little more tban a thriving native village, though its 
importance has somewhat increased since it has been 
chosen as a station of the Church Missionary Society. 

Taborah occupies a position on tlie Tanganyika corre- 
sponding to that of Mpwapwa on the Oceanic slope. It 
lies in the heart of Unyamwezi, 4000 feet above the 
sea, near the highest point of the Malagarazi basin, and 
is consequently a strategical site of vital importance, com- 
manding all the routes here converging from Nyanza, 
Tanganyika, and the coast These routes, as they 
approach the station, pass through " an almost continuous 
series of gardens surrounding the numerous villages, some 
of which were very large, enclosing many fine conical- 
roofed huts, all quite superior architecture to anything 
we had seen since leaving the coast." ^ In the station 
are many lai^e Arab houses built of adobe, with large 
doors and windows ; here a daily market is held, " and 
the business attendant upon this, the presence of so 
many well-clothed people, the various fruit trees, and 
the whole appearance of the place has an air of plenty 
and civilisation very attractive to the traveller " (t6.) 
The Church Missionary Society has a station at the 
neighbouring village of Uywi, and the whole region 
between Tanganyika, Nyassa, Nyanza, and the coast is 
already dotted over with similar establishments, such as 
those of Masasi la the extreme south, and Usambiro 
(Makolo's) in the extreme north, all so many centres of 
civilising iuSnences, where nothing but pure savagery 
prevailed before Burton and Speke's memorable expedi- 
tions to the equatorial lakes. 

The great Arab slave and ivory dep6t of Ujiji, from 
I A. B. Hon, op.ea.-p. 180. 

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which, before the discovery, Tanganyika itself was 
known by report as the " Sea of Ujiji," is admirably 

situated for trading purposes on the direct roate from 
the Upper Congo (Nyangwe) across the lake and through 
Unyamwezi to Zanzibar. Under the changed conditions 

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L);.i....j by Google 


it might hope to become the great emporium of the 
lacustrine basin, and one of the future centres of culture 
in Central Africa, but for ita malarious climate ; for it 
lies low, on the very margin of the lake, and behind it 
spreads the swampy district of the Lower Malagarazi, 
which, in the rainy season, becomes an almost impassable 
qnagmire. Ujiji. so called from the local Yua-Jiji tribe, 
is properly the name of this district, the real name of 
the station being KakvxU or Kavde. Except for the 
fine prospect it commands of the laJce, here over 40 
miles wide, UjijI is not an attractive place ; " the big 
Arab houses, although assuming to be built after the 
mode of Solomon's Temple, are after all only huge mud 
huts, and the general aspect of the place is squalid and 
anwholesome in the extrema" ' 

In this respect Ujiji presents a marked contrast to 
Wardhanji, capital of Karagwe, and the late King 
Bomanika's residence, which stands at an altitude of 
4350 feet, in one of the most salubrious and romantic 
districts in Africa. It commands a charming view of 
the lovely Lake Itaveru (Windermere), and a little to 
the east lies the Arab trading station of Kufro (Kajuro). 
Bnt regular communications have long been interrupted 
with £an^we, and it is uncertain whether, amidst the 
local political convulsions, the Arabs have been able to 
maintain their position at Ku&o, their farthest outpost 
west of Victoria Nyanza. 

> A. B. HoTe, Dp.eit.-p. 180. 

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General Survey ; Extent. Population, Politic&l Sitastion — 

reaulto of Oeograpbical ExploratioD— The Tuia, Jnba, and Sabakhi 
BaaiDs — Exploration of Masai and Earirondo I^ndt— ExpIorataoD 
of the Equatonal Lake RegioD — Ph;iii»l Featuraa ; the Coutlanda 
— Uauiland — Lakes Haivasha, Baiingo and Sambaru — TbeKeniaMtd 
Aberdare Highlands — Eavirondoland — Usoga ; Ufnuida ; the Tiotori* 
Nile— Unyoro, Koki, Ankole — The Albeitine Kile; Lake Albert 
Edward— The SemUki River ; Lake Albeit Nyaiua— Bairenzori- In- 
habitants— Table of the Chief Tribes and Natives of Ibea— GsAaral 
Ethnical Relatione in Ibea — The Bantua of the Tana Basis—Tbe 
Masai, Wa-Eirafl, Audorobo — The Waganda ; the Kitvara 
Empira ; Historical Survey — Political and Sodsl Institutions — The 
Wanyoro; Kingdom of Tnyoro — Towns, Stations, Progress aad 
Prospects — The Zanzibar Protectorate. 

Oeneral Sorrer ; Extent, FopnUttim, Political SMnuUon 

TH£ territory seemed by Eogland in East Equatorial 
Africa as a result of the dismembermeDt of the 
Zanzibar domain has i-eceived the somewhat fantastic 
name of Jbea, a term formed by the initial letters, 
L B. E. A, of the fall title Imperial SrUidi East J/riea. 
As in the !Niger and Zambesi regions, this territory was 
organised and for some time administeied, not by the 
British Government, but by a trading association which 
bore the name of the " Imperial British East AMca 

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Company," and which held s royal charter dated 
Srd September 1888. So early as the year 1824 a 
Britiah protectorate had been proclaimed by Captain 
Owen of the Lffven over part of Mombasa, the neigh- 
bouriog island of Femba, and the strip of coast- 
land between Malindi and the Fangani river. But 
Captain Owen's action was not ratitied by the home 
government, and no further attempt was made to occupy 
any territory on the east coast till the appearance of the 
Germans on the scene in 1884. When it became evident 
that they aimed at the annexation of all the mainland 
belonging directly or indirectly to the Zanzibar Sultanat«, 
England was compelled again to intervene, ultimately 
securii^ aa her share of the spoils all the coaetlands 
north of the Umha river. By the Anglo-German Agree- 
ments of October 1886 and July 1890, the southern 
frontier was made conterminous all along the line 
with Gierman East AMca, Gtermany also withdrawing 
from the territory of Witu (Vitu) and the neighbour- 
ing islets of Manda and Fatta, north of the Tana 
delta, to which she had extended her protectorate in 
1885. By the treaties of 1888 and 1889 the Sultan 
of Zanzibar bad ceded to the British East Africa Company 
all his towns and possessions north of the German domain 
— that is to Bay, Mombasa and Malindi, south of the 
Tana river ; Kau and Kipini, with Lamu Island, on the 
Witu coast ; Kismayu, just south of the Jub (Juba) 
river at the equator ; the ports of Brava (Barawa), 
Merka, Magdisho (M^adosho), Wareheikh, and Maroli 
along the east Somali coast. But by the Anglo-Italian 
Conventions of 1889 and 1891, the whole of this coast, 
from the Juba northwards to Cape Bowen, has been 
transferred to the Italian sphere of influence, the Juba 
being here accepted as the common frontier aa far inland 
VOL. ir 2 m 

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aB 6° N. lat. The line then coincides with this parallel 
westwards to 35° £. long., which is followed northwards 
to the Blue Nile at FazokL 

British East Africa is thus conterminous with the 
Italian sphere of influence in Somaliland, Qallaland, and 
Abyssinia, and is bonnded westwards by the Congo Free 
State ' and the Congo-Nile water-parting, and southwards 
by German East Africa, Within these spacioos limits 
are comprised about 450 miles of coastlands, with all the 
adjacent islands as far south as Zanzibar ; a considerable 
section of South Somali and Gralla Lands ; the Kenia 
highlands, with Masailand and the Lake Rudolf (Sam- 
buru) depression ; the northern section of Lake Victoria 
Nyanza, with the surroundii^; native states of Usoga and 
Uganda ; the " Albertine " or south-western head-waters 
of the Nile, with Lakes Albert and Albert Edward, the 
Euwenzori highlands, and surrounding territories of 
Unyoro, Ankori, Mpororo, Koko, and part of Ruanda ; 
lastly, the Bahr el-Ghazal and White Nile valleys, with a 
great part of Eastern (!E^yptian) Sudan, north-westwaids 
to the frontiers of Wadai Taken in its widest sense, 
this vast domain probably exceeds 1,250,000 square miles, 
with a population vaguely estimated at about 13,000,000. 
But the portion actually held and directly or indirectly 
administered by the British Commissioner comprises little 
more than the coastlands, the Tana basin, the trade routes 
thence through Masailand and Kavirondo to TTsoga and 

' Towards the Free State the limits are usually mads to ooincide vitll 
the thirtieth meridian, which is olsimed hj Belgiam u its eastsn 
boundary. Bat the claim has never been fonnUly recogniMd by 
Knglsod, and as that meridian about bisects Lake Albert Edward and 
th* RawenzoTE highlands, it obviously eucrooches on the Britith sphere of 
influence, both the lake and the mountains lying well within tha Nile 
basin. lu this direction the frontiers shonld foUow the Congo-N'ile 
divide, which has not yet been accnretoly detenuioed. 

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Uganda, Uganda itself, with parts of Uiiyoro, and a few 
OQtlTing stationa on the Bawenzori slopes and in the 
Albertine Nile valley. Even from Uganda, owing to 
political and financial difficulties, the Company had an- 
nounced its intention of withdrawing at the end of 1892, 
but was induced to remain till March 1893, an Imperial 
Commissioner (Sir Gerald Portal) being meantime ap- 
pointed by the British Government to visit Uganda and 
report on the state of aCTairs in that distracted region. 
At one time it seemed probable that the country would 
have been abandoned altogether, at least temporarily. But 
public opinion in England having pronounced emphatically 
against that policy, it was decided, in accordance with 
the recommendations contained in Sir Gerald Portal's 
Report, presented in April 1894, to extend the British 
protectorate to Uganda proper, with its natural and 
political dependencies. The protectorate was formally 
proclaimed at Mengo, present capital of Uganda, on 29th 
August 1894. 

Frogtess and Eesnlts of Geographical Exploration 

Although the Portuguese had occupied Mombasa, 
Malindi, and other points on the coast soon after their 
arrival in the eastern waters at the close of the fifteenth 
century, no attempt was ever made by them to penetrate 
into the interior. The navigable river Tana, giving 
relatively easy access to the Kenia highlands, was never 
explored beyond a few miles above Formosa Bay and the 
neighbouring delta ; while Kenia itself, like its southern 
rival Kilimanjaro, continued to be shrouded in mystery 
till the veil was slightly lifted by Krapf in 1849. The 
same pioneer explorer f^ain sighted Kenia in 1851 from 
the Upper Tana, which he had reached by an overland 

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route from the miseioiiaiy Htation of Kabai, near Mom- 
basa. Our knowledge of this region was again somewhat 
advanced in 1865 hy Baron von der Decken, who first 
determined the true relations of the Ozi to the Tana, 
ascending the former river to Eau, and passing thence 
through the deep and rapid Beledzoni Channel into the 
Tana at Charra about the head of the delta. Further 
progress was made in 1866-67 by the English mission- 
aries Wakefield and New, who reached Ngao on the 
Tana, and navigated Lake Ashakababo, which at that time 
communicated with the river, but which since the floods 
of 1873 has greatly subsided, and is now no longer con- 
nected with the main stream. 

The Tana, Jnba, and SabaUtl Basins 

But the first systematic survey of this important 
artery was made in 1878 by the Brothers Denhardt, who 
ascended to Masa (Ripa), 1-60 miles from its mouth, and 
found it navigable throughout the year to this point 
Its exploration was completed by the ezpeditionfi of the 
British East Africa Company's officials, Mr. Pigott (1889) 
and Captain Dundas, who in 1891 took the steamer 
JCenia as far as Hameye above the Ibea Company's 
station of Balarti, and a short distance below the 
Hargazo or Hoffmann Falls, at the head of the naviga- 
tion, some 360 miles from it£ mouth. From this point 
the course of the Tana was followed partly by canoe, 
partly by land, to the Grand Falls in the Wathaka 
country, where there is a clear drop of about 60 feet 
close to the confluence of a large tributary from the north- 
west. Beyond these falls the main stream was traced to 
some of its head-waters on the southern slopes of Kenia, 
which was ascended to a height of 8700 feet. Above 

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Hameye the Tana was found to be quite uonavigable, 
presenting the aspect of a large moantain torrent 
obstructed by boulders or tumbling over a Buccession of 
falls and rapids. But its navigable middle and lower 
course has been compared to " a miniature Nile," winding 
through a vast alluvial plain, and for the most part 
confined between low bonks, which are overflowed and 
the Burrounding districts flooded during the rainy season. 
A great drawback is the shallow bar at the entrance, 
and, like most streams flowing tiirongh alluvial tracts, the 
Tana has many sharp bends, " with a constantly shifting 
channel, caused by the water undermining the concave 
side of the banks and throwing up the sand on the 
convex points opposite, thus rendering it impossible to 
mark out any r^;ular channels." * 

On his return to the coast Captain Dundas took the 
Kenia up the frontier river Juba to Bardera, 387 
mites from its mouth, and after overcoming the hostility 
of the local chiefs, he ascended 20 miles farther up t4) 
the rapids at the head of the navigation, in the very 
heart of the Somali country. In his survey of this 
river he had been preceded by the disastrous expedition 
of Baron von der Decken (1864), who was murdered 
with five of his companions at the foot of the rapids, 
where Captain Dundas found the wreck of bis steamer, 
the Guelph, embedded in the rocks, the funnel still 
standing, cylinders and boiler still in position. Since 
von der Decken's time, the Juba had remained closed to 
European enterprise till the way was again opened by 
the tact and skill of Captain Dundas. Beyond the 
rapids all navigation ceases, the stream here rushing at 
a velocity of 7 miles an hour between its rocky walls, 
with a depth in many places of little over 3 feet. But 

3 EnMit Qedge in Proc Ray. Oto. Sec Angnat I8B2, p. 629. 

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the country was found to be highly productive, the 
rich aud fertile Gooaha lands extending for over 100 
mUes along the river banks, and yielding plentiM crops 
of tobacco,cotton,and several kinds of cereals. At Bardera 
the Juba is also crossed by the great caravan route, by 
which lai^e quantities of ivory and other produce are 
brought down from the rich Boran country. Hitherto 
all this merchandise has been forwarded to the coast by 
camels, but the successful issue of the Dundas expedition 
shows that it may be intercepted at Bardera and sent 
down by the river at greatly reduced rat«s. 

Thus, despite the difficulties of their navigation, both 
the Tana and the Juba possess great economic import- 
ance, their rich alluvial valleys presentiDg broad belts of 
well-wooded fertile lands, which afford relatively easy 
means of access across the arid steppe to the productive 
plateau r^ons of the interior. The Bame remark applies 
even more forcibly to the Sabakhi, which reaches the 
coast at Malindi, and is navigable only for small craft 
up to the first rapids, some 60 or 70 miles from its 
moutL But it offers an excellent highway to the 
inland plateaux, affording a supply of water throi^hout 
the year, besides an abundance of fodder in the rich 
grassy glades Mnging its banks. The Athi, as its upper 
course is called, rises on the Kiknyu plateau, south of 
Kenia, and fiows in a south-easterly direction through 
the arid steppe, where the cactus, prickly pear, mimosa, 
acacia, and other thorny or scrubby plants form the 
characteristic vegetation. Here the huge granite rocks 
cropping out above the surface often contain large 
natural water-worn reservoirs four or five feet deep. 
"These water-holes are a singular phenomenon, seeing 
that the country shows so few other signs of the action 
of running water. Through scores of years, perhaps 

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centuries, the etoiie which had found its lo(%ment in 
a hollow in the rock must have ceaselessly revolved 
round and round, impelled by an eddying whirlpool of 
water, wearing for itself a latter and larger cavity, 
deeper and deeper, with perfectly rounded and Bmooth 
Bides. And now the rock forms part of the waterless 
plain ; the very stone which wore the strange hole is 
often to be seen; the cavity worn by ages of water-action 
ia now the sole storage for water in a waterless country. 
Strangest of aU, it seemed that these water-holes at Tarn 
were not in the bed of a stream nor even on the 
low-lying ground, thereby indicating a complete change 
of configuration as well as of climatic conditions." ^ 

The projected railway from the coast to lake Victoria 
will probably follow the Athi valley to its source, and 
then continue in a north-westerly direction by Lakes 
iN'aivasha and Kakuro and across the Man plateau to 
Upper Eavirondo, descending by the Nzoia valley 
south-westwards to the north-east comer of the It^e. 

Exploratloii of Masai and EaTirondo Laads 

Previous to its ascent by Captain Bundas, £euia had 
never even been sighted since Krapfs time till the year 
1883, when it was twice seen from distances of 60 and 
26 miles by Joseph Thomson during his memorable 
expedition through Masailand to Lake Victoria Kyanza. 
The most successful attempt hitherto made to reach the 
summit must be credited to Count Teleki and Lieutenant 
von Hbhnel, who on their journey to Lake Samburu tn 
1887 ascended to a height of 15,350 feet, or within 
about 3000 feet of the loftiest peak. 

' CaptoiaF. D. Logud, " Travels from the East Cooat to UgBDd«, sto.," 
in Proe. £oy. Oto. Soe. Decembei 1S92, p. 319. 

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A great blank on the map of East Central Africa was 
removed by the expedition of Thomson, who was the first 
to visit Masailand proper; that ia to say, the r^on 
stretching from E!enia westwards in the duection of 
Lake Victoria, and northwards to Eafhland. The route 
followed by this intrepid pioneer ran from Mombasa on 
the coast mainly in a north-westerly direction round the 
flanks of Kilimanjaro and to the west of Eenia, along 
the east side of the great lacostrine depression of volcanic 
origin, which traverses Masailand in ita entire length 
irom north to sonth. After discovering Lakes Naiva^a, 
Elmeteita, and Naknro, the explorer reached Lake 
Baringo, which was long supposed to be a great inland 
sea, either a rival or an easterly extension of Victoria, but 
was now found to be quite a small basin, with no visible 
ontflow. From Baringo he turned westwards acroBs the 
Man plateaa and through Upper Kavirondoland to the 
north-east comer of Victoria, being the first traveller to 
reach the great lake from the east A long series of 
brilliant discoveries was completed on the retam journey 
by a preliminary survey of the lofty Elgon (Ligonyi) and 
Chibcharagnani cones at the north end of the Elgeyo 
(Man) escarpment Thomson also approximately deter- 
mined the position of the great lake Samburu, which lay 
some 300 miles to the north-east of Victoria, and which 
was discovered in 1687 by Count Teleki and by him 
renamed Lake Rudolf, the neighbouring but much 
smaller basin taking the name of Stefanie. 

Hitherto all the routes from Kenia to Victoria had 
taken a north - westerly direction, so that the tract 
extending irom the mountain due west to the lake had 
remained a blank on the map of East Equatorial Africa 
until it was traversed by the expedition of Messrs. 
Jackson and Gedge, through South Masailand to Uganda 

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in 1889-90. This important expedition, 'which was 
oi^anised b; the Ibea Company for the purpose of 
opening a new road to Lake Victoria, starting from the 
Machako station at the foot of the Ukamba Hills, in 
August 1889, traversed the broad grassy valley of the 
river Athi, which extends some 30 miles northwards to 
the densely - wooded Eikuyn district Beyond the 
undulating Kiknyn plateau (5000 to 8000 feet), the 
expedition followed Thomson's route to Lake Naivasha, 
after which it trended westwards over the Man eacarp- 
ment (9620 feet), and across a rolling grassy plateau to 
the thickly-wooded "Wandorobo country. A long and 
difBcult march of several days, through dense forest, and 
across the " Elephant Plain," where the only paths were 
elephant txacks running in all directious through the 
woodlands, brought the caravan to the rugged billy 
districts of Sotik and Lumbwa, which are separated by a 
tract of stony hills &om Lower Kavirondo. 

Here the expedition turned north-west to a point on 
Victoria Kyanza at the head of Stanley's TTgowe Bay, 
and thence by Mount Mnioro northwards to Upper 
Kavirondo, where a junction was effected with Thomson's 
route. At this point Jackson turned aside to visit 
Mount Elgon, which had been discovered by Thomson, 
and which was now ascended to the rim of the crater 
(14,044 feet), apparently within 50 feet of the highest 
peak. The remarkable inhabited caves on the slopes of 
this mountain were also examined, and found not to be 
artificial, as Thomson had supposed. There were no 
indications in any of them to suggest that they could 
possibly be the work of man. From Upper Kavirondo 
the expedition continued its route westwards through 
Busoga (Usc^) to Buganda (Uganda), and reached the 
Tlipon Falls at the head of the Somerset Nile on 6th 

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April 1890, having travereed 727 miles of a mostly 
unkDOWU r^OD in 138 marching daya. 

Bxploratton of tlw E(iiat<nlal Lake Begtao 

The more inland r^ons of Buganda and BunToro 
(Unyoro) had already been visited by Speke and Grrant, 
diacoverers of Victoria ffyanza, in 1858 ; by Sir Samuel 
Baker, discoverer of Albert Nyanza, in 1864 ; and again 
in 1875-76, by Stanley on his great expedition across the 
continent. But beyond the circumnavigation of Albeit 
Nyanza by Mason, Qessi, and other officials of the 
Khedival Qovemment daring the seventies, no farther 
progress was made in this direction tiU the whole region, 
irom the Middle Congo to the great lakes, was opened up 
by Stanley penetrating up the Aruwimi valley at the 
head of the Emin Pasha Belief Expedition in 1687-88. 
Then were discovered the snowy Buwenzori Moontains 
and the Semliki river flowing &tna the lake now named 
Albert Edward, northwards to the head of the Albert 
Nyanza, and sU these waters were thus shown to 
constitute a continuoos system, which may he aptly 
named the Albertine brandi of the Nile. Some of the 
details of this system have since been supplied by Captain 
Lugard of the Ibea Company, who even established 
outposts on the flanks of Buwenzori in 1891. In the 
same year the Albertine branch was extended far to the 
south by Kmin Pasha and X>r. Stuhlmann. In 1894 
Count von Gotzen explored the almost unknown region 
between Lakes Albert Edward and Tanganyika, and 
discovered the Eifu Lake and the Yimnga Mountains, 
an isolated volcanic group standing in the centre of this 
great longitudinal trough. 

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FliTsical Featnxes ; tlie Ooastl&nds 

North of Mombasa, where the present coast-line ' 
begina to trend rapidly north-eastwards, the general 
rim -like configuration of the continental periphery 
becomefi greaUy modified, if not altogether effaced. Here 
we enter a region where the geolc^cal continuity of the 
eastern seaboard has been broken by the undei::ground 
forces, which have been at work till comparatively recent 
times, and which in some places even still reveal them- 
selves by such phenomena as hot springs, sulphurous 
exhalations, and escapes of vapour from extinct or 
quiescent craters. All the lofty ranges and culminating 
peaks — Kilimanjaro, Eenia, Donyo Longonok, the 
Aberdare mountains, Chibcharagnani, Elgon — are clearly 
of igneous origin, while the whole of Masailand is 
traversed south and north by a remarkable volcanic iault 
extending for hundreds of miles from below Lake 
Manyara to the foothills of the Abyssinian highlands. 

All travellers penetrating &om the coast to the 
interior have been struck by the marked differences 
presented by the general aspect an j relief of the lands 
traversed by tiie main caravan routes south and north 
of the parallel of Mombasa. Those proceeding from 
Zanzibar towards Tanganyika speak of the narrow strip 
of low-lying fever -stricken coastlands suddenly inter- 
rupted by imposing mountain ranges, or, more correctly 
speaking, precipitous plateau escarpments, springing 
abruptly frtim the plains, and raising an apparently 
insurmountable barrier to all further advance inland. 
But the district traversed by the route leading from 
Mombasa, or the Tana delta, towards Victoria Nyanza 
presents "no pestilential coast region, and though 
travelling in the height of the wet season, we have found 

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□o swamps or marshes. On the contraiy, we softer 
hardships for want of water, as we travetse, upon the 
whole, a singularly arid r^ou. Neither have we been 
called Dpon to ascend any plateau escarpment, or cross 
any mountain ranga A gentle rise, not noticeahle to the 
eye, has carried us over a smooth or slightly undulating 
country, culminating at Taveta in a height of 2350 feet 
We have crossed, it is true, a narrow, low-lying area 
close to the coast, and made a sudden ascent of some 
700 feet to Babai [near Mombasa]; but this is in no 
sense comparable to the features we have described 
farther south. Geologically it has no connection, and 
geographically a short examination shows that the Eabai 
hills are a mere local excrescence, with no resemblance 
to the continental feature of coast mountains succeeding 
to lowlands." * 

North of Kilimanjaro the waterless Dogilani desert, a 
boundless saline steppe strewn with fragments of obsidian, 
is skirted along its western margin by the gloomy escarp- 
ment of the Man plateau, and on the opposite aide hj 
the rugged walls of the Kapt^ and £ikuyu tablelands. 
Here rise, south of Lake Naivasba, the imposing igneous 
cones of Donyo Kisali, Donyo la-Nyuld, and Donyo 
Longonok (nearly 9000 feot), the last mentioned 
ascended in 1884 by Joseph Thomson, who from the 
sharp crater-like rim on its summit peered into a 
yawning chasm from 1 500 to 2000 feet deep.* " It was 
not, however, an inverted cone, as volcaoio craten 

' Through Mataibtnd, p. 202. 

'■' In thU K^on the geognpliical nomGncl&ture ii M*s>i, in vhkti 
Ungoage the frequently recumng donyo idunyo, dimyt) ineuu 
"mountain," hence Donyo Longmek^" The Monntun of the Big Fit" 

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frequently are, but a great circular cavity, with perfectly 
perpendicular walls, and about three miles in circum- 
ference, without a break in any part, though on the 
south-western side roae a peak several hundred feet 
above the general level of the rim. So sharp was the 
edge of this marvellous crater that I literally sat astride 
on it with one leg dangling over the abyss internally, and 
the other down the side of the mountaiiL The twttom 
of the pit seemed to be quite level, covered with acacia 
trees, the tops of which, at that great depth, had much 
the general aspect of a grass plain. There were no 
bushes or creepers to cover in the stem and forbidding 
walls, which were composed of beds of lava and con- 
glomerate. Looking towards the norUi, the first sight 
that riveted my gaze was the glimmering many-isled 
expanse of Naivasha, backed to the west by the Man 
escarpment. To the south stretched the desert of 
Dr^ilani, with the less perfect but larger crater mass of 
Donyo la-Nyuki." ^ 

Lakes Nalvasha, Sarinfo, and Sambnm 

lake Naivasha, which Thomson beheld from Donyo 
LongoQok and afterwards surveyed, cannot belong 
geolc^cally to the remarkable lacustrine system of this 
region. It is a shallow sheet of fresh water studded 
with islands, and standing on the plateau at an altitude 
of 6000 feet. There is no present outflow, and it is 
evidently of comparatively recent origin, having probably 
been formed by the damming up of the headstreams of 
the river Tana by matter erupted from £enia or some of 
the other neighbouring conea It forms an irregular 
quadrilateral, about J4 miles by 10, and, thoi^h destitute 

* Through SfaaaiUmd, p. SS2. 

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of fiab, abounds in hippopotami, and is much freqnenled 
by aqoatic bird& Soin« 22 miles farther north an Hie 
smaller salt lakes, yakuro and Elmeteita, whose 
sparkling waters contrast sharply with the sombre hues 
of the neighbouring Msu escarpments. In this desolate 
r^on of the great median depressioD the land is strewn 
with the skeletons of thoosands erf dead trees, killed 
either by an escape of mephidc gases, or by the slower 
process of desiccation, dae to a gradual modification of the 

A little north of Naknro tiie meridional depressi<»i 
inclines northwards in the direction of the lovely lake 
Baringo (llTbanngo), which, before ita discovery by Thom- 
son in 1883, was supposed to be either one of the great 
equatorial lakes or else a north-easterly extension of 
Victoria Nyanza. But it was found by Thomson to be 
a small freshwater basin not more than 200 square milee 
in extent, without any visible outflow, although fed b; 
several perennial streams from the surrounding heights. 
It stands at an altitude of 3217 feet, about 40 miles 
north of the equator, the central attraction of an extremel? 
ruf^^ed and picturesque landscape. " Imagine, if you 
can, a trough or depression 3300 feet above sea-level, 
and 20 miles broad, the mountains rising with very great 
abruptness on both sides to a height of 9000 feet. In 
the centre of this depression lies a dnwling expanse of 
water, glittering like a mirror in the fierce rays of s 
tropical sun. Almost in its centre rises a picturesque 
island surrounded by four smaller islets, a group of 
nature's emeralds in a dazzling setting of burnished 
silver. Bound the irregular-shaped lake appears a strip 
of pale green, which indicates a marshy border, and in 
an outer circle extending up to the mountains spreads a 
very dark green area, which you know to be table-topped 



acacia trees. A remarkable tiseemblage of straight lines, 
wall-like extensions, and angular outlines, produces an 
impressive and quite unique landscape. It speaks 
eloquently, however, of igneous disturbances ; for here 
you observe numerous earth movements, faults crossing 
each other at right an^es, and other features, which are 
clearly not modelled by surface ^encies, all of them so 
recent in origin as to remain comparatively untouched 
by the hand of tima''^ 

Beyond Baringo the great volcanic fault traversing 
Masailand is still continued northwards, nearly to the 
foothills of the Eafb highlands, here termlDating in the 
flooded saline basins of Basso-Narok and Basso-Ebor, dis- 
covered in 1887 by Count Teleki, and by him renamed . 
Lakes Kudolf and Stefanie. Budolf, which has been 
identified with the Samboru heard of by Thomson and 
other travellers advaocing from the south, and with the 
Shambsxa heard of by M. Jules Borelli advancing through 
Shoa from the north (1888), is a long narrow sheet of 
water stretching over 160 miles north and south, with 
a mean breadth of about 20 miles and a somewhat shift- 
ing area of 3000 square miles. It lies some 300 miles 
north-east of Victoria Nyanza, in a bare arid region 
scantily peopled by a few Galla fishing tribes, and, like 
the neighbouring and much smaller Lake Stefanie, it 
appears to be a closed basin with no visible emissary. 
It may perhaps send its overflow intermittently eastwards 
to the Juba, but its level of about 1550 feet, as deter- 
mined by Teleki's companion Lieutenant von Hohnel, 
shows that it cannot possibly communicate with Victoria 
Nyanza (3800 feet), nor apparently with the Sobat or any 
other south-eastern affluent of the White Kile. It is fed 
by two considerable tributaries from the north, one of 
' Through Mcuailand, p. 396. 

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which, Teleki'e " Niam-Niam," is evidently Boielli's Omo 
tlowing soathwarda from the EaSa uplands. But until 
the gap of 60 or 70 miles is filled up between the 
itineraries of Teleld and Borelli, the interesting problems 
connected with the hydn^raphy of this region must 
remain unsolved. The water of lAke Budolf is potable, 
although chained with much aoda in the south, and jellov 
and turbid in the north, where its two chief influents, 
the Omo and Baas, deposit "an extraordinary quantity 
of dark earth," 

The Eenia and Aberdare Highlands 

Most of the so-called mountain ranges in Masailand 
are either plateau escarpments skirting both sides of the 
lacustrine depression at a remarkably uniform mean 
elevation of 8000 to 9000 feet, or else huge and some- 
what isolated volcanic masses scarcely anywhere present- 
ing the aspect of a continuous system. Kenia, however, 
hitherto supposed to be a detached cone, like its southern 
rival Kilimanjaro, appears, on the contrary, to be a true 
mountain chain, " stretching &om west to east, commenc- 
ing in the high Leikipia (Lykipia) plateau, and rising 
steadily until it culminates in the great double peak. 
Then comes the second large peak, with five or six other 
smaller ones ; after these again some lower mountains, 
all more or less connected ; and, finally, an isolated hill i> 
seen rising in the Barra to the east" ^ But the dcaninant 
snow-clad peak, rising to a height of fix>m 18,000 to 
19,000 feet close under the equator, towers so much 
above the surroondii^ crests as to present the appearance 
of a solitary majestic cone to obeerveis surveying it firom 

' "Ths Dnndu Eipedition Dp the River Tana to Mount Kenia," Aoc- 
Jioy. Q«o, Soe, August 1892. 

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a distance. " The sides of this upper peak are so steep 
and precipitous that on many places the snow is quite 
unable to lie, and in consequence the rocks appear here 
and there as black spots in the white marble. Hence 
its Masai name of Donyo Eg^r^, the speckled or grey 
mountain. The peak is strikingly suggestive of an 
enormous white crystal or stalagmite, set upon a sooty 
basement, which &lls away gradually into the dark 
emerald green of the forest r^on round the base." ^ 

Kenia is separated from the eastern scarp of the 
median depression by the Aberdare Mountains, another 
chain disposed at r^ht angles with it, and running north 
and south for a distance of 60 miles at an altitude of 
about 14,000 feet. Having no collective native designa- 
tion, it was named the Aberdare Bai^e by ita discoverer, 
Thomson, in honour of the President of the Boyal Geo- 
graphical Society, which had despatched hint to Masai- 
land. From the slopes of these mountains the traveller, 
looking westwards, commands an extensive view of the 
long dark line of the Mau escarpment, which, under the 
name of Elgeyo, is continued northwards to Mount Chib- 
charagnani (12,000 feet), facing the still loftier peaks of 
the cavernous Mount Elgon or Ligonyi (14,000 feet), a 
little farther west. 

This northern, more mountainous, and generally more 
elevated division of Masailand, with a mean altitude of 
about 6000 feet, differs in a marked degree from the 
southern and more arid section of the Dogilani wilderness, 
with an altitude of less than 4000 feet. " A more charm- 
ing region is probably not to be found in aE Africa, prob- 
ably not even in Abyssinia, Here are dense patches 
of flowering shrubs ; there noble forests. Kow you 
traverse a park -like country enlivened by groups of 

' TTnvugh Xataiiand, p. 83S, 
VOL. II 2 M 

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game ; anon great herds of cattle or flocks of sheep and 
goats are seen wandering knee-deep in the splendid 
pasture. There ia little in the aspect of the countiy to 
surest the popular idea of the Tropica. The eye resta 
upon coniferoua trees, forming pine-like woods, and you 
can gather sprigs of heath, sweet-scented clover, ane- 
mone, and other familiar forms. In vain you look for 
the graceful palm — ever present in the mental pictores 
of the untravelled geographer." ' 

Thomson speaks favourahly of the climate of Masai- 
land, which, though hot, is dry, with a rain&ll of about 
fifteen inches on the lower desert region, and of from 
thirty to forty on the h^ber plateaux. Owing to this 
slight precipitation, which is almost entirely confined to 
the months of February, March, and April, " the lower 
plains are practically desert, though the soil ia of the 
richest character. There are absolutely no marshes, with 
their physical discomforts and poisonous exhalations 
breeding disease and death. The air is dry and invigorat- 
ing, and, though the days are hot, yet the breezes blow 
with refreshing coolness, and a night of low temperature 
— and even frequently of intense cold — braces one up 
for the fatigues of the garish day. The contrast indeed 
is felt to be just a httle too great, when you rise shiver- 
ing in the morning, to see the grass covered with hoar 
frost, and then in the afternoon find yourself perspiring 
in the airiest of costumes under a shady bush with the 
temperature above 90° Fah."^ 


Masailand proper is separated westwards by the 
extensive forest zone of the Nandi and Wandorobo 
■ Thomson, op. cU. p. 107. * Zee ol. ii. p. 40S. 

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BBITI8H b:a3T ajbjca. 547 

elephant hunters from the Victoria Nyanza coast region 
of Kavirondoland, which, Uke Masailand itself, comprises 
two distinct sections — Upper and Lower Kavirondo. 
The fornker presents the appearance of a rolling expanse 
of highly-cultivated fertile land, well watered by numerous 
streams mostly flowing from the Elgon and Chibcharanga 
heights through the Nzoia south-westwards to the north- 
east comer of Yictoiia Kyanza. There is a general 
absence of trees, hut much rich pasturage ; and Thomson, 
the first European who traversed the district, was much 
impressed by the surprising number of vUlages, the com- 
fortable air of the teeming population, and the apparently 
inexhaustible abundance of cattle, sheep, goate, poultiy, 
milk, eggs, honey, beans, and other supplies. Upper 
Kavirondo extends from the equator for about 30 miles 
northwards to the southern slopes of Mount £^n, while 
Lower Kavirondo, first visited by F. J. Jackson in 1889, 
stretches for about the same distance from the equator 
southwards to the Sotik district at the southern exti'emity 
of Ifdoroboland, It is separated by a range of stony 
hills covered with grass and scrub from the eastern dis- 
trict of Lumbwa, and some of the central parts are thickly 
peopled and fairly weU cultivated. But elsewhere the 
prevailing features are low hills or rolling tracts covered 
with grass, scrub, or bush. The drainage is to Ugowe Bay 
through the Nyando and a few other small coast streama 
Despite its equatorial position, the Kavirondo plateau, 
standing at elevations of from 7000 to 8000 feet, enjoys 
a cool and exhilarating climate, and, taken as a whole, 
is regarded by Lugard as a promising field for European 
colonisation. " This country," he writes, " seems to me 
to be one of great possibilities. To us who have spent so 
long in the Tropics it seemed like one of Arctic cold at an 
elevation of 7000 to 8000 feet and more. It is here that 

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I should like to see the grand experiment of European 
coloDisation tried, the experiment the result of which is 
to determine the future of the vast continent. The 
locality is admirably adapted to stock-rearing operations, 
and ranching on the lines adopted in Manitoba and the 
Far West. This plateau is crossed by the equator . . . 
and should it appear that the nearer the equator Uie 
healthier the locality, given sufficient altitude to ensure 
the requisite climate, a point will have been established 
which may revolutionise our ideas of the Dark Continent 
and transform its history," ' 

A striking feature of the local Sora is a magnificent 
species of juniper, which shoots straight up without 
a branch to a height of 50 feet, with a girth of 15 or 
1 6 feet. Bamboos also Sourish in these forests, as well 
aa the various species of fig, from the bark of which 
the Was(^a and Waganda manufacture the beautiful 
soft mbugu cloth forming the material of the national 

Duga ; Uganda ; The Victoria KUe 
Kavirondoland is conterminous westwards with the 
great empire of Uganda, which with its vassal states 
of Us(^a, Usongora, Uzioja, Budu, and other outlying 
provinces comprises all the northern and north-western 
coastlands of Victoria Nyauza. In its physical aspects 
Us(^a, which comprises the whole region between the 
frontier river Sio and the Victoria Nile, does not differ 
greatly from the less elevated parts of Kavironda But 
the transition is somewhat startling, from the rude and 
naked Wabavirondo to the semi-civilised Was(^, arrayed 
in their flowing black-dyed mbugu robes. Usc^ is a 
densely-populated r^on covered in many parts with a 
> Loc. at. p. S22. 

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coDtmuons SQCcession of large Bettlements, cassava and 
baJiaDa plantations. Most of the horned cattle have 
been swept away by the terrible plague which is even 
Btill devastating the east equatorial regions ; but numer- 
ous flocks still remain, and such is the abundance of 
agricultural produce that Uat^ has been called " the 
cook-pot of Uganda." It is ruled not by a king but by 
about twenty semi-independent chiefs, over whom the 
feudal lords of Uganda claim a sort of paramount 

Uganda proper, which, with the provinces of East 
and West Singo, extends from the Upper Victoria Nile 
to Unyoro,LS a region of interminable rounded hills of red 
marl, shaly gravel, and iron -ore slag, rising little more 
than 300 feet above the intervening gently sloping 
valleys of a rich black humus, which stand at a 
mean altitude of about 4200 feet above sea-level and 
400 to 500 above the great lake. So r^ular are the 
contour lines of the billowy heights that many affect the 
appeuuDce of artificial mounds or barrows usually 
clothed with pasturage of fair quality, or else a peculiar 
sbarp-poiuted spear-grass, while the marshy depressions 
are in many places overgrown with coarse elephant- 
grass and dense papyrus, with an undergrowth of reeds 
and marsh fema 

There is a great dearth of timber in East Singo, 
where the date palm is almost the only tree. But West 
Singo is somewhat densely wooded with borassus, 
acacia, euphorbia, and other growths characteristic of a 
poor and rocky soil In this district, which abounds 
with elephants, the marls and iron-ore slag are replaced 
by granite and sandstone, and the soil and herbf^ are of 
inferior quality. But still farther west the ground falls 
in the direction of Unyoro to an elevation of 3900 feet, 

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here broadeDii^ out in a vast plain or level plateau of 
great fertilitj. Despite its altitude and geneial hillj 
character, the whole of Uganda is characterised by a 
singular absence of rapidly-Sowing waters. "Even in 
April, in the daily deluge of rain, tiiere is no marked 
watershed. The valleys are merely damp or even 
swampy, but in almost every instance can be crossed 
dry-shod. The rivers are large papyrus-swamps with no 
perceptible current and little water." ^ The Katonga 
frontier stream towards Budu, although %uring on the 
maps as a large river, is little more than a broad maishy 
expanse draining eastwards to Victoria Nyanza, The 
Mwanja, with its Mwerango tributary and most of the 
other sluggish swamp-rivers, drain to the Kafur, which 
Bows north-east to the left bank of the Somerset Nile at 
MrulL This characteristic absence of free-flowing water- 
courses is probably due to the dense vegetation on the 
lower slopes of the hiUs intercepting the tropical down- 
pours, while much moisture is absorbed and the natural 
draini^e obstructed by the tangled masses of papyrus 
and other aquatic growths in the depressions. 

In Uganda there are two rainyseaaons — a lesser usually 
from October to the middle of December, and a greater 
from March to the end of May. The former is followed 
by a period of great heat and dryness, during which the 
grass is burnt and the v^^tation everywhere parched, 
except in the swampy districts. But occasionally the 
rainfall of both seasons is equally copious, and in 1891 
the precipitation was so heavy that Lake Victoria rose 
fully six feet above its normal level. Hence the excep- 
tionally high floods recorded in the mouth of Septembei 
of that year in I^ypt, 3000 miles away. 

The Somerset Nile, so named by its discoverer. Captain 
' Captain Lugard, iVoe. Soy. Oeo. Soe. for April 1892, p. 2S9. 

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Speke, in 1862, but now better known as the Victoria 
Nile, Bends the wliole of the overflow of the Victoria 
Nyanza northwards to the Mediterranean. Immediately 
an«r leaving the lake a little north of the Equator, It 
develops the Eipon Falls, where it descends 12 feet 
between protruding gneiss walls. This may be regarded 
as the first step in the somewhat rapid incline &om the 
more elevated southern to the more spacious northern 
section of the continental plateau (see vol. i. p. 5). Beyond 
the Kipon Falls Speke followed the stream in its northerly 
course for 35 miles to Urondc^ani, where he was obliged 
to leave it and turn north-westwards to the kingdom of 
Unyoro ; he did not again strike the river till be had 
reached Mruli, at that time capital of Unyoro, so that 
a stretch of about 60 miles remained to be explored. It 
was not till 1874, when Colonel Long made a perilous 
canoe voyage down the river from Urondogani to 
Mruli, that this gap was filled up, and the connection 
of the Victoria Nyanza with the Nile basin placed beyond 
all doubt. 

After two or three days' paddling down stream 
between bonks covered with an impenetrable growth of 
papyrus, the canoe emerged in a broad expanse where the 
river seemed to be lost. " I looked in vain," says Long, 
" for the opposite shore. Stretching away to the east- 
ivard a scarcely visible line seemed to indicate land, 
certainly 20 miles away." > As he advanced into the 
lake, since named Lake Ibrahim, what seemed to be land 
towards the west proved to be a vast sea of lilies floating 
on the surface and gi'owing up from great depths. A 
great papyrus jungle, springing from the so-called " sudd " 
or tangled mass of floating vegetation, surrounds the lake, 
which extends N.W. and S.E. a distance of some 30 
> Colonel C. Chulli Long, Central Africa, lS7e. 

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miles. Detached islete of matted growths drift away 
with the current from the north-west comer of the lake, 
whence the stream flows in the same direction bejond 
Mruli ; then north to the Karuma Fall, discovered hy 
Speke and Grant ; then due west over the grand 
MuTchison Falls (120 feet high), first seen by Sir 
Samuel Baker, — and so on to the northern end of Lake 
Luta Nzige, renamed Albert Kyanza by its discoverer. 
Baker, in 1864. It would appear that the Victoria Nile, 
a broad, deep rapidly flowing stream, "a giant at its 
birth," carrieB ofif a much lai^er volume from Lake 
Victoria than the combined contributions of the Nzoia, 
Kagera, Simiyu, Ruwana, and all its other affluents, 
which are neither nnmeroua nor copious. When the 
enoimouB evaporation of an equatorial basin 27,000 
square miles in extent, is also taken into account, it 
seema difficult to explain this excessive discharge. 
Doubtless much of the evaporation is returned by the 
heavy local rains, and what is still required to maintain 
the basin at a constant level and feed its great emissary 
may perhaps be supplied by a subsoil drainage carried to 
the lake by perennial springs (Lugard). 

Unyoro, Eoki, Aitkole 

The middle and lower course of the Victoria Nile 
forms, with Lake Albert, the eastern, northern, and 
western limits of Unyoro, which, although separated 
towards the south by no very distinct physical features 
from Uganda, nevertheless presents in its genei-al aspect 
a decided contrast to that region. Gently rounded 
grassy knolls give place to rugged granite heights, 
boulders of fantastic shape, bare rocky peaks and crags. 
Many of the hills are full of large caves, which, like 

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those of Mount Elgon, are spacious enoi^h to shelter 
the natives and their herds. The soil in the valleys and 
on the slopes of the hills is extremely fertile ; the country 
is tolerably well timbered, and yields great quantities of 
crops, although the people depended lai^ely for their 
support ou their cattle, until the herds, as in Uganda 
and Masailaud, were recently swept away by the plague. 
Bananas are not so prevalent as in Uganda, but much 
more maize is raised, besides cassava, sweet potatoes, 
beans, cafTre-com, semsem, and dhal. Streams of nin- 
ning water are numerous, and Captain Lugard considers 
Unyoro to be " healthy, and second to none in natural 
resources and richness of soil." ' 

Beyond the southern frontier of Uganda proper the 
vassal states of Budn, £oki. East and West Ankole, and 
Kitagwendaocciipy the whole r^on comprised between the 
Katonga and Eagera rivers north and south, and between 
the Yictoria and Albert Edward Nyanzas east and west. 
This was practically an unknown land before its explora- 
tion in 1891 by Captain Lugard, who, in the summer of 
that year, conducted an expedition from Uganda to the 
relief of the Sudanese refugees at Eavalli's, on the south- 
west shore of the Albert Nyanza. After determining 
the position of Lake Kashera between the petty state of 
Koki and Ankole, the explorer stirveyed numerous other 
<1eep circular depressions, Uke volcanic craters, some of 
which were flooded with clear blue water of great depth ; 
while others resembled dried-up ponds sinking over 100 
feet below the surrounding country, which stood about 
4200 feet above sea-leveL East Ankole, a ru^ed hilly 
district traversed in all directions by ranges about 5000 
feet high, has a poor, unproductive soil yielding little 
but spear-grass, acacias, and thorny scrub, though in some 
1 Loe. eit. p. 23S. 

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places abounding in game and even elephants in the wet 
season. West Ankole, on the other hand, and the 
neighbouring Kitagwenda, are extremely fertile and well 
cultivated, producing great quantities of mtama (caffi-e- 
com), bananas, cassava, maize, beans, and sweet potatoes. 
Iron ores occur in many places, and some mines were 
passed which had formerly been worked by the natives. 
Even the more sterile districts afford plenty of pasture, 
besides much babul (thorny acacia), which the Somali 
accompanying the expedition considered excellent fodder 
for camels. 

The Albertin« Hilo ; Lake Albert Edward 

Beyond Kitagwenda the route trended south-west to 
the channel, 600 yards wide, connecting the main body 
of Albert Edward Nyanza with the north-eastern basin of 
Lake Eusango ; that is, the Beatrice Gulf, discovered by 
Stanley in 1876, and long supposed to be a southern 
inlet of Albert Nyanza.' Kusango now appears, on the 
contrary, to be a north-eastern extension of the Mwutan- 
zig^ (" Barrier to Locusts ") ; that is, the Albert Edward 

' This ideatifiotioD is esUblished by Stanley's remark that, looking 
across Bsatrice Qulf, he obtained a glimpse of the Usongora countrj, noted 
for its mud springs, its conical hills emitting Bre aod smoke, its frequent 
eartbqaakes, and its pkiDS covered with salt and alkali. The position of 
Usongora is now accurately determined by recent surreya, sbawiiig that it 
is limited by Lake Russngo (Beatrice Gulf) and the Isango or Upper 
Semliki river east snd west, and by Rawenzori and Lake Albert Edvrard 
north and south. In 18B1 the I. B. £. A. Company had nlread; founded the 
outlying statione of Fort Edward, in the Torn district north of Usongora, 
and Port Qeorge, on the tongue of land separating Albert Edward Irom 
the Salt Lake, a shallotv little basin lying a short distance west of 
RusangD. The water of this crater-like cavity is of a deep claret-T«d, and 
its banks are covered with a fine saline sffloresceace yielding a white rose- 
tinted salt of excellent quality. Rusango is also known by other names, 
fuch M Rnisamba, Eafiiru, and Ramsakara. 

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discovered by Stanley in 1888, Its long axis nms 
south-west and north-east, and its shores are free from 
swamp except at the north-west end, where a marshy 
tract, overgrown with dense jungle, and frequented by 
great herds of elephants, ia traversed by the Wami and 
Mpanga rivers, through which the couotless streams 
descending from the eastern and southern slopes of 
Euwenzori reach the lake. Tn its lower course the 
Mpanga flows through a romactic forest-clad goige 700 
feet deep, where its pent-up waters chafe and fret as 
they rush over the sunken reefs of their rocky bed. The 
Mpanga is stated to send down a larger volume than is 
discharged throi^h the Semliki (Isango, Itiri) emissary of 
Lake Albert Edward to the lower basin of the Albert 
Nyanza. As the Albert Edward receives several other 
affluents, especially from the south, the excess o£ inflow 
over outflow must be almost too great to be accounted 
for by evaporation. But such hydrographic difficulties, 
which so often piiisent themselves on the discovery of 
lai^ water systems, are usually removed by later surveys 
and more accurate measurements. 

Albert Edward appears to cover a much smaller area 
than formerly. " Five feet of rise would increase its 
extent five miles to the north and five miles to the 
south. Fifty feet of rise would restore the lake to its 
old condition, when its waves rolled over the pebbled 
beach under the shadows of the forests near Mtsora. 
... If we sound its depths, the pole drops through 
four or five feet of grey mud, to which are attached 
thousands of mica flakes and comminuted scales and 
pulverised bones of fish, which emit an overpowering 
stench. And atom by atom the bed-rock between the 
forest of Awamba and the Lake Albert Edward is being 
eroded and scoured away, until, by and by, the lake wiU 

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have become dry land, and through the centre of it will 
meander the Semliki, having gathered the tributaries 
from Ruwenzori, the Ankore and Euanda uplands, to 
itself." ' 

The Albert Edward Nyanza was again visited in 
1891 by Emin Pasha and Dr. F. Stublmann for the 
purpose of determining its extent and exploring the 
surrounding districts. They found that it stretched 
from the equator about 45 miles to the south, where it 
receives two considerable influents, the Kuanda and the 
Knchuru, descending from the Euanda uplands through 
the broad savannah -covered plain which occupies the 
whole space between the plateau escarpments of Mpororo 
and the Easali mountains towards the south-west.^ 
Here the British is conterminous with the German 
sphere of influence, the frontier line being indicated by 
Mfumbiro (11,500 feet) and several other undoubtedly 
volcanic peaks, culminating in Mount Kisigali, about 
13,000 feet high. According to Count von Giitzen, who 
ascended it in 1894, Vimnga (Viagongo), the most dis- 
tant of these conea towards the south-west, is still active. 

From the present level of Albert Edward (3300 feet),' 
the ground slopes gradually upwards to about 5300 feet 
at Kiaya. Here the route followed by Lugard descends 
to the head of a narrow glen, while the plateau trends 
away to the right, forming the Unyoro uplands, and from 
the Semliki valley presenting the aspect of a lofty ranga 
The fertile Kiaya valley is watered by numerous streams 
and occupied with banana groves and much tilled land. 
Beyond Eiaya the route lay throi^h a wilderness of 

1 In lUirkeit 4friea, ii. p. 306. 
■ Proe. Boy. Oeo. Soc August 1892, p. G41. 

* ThU U Stanley's estimate, whiub is redaced bj Stnhlmann to 2860 
feat, or not mot» thtxt SCO feet above Albert Njonza. 

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quartz under scrub, and intersected at right angles by 
extenaiye mvines of rich soil, dotted over with villages, 
forests, and cultivated tracts. Then followed a lower 
plateau overlooking the Semlikl valley, and commanding 
a view on the one hand of the Kuwenzori slopes, on the 
other of what seemed to be a long mountain range 
increasing in height from south to north, but which were 
in reality the escarpments of the plateaux, where the 
head-waters of the Aruwimi, Welle-Makua, and other 
great Congo affluents have their rise. Here stood the 
station of Chief Kavalli, whence Captain Lugard brought 
away some 8000 of the turbulent Sudanese troops who 
had caused so much trouble to the leader of the Emin 
Relief Expedition in 1888. 

During their stay at Eavalli's these troops had added 
much to the distress of the unfortunate natives, already 
exposed on the one hand to the chronic plundering expedi- 
tious of Eaharega's bands from TJnyoro, on the other to 
the slave-hunting raids of the Manyuemas penetrating east- 
wards from the Congo basin. How order was now restored, 
and protection extended to the surrounding populations, is 
best told in Captain Lugard's simple, dignified langu^e : 
" So I brought down the Sudanese from Xavalli, and I 
built five forts trom north to south from the Albert to 
the Albert Edward, and I located the Sudanese in them 
by regiments and companies ; and I left De Winton in 
charge of Torn — the country bordering the base of the 
Ruwenzori range — with orders to protect these people 
both from the licence of the Sudanese and from Kabar^a. 
And the fugitive Wahuma came out from their hiding 
amoi^ the mountains, escaped from their slavery among 
the Wanyoro. or bade farewell to Ntali, who had sheltered 
them, and with great rejoicing recognised the boy £asa- 
gama as their king. But old men, chiefs of influence in 

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the old time, came to me and said, ' The people are eager 
to come to yon. They have seen that you hurt neither 
man nor woman. They know Easagama to he the true 
son of their old king ; but they fear tiiat you will go as 
Stanley went, and then there is only torture and death 
before them at the bands of Kabar^a's armies. In old 
time the white men came to Mruli and Fauvera in North 
Unyoro, and the people did not believe they had come to 
stay, and they would not accept them. But they built 
forts and stayed, so the people came. And one day they 
gathered up their things and went ; and £abar^a killed 
all those people who had been Mendly to them.' And 
I replied, ' Do as you prefer ; but these lands are British. 
We have taken them by the agreement of the nations of 
Europe, and are come to stay.' And when the people 
saw that we had built these forte and left these Sudanese, 
and a European was come to live among them, they 
doubted no longer that we meant to protect them, and 
place a barrier between them and Eabar^a on the one 
hand, and the Manyuema on the other. And De Winton 
vsrrote to me shortly afterwards, and said they were escap- 
ing from their slavery in Unyoro, and coming in on every 
side by thousands, with great rejoicing, 

" And De Winton did as I had told him, and went 
round the country with Kasagama, and appointed chiefs 
to districts, and helped him to arrange the country in 
peace. And in this task this brave young officer died," ' 

The Semliki Elver ; Lake Albert Nyanza 

On issuing from Lake Albert Edward the Semliki 
crosses the equator, and sweeps round the western foot 
of Kuwenzori on its north-easterly course to the south 
' Loe.cU.'p. 839. 

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end of Albert Nyanza, which it enters throi^h two or 
more sluggish channels. The fluvial delta thus formal 
is so completely masked by a waving forest of ^bacli 
reeds growing in the shallow waters at the head of the 
lake that it escaped the notice of Mason, Gessi, and the 
other Khedival officials sent to survey this great reservoir 
of the I^ile during the seventies. Hence it was that the 
existence of the Semliki was unsuspected until it was 
struck by Stanley in 1888 some 30 miles above its 
mouth. At this point it was 60 yards wide, with a 
velocity of about five miles, and a little lower down it 
broadened out to a fine, deep stream 100 yards wide. 
Higher up it is described as " a loopy, and twisting, 
crooked stream, forming a wide-stretching S i" every 
mile of its course, and its water was of a whitey-brown 
colour and weighted with sediment. Out of a tumblerful 
of the liquid a fourth of an inch of fine earth would be 
deposited." ' 

That section of the Semliki valley which lies under 
the shelter of the mighty Kuwenzori barrier is described 
by Stanley as a natural hothouse, where vegetation finds 
all the conditions necessary to promote a riotous pro- 
fusion of tropical growths. " Where the humus is deep 
we find a tall and stately forest, with impervious under- 
wood of young trees, bound together and sometimes 
altogether hidden by countless climbing vines and robust 
plants ; where the humus is thinner, as near the foot of 
the range, dense crops of cane-grass, from 1 to 1 5 feet 
in height, Sourish luxuriant and impenetrable. Every 
tree-stem has its green robe of soft moss, dripping with 
dew, and each tree-fern or horizontal branch has its 
orchids, or broad elephant-eared plant. Every rock is 
clothed with lichens, and if but the sl^htest hollow is 
' In Darkest Africa, ii. p. 237. 

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found in it, there will be seen a multitude of tropical 
plants crowding every inch. In short, everywhere, except 
upon the perpeadicular face of a late-moved boulder, 
vegetation thrives of every variefy of greenness, form, 
and character," * 

During its meandering course of about 150 miles this 
important section of the Albertine Nile has, according to 

iall of nearly 1000 feet between the Albert Edward 
and Albert Nyanzas. Long after its discovery by 
Baker (1864), Lake Albert was supposed to be little 
more than a backwater of the Victoria Nile, which 
reaches its northern extremity at Magungo. Later, it 
was extended on the maps far to the south, so as 
to form a continuous sheet of water with Stanley's 
Beatrice Gulf, from which we now know that it la 

■ In Darkea Afnta., it p. 2Sfl, 


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separated by the Semliki valley and the Ruwenzori 

Evea before its discovery by Sir Samnel Baker 
advancing southwards from the White Nile, the exist- 
ence of Albert Nyanza had already been reported by 
Speke in 1862. But its extent and general outlines 
were not accurately detenoined till 1876, when it was 
first almoat completely circumnavigated by the Italian 
explorer, Homolo Gteasi, a member of Gordon's I^yptian 
expedition. Gesai found it to be 25 miles wide and 100 
miles long in the direction irom north-east to south-west, 
where he came upon the already-mentioned impenetrable 
ambach forest filling the whole southern end of the lake. 
" From the mast of the boat," says Gessi, " I observed 
that the forest of ambach extended very far, and that 
beyond it there succeeded a field or valley of herbs and 
v^etation which reaches to the foot of the mountains." 
Lofty mountains, or rather plateau escarpments, enclose 
the lake east and west, sending down their steep slopes 
numerous streams and rushing torrents. In 1877 Coloael 
Mason, an American officer in the service of the Egyptian 
Government, made a more careful survey of the lake, 
which fully confirmed Gessi's report. 


The mountains seen by both of these explorers away 
to the south proved to he the Euwenzori highlands, 
which were discovered and roughly surveyed by Stanley 
in 1888. They enclose the Semlild valley on the east, and 
lie nearly due west of Kenia, a little north of the equator, 
where they culminate in numerous snowy peaks, more 
than one of which appears to attain an altitude of 

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at least 18,000 feet From their flanks descend to 
Lake Albert Edward and to the Semlild river innumer- 
able icy-cold sparkling streams, fed by the everlastiog 
snows of these Alpine uplands, where the snow-line 
is estimated at about 13,000 feet Rnwenzori, the 
" Cloud KiDg," was scaled to a height of 10,677 feet by 
Lieutenant Stairs, of the Stanley expedition, and again In 
1891 by Dr. Stuhlmann, of Emin Pasha's expedition, to 
within 500 feet of the snow-lin& This observer describes 
the range as for the most part composed of mica-slate, 
with old granitic eruptive rocks, and adds that it " appears 
to consist of a number of parallel chains running north- 
north-west and south-south-east"' He distinguished 
several belts of vegetation, such as bananas and tall 
grasses, between 3850 and 5350 feet; colocasia end 
beans cultivated up to 6700 feet, the upper limit of 
native settlements ; deciduous forest trees, with erica and 
bamboos (6700-8530); erica forests, with hogs and 
vaccinium (8530-11,800); erica bushes, ttee-fems, 
senecio, grass, mosses, and lichens up to the snow- 

From the Semliki valley at Mtsora, Stanley enjoyed 
a superb prospect of the Ruwenzori heights, which skirt 
the winding stream for a distance of nearly 100 miles. 
" A large field of snow and snow-peaks beyond the fore- 
most line appeared in view. During the whole day our 
eyes had rested on a long line of dark and solemn spun, 
their summits buried in leaden mist ; hut soon after 
5 P.M. the upper extremities of those spurs loomed up one 
after another, and a great line of mountain shouldeis 
stood out ; then peak after peak stru^led from behind 
night-black clouds into sight, until at last the snow; 
range, immense and beautiful, a perfect picture of 

■ Proc Hoy. Oeo. Sac- Xxigatt 1S92, p. MS. 

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majestic desolateneas, drew all eyes and riveted atten- 
tion, while every face seemed awed." ' 

In 1894 Mr. Scott EUiot Bocceeded in reacMug an 
altitade of 12,640 feet, and made a fairly representative 
collection of the flora. " The conclusion I came to was 
t^t a practical mountaineer and a strong man could 
manage the ascent. I do not believe any peak I saw 
■was above 16,500 feet"' 

InliaUtaata of British East AJHca 
British East Africa, comprising the borderlands 
between the southern Bantus and the northern N^oes, 
Hamites, and Semites, is naturally a region of great 
ethnical diversity, where every race in A&ica, the 
Bushman 'Hottentots alone excepted, is more or less 
numerously represented. Here all the transitions may 
be studied between the almost pure N^ro type of Lower 
Eavirondo and the nearly perfect European features of 
the Gallas of the Tana basin ; between the dwarfish 
Batwa of the Semlifci forests and the gigantic Wa- 
Ruguru cavemen of the Eenia uplands j between the 
wild hunting groups of the Ndorobo forests, who have 
scarcely yet developed a tribal organisation, and the 
semi-civilised Waganda, already merged in a somewhat 
compact nationality. 

The present distribution of all these heterogeneous 
ethnical groups is shown in the subjoined table 

' Op. eit. ii. p. 2S4. It was hero that the explorer learnt the meauing 
of tb« word Ruwenzori, the "Rain-Mskar" or "Clond Eiog." It is 
known to the sanoDiiding populationa bj seTeral other names, kud mnch 
ingenoitj hu been displayed by comineatatore in their esMfB to identify 
the nnge with the Lunm Xonta of the Ancients. 9uch specalatioaa 
teem QnproRtable in the atter imposiibility of even approiimatelj locatinji 
these shadowy "MonnUinsof the Moon" themselves.. 
* Proe. S»y. Oeo. Sec. Oct ISBS, p. 308. 

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Tablb Of TUB Chief Tbibbs asd Nations of Ibea. 

IVa-Xyiia j 

i-t. " Lowlandera, " pluna north of the 
S>inb*r& uplands. 
Wa-Duruma, Dear Uombasa district. 
Jalli<Jia( Cosat people between the Sabakhi and Tana 
KalindiX riTera. 

Wa-Swahili, Eau district, Tsna-Ozi deltL 
Daialo, Coast north of Uombasa, serFa of the QaUaa. 

Choiffa \ Inland from the Jallicha people. 
K<tfi.ra \ 

. ("Aboot Forroosa B»y ; also north of Witn- 
»'a-^m. J ^^j ^^^ ^ Q^^ miA\B Tana ; now 
Wa.S«nxeh^ BpealiGallA. 

a. - I Te!ta district, between the Safaakhi and 

IFa-Bura | the German frontier. 
IFtmimvU i (^o™"'")- widespread atappo people 

\ north from the Middle Sabakhi. 
Jra.p<»l»nw 1 ^^^ bitA Lower Tana, from the delta to 

\ Eidori, 1° 3. laL 
fFa-Kamha, Ukamba plains, soath-east of Mount Kenia. 
Korokoro i ^^ ^^'^^ Tuol, from the Wa-Pokomo to 
I the Hargazo Falls. 

Z'^^^ 1 Upper Twift basin, east and north-eaet of 

Wa-Nandi, east of Upper Kavirondo ; doubtful Bantna 
Wa-Soga \ 

Wa-Ganda f The agricultural and numericallf domi- 
Wa-NyoTo \ nant